Mutanen Dogon

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Dogon people
Dogon12.jpg
Dogon men in their ceremonial attire
Jimlar yawan jama'a
1,591,787 (2012–2013)
Yankuna masu yawan jama'a
Flag of Mali.svg Mali
Harsuna
Dogon languages, French
Addini
African traditional religion, Islam, Christianity

Dogon (ko Kaador, Kaado ) ƙabilu ne masu asali na tsakiyar yankin plateau na Mali, a Afirka ta Yamma, kudu da lanƙwasa Nijar, kusa da garin Bandiagara, da kuma Burkina Faso . Yawan mutanen ya kasance tsakanin 400,000 zuwa 800,000. Suna magana da yaren Dogon, waɗanda ake ganin sun zama wani reshe mai zaman kansa na dangin harsunan Nijar-Kongo, ma'ana ba su da kusanci da kowane yare.

Dogon an fi saninsa da al'adun addininsu, raye-rayen maskinsu, sassaƙa katako, da kuma gine-ginensu. Tun ƙarni na ashirin, an sami sauye-sauye masu mahimmanci a cikin zamantakewar zamantakewar al'umma, al'adun kayan abu da imanin Dogon, a wani bangare saboda kasar Dogon na daya daga cikin manyan wuraren shaƙatawa na Mali.

Wani mafarauci mai suna Dogon da bindiga mai ƙyalli, 2010.

Labarin ƙasa da tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gidan Dogon tare da Bandiagara Escarpment .

Babban yankin Dogon yana bankin Bandiagara Escarpment, dutsen da ya kai 500 m (1,640.42 ft) babba, mai shimfiɗa kusan 150 kilomita (mil mil 90). A kudu maso gabashin dutsen, ana samun Yankin Séno-Gondo mai yashi, kuma arewa maso yammacin dutsen shi ne Bandiagara Highlands. A tarihance, an kafa ƙauyukan Dogon a yankin Bandiagara shekaru dubu da suka gabata saboda mutane gabaɗaya sun ƙi musulunta kuma sun koma daga yankunan da musulmai ke iko da su.

Rashin tsaro na Dogon ta fuskar waɗannan matsin lamba na tarihi ya sa suka gano ƙauyukansu cikin mawuyacin matsayi tare da bangon shingen. Sauran abin da ya shafi zabin wurin matsuguninsu shine samun ruwa. Kogin Neja yana nan kusa kuma a cikin dutsen yashi, akwai riɓe mai gudu a ƙasan dutsen a mafi ƙarancin yankin a lokacin damina.

Daga cikin Dogon, an rubuta al'adun gargajiya da yawa dangane da asalin su. Relaaya ya danganta da zuwan su daga Mande, wanda ke kudu maso yammacin shingen Bandiagara kusa da Bamako . Dangane da wannan al'adar ta baka, an kafa garin Dogon na farko a cikin yankin kudu maso yamma na ragin a Kani-Na [1] Nazarin kimiyyar binciken tarihi da ilimin kabilanci a cikin yankin Dogon sun kasance suna bayyana musamman game da sasantawa da tarihin muhalli, da kuma game da ayyukan zamantakewar jama'a da fasahohi a wannan yankin cikin dubunnan shekaru. [2] [3] [4]

Bayan lokaci, Dogon ya koma arewa tare da rakiyar, yana isa yankin Sanga a cikin karni na 15. [5] Sauran tarihin baka sun sanya asalin Dogon zuwa yamma ta gefen kogin Niger, ko kuma labarin Dogon da ke zuwa daga gabas. Da alama Dogon na yau zuriyar ƙungiyoyi daban-daban ne masu asali daban-daban waɗanda suka yi ƙaura don tserewa daga musuluncin .

