Niger Delta

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Niger Delta
Nigerdelta NASA.jpg
General information
Labarin ƙasa
Geographic coordinate system (en) Fassara 5°19′34″N 6°28′15″E / 5.3261°N 6.4708°E / 5.3261; 6.4708
Kasa Najeriya
Taswirar Nijeriya yawan lambobi da ke nuna jihohi galibi ana ɗaukar su wani yanki na yankin Niger Delta: 1. Abia, 2. Akwa Ibom, 3. Bayelsa, 4. Kuros Riba, 5. Delta, 6. Edo, 7. Imo, 8. Ondo, 9. Koguna
Duba yankin Neja Delta daga sararin samaniya (arewa / ƙasa a sama).

Yankin Neja Delta ne Delta na Nijar River zaune tsaye a kan Gulf na Guinea a kan tekun Atlantic a Najeriya . Yawanci ana la'akari da cewa yana cikin jihohin tara kudu maso kudancin Najeriya, wadanda suka hada da: dukkan jihohi shida daga yankin kudu maso kudu, da jiha daya ( Ondo ) daga yankin kudu maso yamma da kuma jihohi biyu ( Abia da Imo ) daga yankin kudu maso gabas na yankin geopolitical zone . A duk jihohin da yankin ya kunsa, Kuros Riba ne kawai ba jihar da ake samar da mai ba.

Yankin Neja Delta yanki ne mai matukar yawan jama'a wani lokacin ana kiran shi Kogin Mai saboda ya taba kasancewa babban mai samar da dabino . Yankin ya kasance Garkuwan Kogin Burtaniya daga shekara ta 1885 har zuwa shekara ta 1893, lokacin da aka fadada shi ya zama Neja-Delta ta kare yankin . Yankin delta yanki ne mai arzikin mai kuma ya kasance cibiyar damuwar duniya dangane da gurbatar yanayi wanda hakan ya haifar da asali daga manyan malalar mai na manyan kamfanoni na kamfanonin mai .

Labarin kasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yankin Neja Delta, kamar yadda yanzu gwamnatin Najeriya ta ayyana a hukumance, ya ƙaru sama da 70,000 square kilometres (27,000 sq mi) kuma ya kai kaso 7.5% na yawan filayen Najeriya. A cikin tarihi da zane-zane, ya ƙunshi Jihohin Bayelsa, Delta, da Ribas na yau . Amma a 2000, mulkin Obasanjo ya hada da Abia, Akwa-Ibom, Kuros Riba, Edo, Imo da Ondo a yankin.

Yankin Neja Delta, da yankin Kudu maso Kudu (wanda ya kunshi jihohi shida a Neja Delta) bangarori ne daban-daban. Yankin Neja Delta ya raba Gwanin Benin da na Bonny a cikin babban yankin Gulf of Guinea .

Yawan jama'a[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kusan mutane miliyan 31 [1] na kabilu sama da guda 40 da suka hada da Bini, Itsekiri, Efik, Esan, Ibibio, Annang, Oron, Ijaw, Igbo, Isoko, Urhobo, Kalabari, Yoruba, Okrika, Ogoni, Epie-Atissa Mutanen Obolo, suna daga cikin mazauna yankin Neja Delta na siyasa, suna magana game da yaruka daban-daban guda 250.

Harshe kungiyoyin magana a yankin Neja Delta sun hada da Ijaw harsuna, Itsekiri harshe, Central Delta harsuna, Edoid harsuna, Yoruboid Harsuna, kuma Igboid harsuna.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Lokacin mulkin mallaka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yankin ya kasance Garkuwan Kogin Burtaniya daga shekara ta 1885 har zuwa shekara ta 1893, lokacin da aka fadada shi ya zama Neja-Delta ta kare yankin . Babban yankin Neja Delta daga baya ya zama wani yanki na yankin gabashin Najeriya, wanda ya fara samuwa a cikin shekara ta 1951 (ɗayan yankuna ukun, sannan daga baya ya zama ɗayan yankuna huɗu). Mafi yawan mutanen sun kasance daga yankin mulkin mallaka na Calabar, Itsekiri da Ogoja, na yanzu Ogoja, Itsekiri, Annang, Ibibio, Oron, Efik, Ijaw da Ogoni . Majalisar kasa ta Najeriya da Kamaru (NCNC) ita ce jam'iyya mai mulkin yankin. NCNC daga baya ta zama Taron ofan ƙasa na Citizan ƙasa, bayan da yammacin Kamaru ya yanke shawarar ballewa daga Najeriya. Jam’iyya mai mulki a gabashin Najeriya ba ta nemi hana raba ba har ma ta karfafa shi. Yankin Gabas na lokacin yana da na uku, na huɗu da na biyar mafi yawan ƙabilun ƙasar waɗanda suka haɗa da Igbo, Efik-Ibibio da Ijaw .

