Mutanen Ogoni

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Ogoni
Flag of the Ogoni people.svg
Ogoni flag designed by Nathaniel Wintraub
Jimlar yawan jama'a
500,000 (1963 census), current population is over two million (Ben Ikari. 2016) and lays claims to the single largest ethnic group in Rivers State Nigeria. [Ana bukatan hujja]
Yankuna masu yawan jama'a
Nigeria
Harsuna
Ogoni languages
Addini
Traditional beliefs, Christianity
Kabilu masu alaƙa
Ibibio, Igbo, Ikwere, Ijaw, Efik, Ejagham, Bahumono, Annang

Mutanen Ogoni (wanda aka fi sani da Ogonis ) mutane ne a gundumar sanata ta Kudu maso Gabas ta jihar Ribas, a yankin Niger Delta da ke kudancin Najeriya . Yawan su bai wuce miliyan 2 ba kuma suna rayuwa a cikin 404 square miles (1,050 km2) wanda kuma suke kira Ogoni, ko Ogoniland . Suna raba matsalolin muhalli masu alaka da mai tare da mutanen Ijaw na Neja Delta.

Ogoni ya daga hankalin duniya ne bayan wani gagarumin gangami na nuna adawa da kamfanin Shell Oil, wanda Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People (MOSOP) ya jagoranta, wanda kuma memba ne na kungiyar da ba a wakilta ba da kuma Kungiyar (UNPO).

Fadin kasa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yankin yana cikin jihar Ribas a gabar mashigin tekun Guinea, gabas da garin Fatakwal . Ya fadada a cikin Kananan Hukumomin (LGAs) na Khana, Gokana, Eleme da Tai . A al’adance, an raba kasr Ogoni zuwa masarautu shida: Babbe, Gokana, Ken-Khana, Nyo-Khana, Eleme da Tai . Nyo-Khana yana gabas yayin da Ken-Khana ke yamma.

Harsuna[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Akwai yare da yawa da Ogoni ke magana da su. Mafi girma ita ce Khana, wacce ke iya fahimtar juna tare da kuma yarukan masarautu shida, Gokana, Tae (Tẹè), Eleme, da Baen Ogoi wani ɓangare na bambancin yare na yankin Niger Delta.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bisa ga al'adar baka, mutanen Ogoni sun yi kaura daga tsohuwar Ghana har zuwa gabar Tekun Atlantika daga karshe sun tsallaka zuwa gabashin Niger Delta. Lissafin ilimin harshe da Kay Williamson yayi ya sanya Ogoni a cikin Neja Delta tun kafin 15 BC, wanda hakan yasa suka zama daya daga cikin tsofaffin mazauna yankin gabashin Niger Delta. Sadarwar gidan rediyon da aka ɗauka daga shafukan yanar gizo da ke kusa da Kasar Ogoni da al'adun gargajiyar ymaƙwabta sun goyi bayan wannan iƙirarin. A al'adance, Ogoni manoma ne, wanda kuma aka san su da kiwon dabbobi, kamun kifi, gishiri da noman man kwa-kwa da fatauci.

Kamar yawancin al'ummomin da ke gabar tekun Guinea, Ogoni suna da tsarin siyasa na ciki wanda ya shafi tsarin zamantakewar al'umma, ciki har da nadin sarakuna da kungiyoyin ci gaban al'umma, wasu sun yarda da gwamnatin wasu kuma ba haka ba. Sun tsira daga lokacin cinikin bayi cikin keɓancewar dangi, kuma basu rasa ko ɗaya daga cikin membobinsu ga bautar ba. Bayan Najeriya da aka karkashin mulkin mallakar da Birtaniya a shekarar 1885, Birtaniya da sojoji isa a garin Ogoni ta 1901. Babban juriya ga kasancewar su ya ci gaba har zuwa shekerata 1914.

Ogoni sun kasance cikin tsarin tattalin arziki a hanzari wanda yake da saurin gaske kuma hakan ya haifar musu da asarar dukiya mai yawa. A karshen karni na ashirin, "duniya gare su ba ta wuce garuruwa uku ko hudu masu zuwa ba," amma ba da jimawa ba hakan ya canza. Ken Saro-Wiwa, marigayi shugaban MOSOP, ya bayyana sauyawar ta wannan hanyar: “idan kuna tunanin cewa a tsakanin shekaru saba'in sun hadu da karfi na zamani, mulkin mallaka, tattalin arziki, mulkin mallaka da kuma Yaƙin basasar Nijeriya, da kuma cewa dole ne su daidaita da waɗannan rundunonin ba tare da isasshen shiri ko shugabanci ba, za ku ji daɗin rudanin mutanen Ogoni da kuma rikice-rikicen da ke faruwa a cikin al'umma. ” [1]

Take hakkin dan adam[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mutanen Ogoni sun kasance wadanda ake zalunta da take hakkin bil adama tsawon shekaru. A shekarar 1956, shekaru hudu kafin samun 'yancin kan Najeriya, Royal Dutch / Shell, tare da hadin gwiwar gwamnatin Birtaniyya, suka sami rijiyar mai mai inganci a yankin Niger Delta kuma suka fara hakar mai a 1958. A cikin shekaru 15 daga 1976 zuwa 1991 an bada rahoton malalar mai 2,976 na kimanin ganga miliyan 2.1 na mai a kasar Ogoni,

wanda ya kai kusan kashi 40% na jimlar malalar mai na kamfanin Royal Dutch / Shell a duniya.