Sau da yawa yana da wahala a rarrabe tsakanin ayyukan kafin Musulunci da ayyukan da suka biyo baya. Amma shari'ar Musulunci classified da Dogon da kuma wasu kabilu na yankin ( Mossi, Gurma, Bobo, Busa da Yarbawa ) a matsayin kasancewa a cikin waɗanda ba Canon dar al-Harb kuma saboda haka adalci wasan domin bawa hare-hare shirya yan kasuwa. [6] Yayin da bunƙasar birane ya ƙaru, bukatar bayi a duk yankin Yammacin Afirka ya karu. Abubuwan tarihi sun haɗa da kisan mazauna asalinsu ta hanyar maharan da bautar mata da yara. [7]

Kusan shekaru 1000, mutanen Dogon, tsohuwar ƙabilar Mali [8] sun gamu da tsangwama ta fuskar addini da ƙabilanci-ta hanyar jihadi ta hanyar manyan musulmai. [9] Wadannan tafiye-tafiyen jihadi sun kafa kansu don tilasta Dogon ya yi watsi da imanin addininsu na gargajiya don Musulunci. Irin waɗannan jihadin sun sa Dogon ya bar ƙauyukansu na asali kuma ya haura zuwa tsaunukan Bandiagara don ingantaccen tsaro da kuma guje wa tsanantawa-galibi suna gina gidajensu a cikin ƙananan hanyoyi da kwanciya. [10]

Zane-zane[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dogon zane ya ƙunshi kayan zane-zane. Abun Dogon ya ta'allaka ne da ƙimomin addini, manufa, da 'yanci (Laude, 19). Ba a sanya siffofin Dogon don a gani a bainar jama'a, kuma galibi ana ɓoye su daga idanun jama'a a cikin gidajen iyalai, wurare masu tsarki, ko kuma a ajiye su tare da Hogon (Laude, 20). Mahimmancin sirri shine saboda ma'anar alama a bayan gutsuttsura da kuma hanyar da ake yin su.

Jigogin da aka samo a ko'ina cikin gunkin Dogon sun haɗa da siffofi masu dauke da makamai, adadi masu gemu, mahayan dawakai, kujeru da caryatids, mata da yara, siffofin da ke rufe fuskokinsu, matan nika gero na mata, mata dauke da kaya a kawunansu, jakunana ke ɗauke da kofuna, makaɗa, karnuka .

Alamun wasu abokan hulɗa da asali sun bayyana a cikin fasahar Dogon. Mutanen Dogon ba sune farkon mazaunan tsaunukan Bandiagara ba. Tasiri daga fasahar Tellem a bayyane yake a cikin fasahar Dogon saboda ƙirar zane-zanen ta (Laude, 24).

Al'adu da addini[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Makaho dattijon Dogon, Ogotemmêli, ya koyar da manyan alamomin addinin Dogon ga masanin halayyar ɗan adam ɗan Faransa Marcel Griaule a watan Oktoba 1946. Griaule ya rayu tsakanin Dogon shekaru goma sha biyar kafin wannan taron tare da Ogotemmêli. Ogotemmêli ya koyar da Griaule labaran addini kamar yadda Ogotemmêli ya koya daga wurin mahaifinsa da kakansa; koyarwar baka wanda ya koya tsawon shekaru sama da ashirin. Abin da ya sa rikodin ya zama da mahimmanci ta fuskar tarihi shi ne cewa mutanen Dogon suna rayuwa cikin al'adarsu ta baka a lokacin da aka rubuta addininsu. Sun kasance ɗaya daga cikin mutanen ƙarshe a Afirka ta Yamma da suka rasa independenceancinsu kuma suka shiga ƙarƙashin mulkin Faransa.

Mutanen Dogon wadanda Groulele da Germaine Dieterlen masanin halayyar ɗan adam na Faransa suka yi aiki tare a tsakanin shekarun 1930 zuwa 1940 suna da tsarin alamomi wanda ya kai dubbai, gami da "tsarinsu na ilimin taurari da ma'auni na zamani, hanyoyin lissafi da ilimin ilimin lissafi da na ilimin lissafi, kamar yadda kazalika da tsari pharmacopoeia ". Addinin ya haɗa da ɓangarori da yawa na dabi'a waɗanda ake samu a wasu addinan gargajiya na Afirka .