A shekara ta 1953, tsohuwar yankin gabas ta sami babbar matsala saboda korar farfesa Eyo Ita daga mukamin da kabilar Ibo mafi rinjaye ta tsohon yankin gabas. Ita, mutumin Efik ne daga Calabar, yana daya daga cikin masu kishin kasa na samun ‘yancin kan Najeriya. 'Yan tsirarun yankin, Ibibio, Annang, Efik, Ijaw da Ogoja, sun kasance a bakin gabar kudu maso gabas da kuma yankin delta kuma sun nemi a samar da nasu jihar, Calabar-Ogoja-Rivers (COR). Gwagwarmayar ƙirƙirar ƙasar COR ta ci gaba kuma ta kasance babban batun da ya shafi matsayin 'yan tsiraru a Nijeriya yayin muhawara a Turai game da' yancin kan Najeriya. Sakamakon wannan rikicin, Farfesa Eyo Ita ya bar NCNC ya kafa wata sabuwar kungiyar siyasa da ake kira National Independence Party (NIP) wacce ta kasance daya daga cikin jam’iyyun siyasa biyar na Najeriya da suka samu wakilci a taruka kan Tsarin Mulkin Najeriya da ‘Yancin kai.

Lokacin mulkin mallaka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A shekara ta 1961, wani babban rikicin ya sake faruwa yayin da yankin gabashin kasar na wancan lokacin ya bar kasar Kamaru ta Kudu maso Yammacin yau ta balle daga Najeriya (daga yankin da yanzu yake jihohin Akwa Ibom da Kuros Riba ) ta hanyar gamsuwa yayin da shugabancin yankin Arewa na wancan lokacin. sun dauki matakan da suka dace domin kiyaye yankin Arewa maso Yammacin Kamaru a cikin Najeriya, a jihohin Adamawa da Taraba na yanzu . Abinda ya biyo bayan yarda da juna a shekara ta 1961 ya haifar da takaddama tsakanin Kamaru da Najeriya kan karamin yankin Bakassi .

Wani sabon fasalin gwagwarmaya ya ga ayyana Jamhuriyar Niger Delta mai zaman kanta da Isaac Adaka Boro ya yi lokacin mulkin shugaban Najeriya Ironsi, gab da yakin basasar Najeriya.

Hakanan kafin yakin basasar Najeriya, an kirkiro Jihar Kudu maso Gabashin Najeriya (wanda kuma ake kira Kudu Maso Gabashin Najeriya ko Yankin Kudu Maso Gabashin Najeriya ), wanda yake da yankin Calabar na mulkin mallaka, da kuma yankin Ogoja na mulkin mallaka. An kuma kirkiro jihar Ribas. Jihohin kudu maso gabas da kuma jihar Kogi sun zama jihohi biyu don yan tsiraru na tsohuwar yankin gabas, kuma mafi akasarin Igbo na tsoffin yankin gabas suna da jihar da ake kira East Central state. An sauyawa jihar kudu maso gabas suna zuwa jihar Cross River sannan daga baya aka raba ta zuwa jihar Cross River da kuma jihar Akwa Ibom . Daga baya an raba jihar Ribas zuwa jihar Ribas da Bayelsa .

Yakin basasar Najeriya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mutanen yankin gabas sun sha wahala kwarai da gaske kuma sun sami asarar rayuka da yawa a lokacin yakin basasar Najeriya, wanda aka fi sani da yakin Biyafara, wanda yankin gabashin ya ayyana wata kasa mai cin gashin kanta mai suna Biafra wanda daga baya aka ci ta, ta haka ne aka kiyaye ikon mallaka da rashin rarrabuwa. ƙasar Nijeriya, wanda ya haifar da asarar rayuka da yawa.