A wani bincike na shekara ta 2011 na sama da wurare 200 da shirin kula da muhalli na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ( UNEP ) ta yi a Ogoni, sun gano cewa tasirin hakar mai na shekaru 50 a yankin ya fadada yadda aka zata. Saboda malalar mai, da fallasar mai, da zubar da shara, ƙarancin albarkatun yankin Neja Delta ba zai iya cigaba da harkar noma ba. Bugu da ƙari kuma, a yankuna da yawa waɗanda kamar ba a taɓa shafawa ba, an gano ruwan karkashin ƙasa yana da matakan hydrocarbons ko kuma sun gurɓata da benzene, mai ɗauke da sinadarai, a matakan 900 sama da jagororin WHO.

UNEP ta kiyasta cewa zai iya daukar tsawon shekaru 30 kafin a gyara yankin Kasar Ogoni


yadda ya kamata kuma shekaru biyar na farko na gyaran zai bukaci kudade na kimanin dalar Amurka biliyan daya. A shekarar 2012, Ministar Albarkatun Man Fetur ta Najeriya, Deizani Alison-Madueke, ta ba da sanarwar kafa wani aikin maido da gurbataccen iska, wanda ke da niyyar bin shawarwarin rahoton UNEP na Ogoniland don hana ci gaba da lalacewa.

A shekarar 1990, karkashin jagorancin dan rajin kare muhalli Ken Saro-Wiwa, kungiyar 'Movement of Survival of the Ogoni People ( MOSOP )' ta shirya daukar mataki kan Tarayyar Najeriya da kamfanonin mai. A watan Oktoba 1990, MOSOP ya gabatar da Dokar haƙƙin Ogoni ga gwamnati. Kudurin ya yi fatan sama wa mutanen Ogoni 'yancin cin gashin kansu na siyasa da tattalin arziki, yana mai ba su damar mallakar albarkatun karkashin kasa na Ogoniland da ke kariya daga ci gaba da lalata kasa . Yunkurin ya baci a cikin 1994 bayan Saro-Wiwa da wasu shugabannin MOSOP da yawa sun mutu daga gwamnatin Najeriya

A shekarar 1993, biyo bayan zanga-zangar da aka shirya domin dakatar da ‘yan kwangila daga shimfida sabon bututun mai ga kamfanin na Shell, ‘ Yan Sandan Waya sun kai samame yankin don kwantar da tarzomar. A rikice-rikicen da suka biyo baya, an yi zargin cewa an afkawa kauyuka 27, wanda ya yi sanadin mutuwar mutanen Ogoni 2000 da kuma raba 80,000 da muhallinsu. [2] [3] [4]

Bayanan kula[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Quotes from Ken Saro-Wiwa, "Letter to Ogoni Youth."
  2. David Kupfer, "Worldwide Shell boycott", The Progressive, 1996
  3. PBS documentary, The New Americans: The Ogoni Refugees Archived 2011-11-27 at the Wayback Machine
  4. Ken Saro-Wiwa, "Genocide in Nigeria: The Ogoni Tragedy"

Bayani[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Brosnahan, LF 1967. Jerin kalma na yaren Gokana na Ogoni. Jaridar Yarukan Afirka Ta Yamma, 143-52.
  • Hyman, LM 1982. Wakilin nasality a Gokana. A cikin: Tsarin wakilcin magana. ed. H. van der Hulst & Norval Smith. 111-130. Dordrecht: Foris.
  • Hyman, LM 1983. Shin akwai wasu kalmomi a Gokana? A cikin: Batutuwa na yau da kullun a cikin ilimin harshe na Afirka, 2. Kaye et al. 171–179. Dordrecht: Foris.
  • Ikoro, SM 1989. Phoaramar magana ta hanyar magana da kalmomin Proto-Keggoid. Jami'ar Fatakwal: MA rubuce-rubuce.
  • Ikoro, SM 1996. Yaren Kana. Leiden: CNWS.
  • Jeffreys, MDW 1947. Ogoni tukwane. Namiji, 47: 81-83.
  • Piagbo, BS 1981. Kwatanta sautin Ingilishi da Kana. BA aikin, Jami'ar Fatakwal.
  • Thomas, NW 1914. Nau'in harsuna daga Kudancin Najeriya. London: Harrison & 'Ya'yan.
  • Vopnu, SK 1991. Tsarin Fasaha da Tsarin Syllable a Gokana. MA Sashen Nazarin Harsuna da Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami'ar Fatakwal.
  • Vọbnu, SK 2001. Asali da yarukan mutanen Ogoni. Boori, KHALGA: Yarukan Ogoni da Cibiyar Baibul.
  • Williamson, K. 1985. Yadda ake zama yaren Kwa. A Ilmin Harshe da Falsafa. Matsaloli a cikin girmamawa na Ruben S. Wells. eds. A. Makkai da A. Melby. Batutuwa na Yanzu a Ka'idar Harshe, 42. Benjamin, Amsterdam.
  • Wolff, H. 1959. Yarukan Neja Delta I: rarrabuwa. Anthropological Linguistics, 1 (8): 32-35.
  • Wolff, H. 1964. Takaita harsunan Ogoni. Jaridar harsunan Afirka, 3: 38-51.
  • Zua, BA 1987. Kalmar suna a cikin Gokana. BA aikin, Jami'ar Fatakwal.