Babban mahimman ruhaniya a cikin addinin sune tagwayen Nummo / Nommo . A cewar Ogotemmêli ta bayanin su, da Nummo, wanda shi ma ya koma ga maciji, sun halittar dabba mai kafafuwa da aka sau da yawa idan aka kwatanta da macizai, kadangaru, hawainiya, kuma lokaci-lokaci da dabbobi masu shayarwa sloths (saboda su zama m dabba ba a kanta da kuma ciwon m wuyansa) . An kuma bayyana su a matsayin kifaye masu iya tafiya a kan ƙasa; yayin da suke kan tudu, Nummo ya tsaya a tsaye kan wutsiyoyinsu. Fatar Nummos ta kasance kore da farko, amma, kamar hawainiya, wani lokacin yakan canza launuka. A wasu lokuta, ana cewa fatar tana da dukkan launuka na bakan gizo. [11]

A Hogon .
Masallacin laka da minaret .
Zanen kogo da ke nuna kaciya.
Wani mutum sanye da kayan Sirige ya yi tsalle yayin bikin, 1974
Kadawar Totem

Kauyukan Dogon[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kauyen Dogon.
A Toguna

An gina ƙauyuka tare da raƙuman ruwa da kuma kusa da tushen ruwa. A matsakaici, ƙauye ya ƙunshi kusan gidaje 44 waɗanda aka tsara a kusa da 'ginna', ko gidan shugaban al'umma. Kowane ƙauye ya ƙunshi tsatson asali guda ɗaya (lokaci-lokaci, jinsi da yawa suna yin ƙauye ɗaya) wanda aka bi ta layin maza. An gina gidaje kusa da juna, sau da yawa ana raba bango da benaye.

Ƙauyukan Dogon suna da gine-gine daban-daban:

  • Naman gidan maza : wurin ajiya na gero da sauran hatsi. Gina tare da rufin rufi. Wannan ginin yana da kariya sosai daga beraye. Adadin ɗakunan hatsi na maza nuni ne ga girma da wadatar guinna.
  • Kayan mata : wurin ajiyar kayan mace, mijinta bashi da hanyar shiga. Gina tare da rufin rufi. Yana kama da ɗakin ajiya na maza amma ba shi da kariya daga ɓeraye. Anan, tana ajiye kayanta kamar su tufafi, kayan kwalliya, kudi da dan abinci. Mace tana da digiri na yancin kai na tattalin arziƙi, kuma abin da aka samu da abubuwan da suka shafi kayanta ana adana su a ma'ajiyarta. Misali tana iya yin auduga ko tukwane . Adadin ma'ajiyar mata alama ce ga yawan matan da ke zaune a cikin guinna.
  • Tógu nà (wani nau'in harka ne ): gini ne kawai na maza. Sun huta anan da yawa a duk tsawon lokacin zafi na lokacin rani, suna tattauna lamura kuma suna ɗaukar mahimman shawarwari a cikin toguna . [12] Ana yin rufin toguna ta hanyar yadudduka 8 na geron gero. Aasan gini ne wanda mutum baya iya tsayawa a tsaye. Wannan yana taimakawa tare da guje wa tashin hankali lokacin da tattaunawa ta yi zafi.
  • Punulu (gida ne na mata masu haila): wannan gidan yana wajen ƙauyen. Mata ne suka gina shi kuma yana da ƙarancin inganci fiye da sauran gine-ginen ƙauyuka. Matan da suke yin al'adarsu ana daukar su a matsayin marasa tsabta kuma dole ne su bar gidan danginsu su zauna a cikin kwana biyar a wannan gidan. Suna amfani da kayan kicin ne kawai don amfani dasu anan. Suna kawo yaransu kanana. Wannan gidan matattara ce ta mata yayin yamma. Wannan bukkar kuma ana tsammanin tana da wasu alamun alama na haihuwa saboda gaskiyar cewa mazajen da ke aiki a filayen za su iya gani cikin sauƙi waɗanda suka san cewa mata ne kawai waɗanda suke cikin lokacinsu, kuma don haka ba su da ciki, za su iya kasancewa a can .

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Rukunin manazartai domin ƙarin bayani wajen bincike game da mutanen Dogon.