Rashin tashin hankali[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A lokacin kashi na gaba na tsayin daka a yankin Neja Delta, al'ummomin yankin sun bukaci gwamnatin tarayya da ta tabbatar da adalci a muhalli da zamantakewar al'umma, tare da Ken Saro Wiwa da kabilar Ogoni a matsayin manyan jigogin wannan bangare na gwagwarmayar. Zanga-zangar mai game da mai ya zama sananne sosai a cikin shekara ta 1990 tare da buga Yarjejeniyar haƙƙin haƙƙin Ogoni. Marasa galihu sun yi zanga-zangar rashin ci gaban tattalin arziki, misali makarantu, hanyoyi masu kyau, da asibitoci, a yankin, duk da dimbin arzikin mai da aka samu. Sun kuma koka game da gurbatar muhalli da lalata musu filaye da kogunan da kamfanonin mai na kasashen waje ke yi. An kama Ken Saro Wiwa tare da wasu masu fafutukar neman mai a karkashin kungiyar 'Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People (MOSOP)' a karkashin jagorancin Sani Abacha a 1995 Kodayake zanga-zangar ba ta taba yin karfi kamar yadda ta kasance a karkashin Saro-Wiwa ba, har yanzu akwai wani yunkuri na sake fasalin mai dangane da zanga-zangar lumana a yau kamar yadda gwagwarmayar Ogoni ta kasance a matsayin bude ido ta yau ga Al’ummomin yankin. [2]

Rikici na kwanan nan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Abun takaici, gwagwarmayar tayi karfi, kuma halin da ake ciki yanzu ya zama mai gwagwarmaya. Lokacin da damuwar da aka dade ana yi game da rasa ikon mallakar albarkatun kamfanin mai da 'yan kabilar Ijaw suka yi a cikin sanarwar Kaiama a shekara ta 1998, gwamnatin Najeriya ta tura sojoji don mamaye jihohin Bayelsa da Delta. Sojoji sun bude wuta da bindigogi, da hayaki mai sa hawaye, inda suka kashe akalla masu zanga-zanga uku tare da kame wasu ashirin da biyar.

Tun daga wannan lokacin, ayyukan 'yan asalin yankin game da matatun mai na kasuwanci da bututun mai a yankin ya karu da yawa da faɗa. Ba da jimawa ba ma'abuta baƙi na kamfanin Shell, babban kamfani na farko da ke aiki a yankin, mutanen garin da suka fusata suka yi garkuwa da su. Irin waɗannan ayyukan sun haifar da sa hannun gwamnati mafi girma a yankin, da kuma tara sojojin Najeriya da Hukumar Tsaro ta Jiha zuwa yankin, wanda ya haifar da tashin hankali da cin zarafin ɗan adam.

A watan Afrilun shekara ta 2006, wani bam ya fashe kusa da matatar mai a yankin Niger Delta, gargadi kan fadada kasar China a yankin. MEND ta ce: "Muna so mu gargadi gwamnatin China da kamfanonin ta na mai da su nisanci yankin Neja Delta. Gwamnatin China, ta hanyar saka jari a danyen man da aka sata, tana sanya 'yan kasarta cikin layinmu na wuta. ”

An gabatar da shirye-shiryen gwamnati da masu zaman kansu don bunkasa yankin Neja Delta kwanan nan. Wadannan sun hada da Hukumar Raya Yankin Neja Delta (NDDC), wani shiri na gwamnati, da kuma Development Initiative (DEVIN), wata kungiya mai zaman kanta wacce ba ta gwamnati ba (NGO) da ke Fatakwal a yankin Neja Delta. Kamfanin Uz da Uz Transnational, wani kamfani mai karfin gwiwa ga yankin Neja Delta, ya bullo da hanyoyin bunkasa talakawa a yankin Neja Delta, musamman a jihar Ribas.

