Hasumiya

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Wikidata.svgHasumiya
Tower of the Great Mosque of Kairouan.JPG
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na bene
Bangare na masallaci
Hasumiyar Babban Masallacin Testour

Hasumiya (Turanci Minaret /ˌ m ɪ n ə r ɛ t, M ɪ n ə ˌ r ɛ t / ; [1] Persian goldasteh, Azerbaijani , Turkish , [2] daga Larabci: منارةmanarah ) wani nau'in hasumiya ne wanda galibi aka gina shi ko kusa da masallatai .Ana yin Hasumiya bisa dalilai da yawa. Duk da yake suna samar da mahimmin abu, ana amfani dasu gaba daya don kiran musulmai zuwa sallah ( adhan ). Tsarin asali na hasumiya ya haɗa da tushe, yanayin tsayi, hula da kai.[Ana bukatan hujja] Gabaɗaya su ne tsayi mai tsayi tare da kambi mai kamanni ko kamannin albasa .

Ayyuka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A farkon karni na 9, an sanya hasumiyayoyi na farko a gaban bangon ƙibla . Sau da yawa, wannan sanyawar ba ta da fa'ida ga isa ga al'umma don kiran salla. Sun yi tunatarwa cewa yankin na Islama ne kuma ya taimaka wajen bambanta masallatai da gine-ginen da ke kewaye.

Baya ga samar da abin gani ga al'ummar musulmai, sauran aikin shi ne samar da wani wurin kallo wanda ake yin kiran sallah, ko adhan . Ana yin kiran salla sau biyar a kowace rana: alfijir, azahar, tsakiyar rana, faduwar rana, da kuma dare. A mafi yawan masallatan zamani, ana kiran adhān daga musallah (zauren salla) ta hanyar makirufo zuwa tsarin magana a hasumiya.

Gina[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ainihin nau'in hasumiya

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hasumiya daban-daban daga ƙasashen. 1. Iraki 2. Maroko 3. Turkiyya 4. Indiya, 5. Masar 6. Asiya .
Tsohuwar hasumiya tana cikin Babban Masallacin Tunisiya na Kairouan . [3]

Masallatan farko basu da hasumiya kuma ana yin kiran sallah sau da yawa daga ƙananan gine-gine. Hadisai sun nuna cewa musulmin farko na Madina sun yi kiran salla daga rufin gidan Muhammad, wanda ya ninka wurin addua.

Binciken masana ya gano asalin hasumiya yazo ne dag daular Umayyad kuma yayi bayanin cewa wadiannan hasumiya ɗin kwafin tsafin coci ne da ake samu a Siriya a wancan lokacin. Hasumiyayoyi na farko an samo su ne ta hanyar gine-gine daga hasumiyar majami'ar Siriya. Sauran nassoshi sun nuna cewa hasumiya a Siriya sun samo asali ne daga ziggurats na wuraren bauta na Babila da na Assuriya na Mesofotamiya.

Hasumiyayoyi da aka sani na farko sun bayyana a farkon ƙarni na 9 a ƙarƙashin mulkin Abbasiyya, kuma ba a amfani da su sosai har zuwa karni na 11. Waɗannan siffofin hasumiyayoyi na farko an sanya su a tsakiyar bangon da ke gaban bangon qibla. Waɗannan hasumiyoyin an gina su a ƙasan masarautar a tsayi zuwa girman 3: 1.

Tsohuwar hasumiya ita ce Babban Masallacin Kairouan a Tunisia kuma har yanzu hasumiya din tana tsaye. [3] [4] Ginin Babban Masallacin Kairouan ya fara ne tun shekara ta 836. An gina masallacin da matakai uku na faɗaɗa waɗanda suka kai tsayin mita 31.5.

Hasumiyayoyi suna da siffofi iri-iri (gabaɗaya zagaye, murabba'i ɗaya, karkace ko octagonal) dangane da aikin gine-ginensu. Hasumiyayoyi an gina su ne daga kowane kayan abu wanda yake da sauƙin samu, kuma sau da yawa yakan canza daga yanki zuwa yanki. Adadin minarorin da masallatai ba su tsayar ba, asali minaret guda daya ce za ta raka kowane masallaci, sannan magini zai iya yin wasu da yawa.

Hoton kiran muezzin zuwa sallah daga baranda na wata hasumiya.