Al'ummomi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Beaudoin, Gerard: Les Dogon du Mali (1997) Ed. BDT Développement. 08033994793.ABA
  • Bedaux, R. & J. D. van der Waals (eds.) (2003) Dogon: mythe en werkelijkheid in Mali [Dogon: myth and reality in Mali]. Leiden: National Museum of Ethnology.
  • Griaule, M.: Dieu d'eau. Entretiens avec Ogotemmêli. (1966) Ed Fayard. 08033994793.ABA (the original French work of Griaule (that was published in 1948) on his discussions with Ogotemmêli)
  • Griaule, Marcel (1970) [1965]. Conversations With Ogotemmêli: an Introduction To Dogon Religious Ideas. ISBN 978-0-19-519821-8.
  • Griaule, Marcel; Dieterlen, Germaine (1976). "A Sudanese Sirius System". In Robert Temple (ed.). The Sirius Mystery. London: Futura Books. pp. 58–81. – a translation of Griaule, M.; Dieterlen, G. (1950). "Un système soudanais de Sirius". Journal de la Société des Africainistes. XX (1): 273–294. doi:10.3406/jafr.1950.2611.
  • Griaule, Marcel; Dieterlen, Germaine (1965). Le mythe cosmologique. Le renard pâle. 1. Paris: Institut d'Ethnologie Musée de l'homme.
  • Griaule, Marcel; Dieterlen, Germaine (1986). The Pale Fox. Translated by Stephen C. Infantino. Chino Valley, AZ: Continuum Foundation.
  • Morton, Robert (ed.) & Hollyman, Stephenie (photographs) & Walter E.A. van Beek (text) (2001) Dogon: Africa's people of the cliffs. New York: Abrams. 08033994793.ABA
  • Sékou Ogobara Dolo: La mère des masques. Un Dogon raconte. (2002) Eds. Seuil 08033994793.ABA
  • Wanono, Nadine & Renaudeau, Michel (1996) Les Dogon (photographs by Michel Renaudeau; text by Nadine Wanono). Paris: Éditions du Chêne-Hachette. 08033994793.ABA
  • Eds. Petit Futé. Mali 2005–2006 08033994793.ABA

Harsuna[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Bertho, J. (1953). "La place des dialectes dogon de la falaise de Bandiagara parmi les autres groupes linguistiques de la zone soudanaise". Bulletin de l'IFAN. 15: 405–441.
  • Hantgan, Abbie (2007) Dogon Languages and Linguistics An (sic) Comprehensive Annotated Bibliography
  • Hochstetler, J. Lee, Durieux, J. A. & E. I. K. Durieux-Boon (2004) Sociolinguistic Survey of the Dogon Language Area. SIL International. online version
  • Williamson, Kay; Blench, Roger (2000). "Niger–Congo". In Bernd Heine; Derek Nurse (eds.). African Languages – an Introduction. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 11–42.

Zane-zane[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayanin kafa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Dieterlen, G., 1955. "Mythes et organisation sociale au Soudan français". Journal de la Société des Africanistes 25 (1/2), 39–76.
  2. Mayor, A. 2011. Traditions céramiques dans la boucle du Niger: ethnoarchéologie et histoire du peuplement au temps des empires précoloniaux. Africa Magna, Frankfurt a. M.
  3. Ozainne, S. 2013. Un néolithique ouest-africain: cadre chrono-culturel, économique et environnemental de l'Holocène récent en Pays dogon, Mali. Africa Magna, Frankfurt a. M.
  4. Robion-Brunner, C. 2010. Forgerons et sidérurgie en pays dogon: vers une histoire de la production du fer sur le plateau de Bandiagara (Mali) durant les empires précoloniaux. Africa Magna, Frankfurt a. M.
  5. Griaule, M. (1938) Masques dogons. Paris.
  6. Timothy Insoll, The Archaeology of Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa (2003) Cambridge University Press, p. 308
  7. Christopher Wise, Yambo Ouologuem: Postcolonial Writer, Islamic Militant, 1999, Lynne Rienner Publishers
  8. The Independent, Caught in the crossfire of Mali's war (25 January 2013) by Kim Sengupta (retrieved March 14, 2020)
  9. Griaule, Marcel; Dieterlen, Germaine; (1965). Le mythe cosmologique. Le renard pâle., 1. Paris: Institut d'Ethnologie Musée de l'homme, p. 17
  10. Africa Today, Volume 7, Afro Media (2001), p. 126
  11. Shannon Dorey, The Master of Speech, Elemental Expressions Ltd., Elora, Canada, 2002, reprint 2013. p.13
  12. Anne Doquet, Sory Camara, Les masques dogon:ethnologie savante et ethnologie autochtone, Karthala editions, 1999 p.253