Rigakafin ƙasa

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Matsalolin zaizayar ƙasa a kan gangara mai ruɗi, Marin County, California
Contour plowing a Pennsylvania a 1938. Layukan sun haifar da jinkirin guduwar ruwa a lokacin guguwar ruwan sama don hana zaizayar ƙasa da ba da damar lokacin ruwa ya kutsa cikin ƙasa.

Kiyaye ƙasa shi ne rigakafin asarar saman mafi yawan ƙasa daga zazzagewa ko rigakafin rage yawan haihuwa wanda ya haifar da yawan amfani, acidification, salinization ko wasu gurɓataccen ƙasa .

Yanke-da-ƙone da sauran hanyoyin da ba za su dore ba na noman rayuwa ana yin su a wasu ƙananan yankuna. Ci gaba da sare dazuzzuka shine yawanci zaizayar kasa mai girma, asarar sinadiran ƙasa da kuma kwararowar hamada . Sannan Kuma Dabaru don inganta kiyaye ƙasa sun haɗa da jujjuya amfanin gona, amfanin gona na rufewa, noman kiyayewa da shukar iska, suna shafar zaizayar ƙasa da haihuwa . Lokacin da tsire-tsire suka mutu, sun lalace kuma su zama ɓangaren ƙasa. Lambar 330 ta bayyana daidaitattun hanyoyin da Sabis ɗin Kare Albarkatun Ƙasar Amurka suka ba da shawarar. Manoma sun yi aikin kiyaye ƙasa tsawon shekaru dubu. Kuma A Turai, manufofi irin su Manufofin Aikin Noma na gama gari suna yin niyya don aiwatar da mafi kyawun ayyukan gudanarwa kamar rage noman noma, amfanin gona na hunturu, ragowar tsire-tsire da iyakokin ciyawa don inganta yanayin kiyaye ƙasa. Ana kuma bukatar daukar matakan siyasa da tattalin arziki don magance matsalar zaizayar kasa. Matsala mai sauƙi na mulki ya shafi yadda muke daraja ƙasar kuma ana iya canza wannan ta hanyar daidaita al'adu. Carbon ƙasa , tana taka rawa wajen rage sauyin yanayi.

Kwankwankwana garma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hannun noman kwane-kwane suna bibiyar layin da ake nomawa. Furrows suna motsawa hagu da dama don kula da tsayin daka, wanda ke rage kwararar ruwa . Tsohuwar Phoeniciawa ne suka yi aikin noman nau'in amfanin gona Na kwane-kwane don gangara tsakanin kashi biyu zuwa goma. [1] Noman amfanin kwane-kwane na iya ƙara yawan amfanin gona daga kashi 10 zuwa 50 cikin ɗari, a wani ɓangare sakamakon riƙon ƙasa.

Terrace noma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Terracing al'ada ce ta ƙirƙirar wurare kusa da matakin a cikin wani yanki na tudu. Filayen suna samar da jerin matakai kowanne a matsayi mafi girma fiye da na baya. Ana kiyaye filaye daga zaizayar ƙasa ta wasu shingen ƙasa. Kuma An fi yin noman ƙasa a ƙananan gonaki.

Zane na maɓalli[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Zane na maɓalli shine haɓaka aikin noman kwane-kwane, inda ake la'akari da jimillar kaddarorin ruwa wajen samar da layin kwane-kwane .

Ikon zubar da gudu na kewaye[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Stormwater management animation

Bishiyoyi, shrubs da murfin ƙasa suna da tasiri mai mahimmanci don rigakafin zaizayar ƙasa, ta hanyar hana kwararar ƙasa. Wani nau'i na musamman na wannan kewaye ko jiyya tsakanin jeri shine amfani da kuma "hanyar ciyawa" wanda duka tashoshi da kuma watsar da kwararar ruwa ta hanyar gogayya a saman, hana zubar da ruwa da kuma ƙarfafa kutsawar ruwa mai jinkirin. [2]

Matsalolin iska[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Iskar iska tana da isassun manyan layuka na bishiyu a lokacin da iska ke faɗuwar filin noma da ke fuskantar zaizayar iska . Dabbobin Evergreen suna ba da kariya ga duk shekara; duk da haka, Kuma muddin ganye ya kasance a cikin yanayi na yanayin ƙasa mara kyau, tasirin bishiyoyin ciyayi na iya isa.