Salon gini na gida[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Asiya ta Tsakiya

A lokacin zamanin Seljuk, an yi ma hasumiya ado da zane-zane. An gina su sosai, koda a ƙananan masallatai ko haɗaɗɗun masallaci. Bugu da ƙari, hasumiyayoyi a lokacin zamanin Seljuk sun kasance suna da alaƙa da tsare-tsaren madauwari da sansanonin octagonal. Hasumiyar Bukhara ta kasance sananniyar hasumiya na Seljuk don amfani da tsarin tubali da rubutu.
Salon "ƙasa da ƙasa na Timurid" ya bayyana a tsakiyar Asiya a lokacin ƙarni na 17 kuma an rarraba shi ta hanyar amfani da minarets da yawa. Misalan wannan salon sun hada da minarets a saman rufin kofar kudu a cikin Kabbar Akbar a Sikandra (1613), da minarets a kan Kabarin Jahangir (1628-1638), da kuma hasumiya hudu da ke kewaye da kabarin Taj Mahal .
Masar
Salon hasumiya ya ɗan bambanta a tarihin Misira . Yawancin hasumiyayoyi sun kasance a kan wani tushe murabba'i, duk da haka, jiki ɗin na iya zama a bayyane ko an yi masa ado kuma an saka shi da rawanin daban-daban da kuma tanti. Ana raba bene na hasumiya ta baranda.
Masallacin al-Hakim, wanda aka gina tsakanin 990 da 1010, yana da wani murabba'i mai tushe tare da shaft wanda yake zuwa rawanin.
Gabashin Sin
Hasumiyayoyi na Gabashin Sin sun sami tasiri sosai daga hasumiyayoyi na Islama na Iran. Sau da yawa suna da dandamali na madauwari da maɓuɓɓu na siliki tare da alamu na ado na ƙasar Sin. Hasumiyar Haske, wanda aka fi sani da Guangta minaret (1350), ya haɗu da ɓangarorin gine-ginen Islama da na China.
Iraƙi
Babban Masallacin Samarra yana da wata hasumiya mai karkace ta musamman.
Babban Masallacin Samarra (848-852) ɗayan farkon minaret ne kuma yana da fasalin tsawan 30 metres (98 ft)*hasumiyar silinda a bayan bangon masallacin. Salon minaret na Abbasawa na yau da kullun, wanda aka gani a Iraki, yana da sifa tare da tushen polygonal da kuma babban ramin siliki. Hakanan galibi ana samun sa a saman rufin masallacin.
Misalai biyu na wannan salon sune Masallacin al-Khaffafin da Masallacin Qumriyya.
Iran
Minarets na ƙarni na 12 Iran sau da yawa suna da shafuka masu motsi tare da murabba'i masu tushe ko octagonal waɗanda ke ɓoye zuwa manyan biranensu. Wadannan minarets sun zama sanannen salo a duk duniyar musulinci. Waɗannan fom ɗin ma an yi musu ado sosai. Nau'in hasumiyar minaret wadanda suka yi wa kofar shiga masallaci sun samo asali ne daga Iran.
Kudu maso gabashin Asiya
Hasumiyar minarets ba ta zama gama gari a kudu maso gabashin Asiya kamar yadda aka tsara masallatai don yin aiki kamar tsarin al'umma. An tsara Masallatai su zama karami sosai kuma a wasu lokutan ana samun minarets na hawa bene.
Tunisia
Minaret a Babban Masallacin Kairouan, wanda aka gina a shekara ta 836, ya rinjayi duk wasu minaret a yammacin musulunci. Ita ce mafi girman minaret a cikin duniyar Musulmi.
Turkiya
Seljuks na Rum, wanda ya gaji jihar ta Seljuks, sun gina minarets ta hanyar shiga daga bulo wanda asalinsu Iran ne.
Gabaɗaya, minarets a Anatolia sun kasance ɗaya kuma sun sami girmamawa ta ado yayin masallacin ya kasance a fili. An yi amfani da minaret din a kusurwowin masallatai, kamar yadda aka gani a Babban Masallacin Divrigi .
Masallacin Süleymaniye da ke Turkiyya yana da minaret da suka kai mita 70.
Daular Ottoman ta ci gaba da al'adun Iran na siffofin minaret mai tudu da tushe mai murabba'i. Minarets galibi ana cika su da alamun jinjirin wata. Amfani da minaret fiye da ɗaya, da manyan minarets, an yi amfani dashi don nuna tallafi.
Misali, Suleymaniye Dome yana da minarets da ya kai mita 70.
Afirka ta Yamma
Hasumiyar Gobarau a Birnin Katsina.
Hasumiyayoyi na Afirka ta Yamma suna da ƙyallen kyallen dutse wanda ya ba da damar tsarin ya ɗauki sabbin fasali. Yawanci, suna hasumiya guda ɗaya, murabba'in sukwaya tare da bangon da aka buga. Keɓaɓɓun keɓaɓɓun fitattun mutane sun haɗa da ƙananan minarets na octagonal a cikin biranen arewacin - Chefchaouen, Tetouan, Rabat, Ouezzane, Asilah, da Tangier - da zagaye na minaret na Moulay Idriss .

Hasumiyayoyi a zamanan ce[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Asalin Hasumiya anyi ta ne domin a hau ayi kiran Sallah. Ladabi mai kiran sallah na hawa saman ƙololuwar hasumiya yayi kiran sallah domin sautin Muryar shi yake ko ina. To amma a wannan zamanin da aka samu na'ura ta amsa kuwa, an mayar da hasumiya wajen da ake ɗora amsa kuwa ta na'urar lasifiƙa. Hakanan ana yima Hasumiya ado domin ƙara ƙarara masallaci a wannan zamanin.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]