A watan Satumban shekara ta 2008, kungiyar MEND ta fitar da wata sanarwa da ke shelar cewa mayakansu sun kaddamar da "yakin mai" a duk yankin Neja Delta kan duka, bututun mai da wuraren samar da mai, da sojojin Najeriya da ke ba su kariya. Duka MEND da Gwamnatin Najeriya suna ikirarin yiwa juna mummunan rauni. A watan Agustan shekara ta 2009, gwamnatin Nijeriya ta yi afuwa ga mayakan; da yawa daga cikin mayakan sun mika makamansu daga baya domin neman afuwar shugaban kasa, shirin gyara rayuwa, da ilimi.

Kananan yankuna[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yankin Neja Delta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yammacin Neja Delta ya ƙunshi ɓangaren yamma na yankin Kudu Maso Kudancin Najeriya da ke gabar teku wanda ya haɗa da Delta, da kuma ɓangarorin kudu na ƙarshen Edo, da Ondo . Yankin Neja Delta na yamma (ko na Arewacin) yanki ne mai bambancin addini tare da kabilu da dama wadanda suka hada da Itsekiri, Urhobo, Isoko, Ijaw (ko Izon) da kungiyoyin Ukwuani a jihar Delta wadanda ake daukar su a matsayin karamar kungiyar kabilun Ibo; da Bini, Esan, Auchi, Esako, na baka, igara da kuma Afenmai a jihar Edo; da Yarbawan Ilaje a Jihar Ondo. Abin da suka dogara da shi ya ta'allaka ne akan kamun kifi da noma . Tarihi ya nuna cewa Yammacin Nijar na karkashin ikon shugabannin manyan ƙabilu huɗu na Itsekiri, Isoko, Ijaw, da Urhobo waɗanda dole ne gwamnatin Burtaniya ta sanya hannu a kan "Yarjejeniyar Kariya" a cikin ƙirƙirar su ta "Protectorates" wanda daga baya ya zama kudancin Najeriya.

Yankin Neja Delta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yankin Neja Delta na tsakiya ya kunshi yankin Kudu maso Kudancin Najeriya da ke gabar teku wanda ya hada da Bayelsa, Ribas, Abia da Imo . Yankin Neja Delta ta Tsakiya tana da Ijaw (gami da Nembe-Brass, Ogbia, mutanen Kalabari, Ibani na Opobo & Bonny, Abua, Okrika, Engenni da Andoni), mutanen Ogoni (Khana, Gokana, Tai da Eleme), Etche, Egbema, Omuma, Ogba, Ikwerre, Ndoni, Ekpeye da Ndoki a jihar Ribas, jihar Abia da jihar Imo, wadanda ake musu kallon kananan kabilun Ibo.

Yankin Neja Delta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gabashin Neja Delta ya kunshi jihar Kuros Riba da Akwa Ibom .

Man Najeriya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Najeriya ta zama kasar da ta fi kowacce kasa arzikin Afirka ta Yamma. Kimanin 2 million barrels (320,000 m3) ana fitar da rana a yankin Niger Delta. An kiyasta cewa ganga biliyan 38 na danyen mai har yanzu yana zaune a karkashin yankin ne daga farkon shekara ta 2012. Ayyukan mai na farko a yankin sun fara ne a cikin shekara ta 1950 kuma manyan kamfanoni ne suka gudanar da su, waɗanda suka ba Nijeriya albarkatun fasaha da na kuɗi masu mahimmanci don hako mai. Tun daga shekara ta 1975, yankin ya samar da sama da kashi 75% na kudaden shigar Najeriya zuwa kasashen waje.[ana buƙatar hujja] Tare da man fetur da kuma iskar gas hakar dauki kashi "97% na Najeriya ta kasashen waje musayar kudaden shiga". [3] Da yawa daga cikin iskar gas cirewa a rijiyoyin man fetur a Delta ne nan da nan ya ƙone, ko flared, a cikin iska a wani kudi na kimanin miliyan 70 m³per rana. Wannan yayi dai-dai da kashi 41% na amfani da iskar gas na Afirka kuma shine mafi girman tushen samar da iskar gas mai guba a duniya.[ana buƙatar hujja] A shekara ta 2003, kimanin kashi 99% na yawan iskar gas ya tashi a yankin Neja Delta, koda yake wannan darajar ta fadi zuwa 11% a shekara ta 2010. (Duba kuma adadin gas ). Babban kamfani mai rajin iskar gas shine Shell Petroleum Debelopment Company of Nigeria Ltd, haɗin gwiwa wanda mafi yawan mallakin gwamnatin Najeriya ne. A Najeriya, "... duk da ka'idojin da aka bullo da su shekaru 20 da suka gabata don hana yin hakan, yawancin gas din da ke hade da shi yana da iska, yana haifar da gurbacewar gida kuma yana taimakawa ga canjin yanayi." Lalacewar muhalli da ke da alaƙa da masana'antu da kuma rashin rabon arzikin mai sun kasance tushe da / ko mabuɗan abubuwan da ke haifar da rikice-rikicen muhalli da rikice-rikicen ƙabilanci a yankin, gami da ayyukan 'yan daba na baya-bayan nan da forungiyar ta manaddamar da Neja Delta (MEND).

A watan Satumbar 2012 kamfanin Eland Oil & Gas ya sayi ribar kashi 45% na OML 40, tare da takwaransa Starcrest Energy Nigeria Limited, daga Kamfanin Shell. Suna da niyyar ba da kayan aikin da suke ciki sannan su sake gina rijiyoyin da ke yanzu don sake fara hakar su a kan farashin da ya kai 2,500 barrels (400 m3) na mai a kowace rana tare da niyyar habaka yawan kayan da ake samarwa zuwa 50,000 barrels (7,900 m3) na mai kowace rana a cikin shekaru hudu.

Tushen kudaden shiga na mai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Raba kudaden shigar mai ya kasance abin tattaunawa tun kafin Najeriya ta samu 'yencin kai. Wurare sun banbanta daga kusan 50%, saboda babban matakin Jamhuriya ta farko na ikon cin gashin kai, kuma ƙasa da 10% yayin mulkin kama karya na soja. Wannan teburin da ke ƙasa.

Tsarin raba kudaden shiga na mai
Shekara Tarayya Jiha * Na gari Ayyuka na Musamman Fassara Tsarin **
1958 40% 60% 0% 0% 50%
1968 80% 20% 0% 0% 10%
1977 75% 22% 3% 0% 10%
1982 55% 32.5% 10% 2.5% 10%
1989 50% 24% 15% 11% 10%
1995 48.5% 24% 20% 7.5% 13%
2001 48.5% 24% 20% 7.5% 13%

* Rabe-raben jihar an kafa su ne bisa ka'idoji 5: daidaito (daidai wa daida a kowace jiha), yawan jama'a, ci gaban jama'a, yawan filaye, da samar da kudaden shiga.

** Tsarin samarda kayan yana nuni da kaso mai tsoka na jihohin dake samar da mai daga haraji akan mai da sauran albarkatun kasa da ake samarwa a jihar. Rahoton Bankin Duniya

Mai jarida[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Fim din Sweet Crude, wanda aka fara shi a watan Afrilu na shekara ta 2009 a bikin baje kolin fina-finai cikakke, ya ba da labarin Neja Delta ta Najeriya.

Al'amuran muhalli[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Illar mai a cikin lamuran yankuna Neja Delta masu rauni da muhalli sun yi yawa. 'Yan asalin ƙasar ba su ga komai ba in har suka sami cigaba a rayuwarsu yayin da suke fama da mummunar lahani ga muhallinsu. Dangane da alkalumman gwamnatin tarayyar Nijeriya, an samu malalar mai sama da 7,000 tsakanin shekara ta 1970 zuwa shekara ta 2000. An kiyasta cewa tsabtace yankin, gami da sake maido da dausayi, kogunan ruwa, wuraren kamun kifi da mangwaro, na iya ɗaukar shekaru 25.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. CRS Report for Congress, Nigeria: Current Issues. Updated 30 January 2008.
  2. Strutton, Laine (2015). The New Mobilization from Below: Women's Oil Protests in the Niger Delta, Nigeria (Ph.D.). New York University.
  3. Nigeria: Petroleum Pollution and Poverty in the Niger Delta. United Kingdom: Amnesty International Publications International Secretariat, 2009, p. 10.

Majiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]