Rufe amfanin gona/juyawan amfanin gona[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An rufe amfanin gona kamar shuka na legumes, farar turnips, radishes da sauran nau'in) yana juyawa tare da kayan lambu na tsabar kudi don rufe ƙasa a kowace shekara kuma ya zama koren taki wanda ke cike da nitrogen da sauran muhimman abubuwan gina jiki. Rufe amfanin gona kuma yana taimakawa wajen danne ciyawa.

Noman kiyaye ƙasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Noman kiyaye ƙasa ya haɗa da noma ba- kore, "koren taki" da sauran ayyukan haɓaka ƙasa waɗanda ke da wahala a daidaita ƙasa. Irin waɗannan hanyoyin noma suna ƙoƙari su kwaikwayi ilimin halittu na ƙasa bakarara . Kuma Za su iya farfado da ƙasa da ta lalace, rage zaizayar ƙasa, ƙarfafa haɓakar shuka, kawar da amfani da takin nitrogen ko fungicides, samar da amfanin gona sama da matsakaici da kuma kare amfanin gona a lokacin fari ko ambaliya. Sannan Sakamakon ya kasance ƙarancin aiki da ƙarancin farashi wanda ke ƙara ribar manoma. Noman da ba tukuna ba da kayan amfanin gona suna aiki azaman nutsewa don nitrogen da sauran abubuwan gina jiki. Wannan yana ƙara yawan adadin kwayoyin halitta na ƙasa .

Maimaita noman noma yana ƙasƙantar da ƙasa, yana kashe fungi masu amfani da tsutsotsin ƙasa. Da zarar ta lalace, ƙasa na iya ɗaukar yanayi da yawa don murmurewa gabaɗaya, ko da a yanayi mafi kyau.

Masu sukar suna jayayya cewa ba-har sai hanyoyin da ke da alaƙa ba su da amfani kuma suna da tsada sosai ga manoma da yawa, wani ɓangare saboda yana buƙatar sabbin kayan aiki. Suna ba da fa'ida don yin noman al'ada dangane da yanayin ƙasa, Kuma amfanin gona da yanayin ƙasa. Wasu manoman sun yi iƙirarin cewa ba tukuna yana dagula maganin kwari, da jinkirta shuka da kuma ragowar bayan girbi, musamman na masara, yana da wuyar sarrafawa.

Salinity management[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gishiri na gishiri akan tsohon gadon Tekun Aral

Salinity a cikin ƙasa yana faruwa ne ta hanyar ban ruwa da ruwan gishiri. Ruwa sai ya kwashe daga ƙasa yana barin gishiri a baya. Gishiri yana rushe tsarin ƙasa, Kuma yana haifar da rashin haihuwa da rage girma.

Abubuwan da ke da alhakin salination sune: sodium ( Na + ), potassium (K + ), calcium (Ca 2+ ), magnesium (Mg 2+ ) da chlorine (Cl - ). An kiyasta gishirin zai shafi kusan kashi ɗaya bisa uku na ƙasar noma . Salinity na ƙasa yana da illa ga haɓakar amfanin gona kuma yazama yakan biyo baya.

Salinity yana faruwa a kan busassun wuraren ban ruwa da kuma wuraren da ke da teburan ruwan gishiri mara zurfi. Ƙarfin ban ruwa yana ajiye gishiri a cikin ƙasa na sama a matsayin sakamakon shigar ƙasa; ban ruwa kawai yana ƙara yawan adadin gishiri. Shaharar da aka fi saninta game da aikin tebur na ruwa mai zurfi ya faru a Masar bayan ginin Dam na Aswan na shekarata 1970. Canjin matakin ruwan ƙasa ya haifar da yawan gishiri a cikin tebur na ruwa. Cigaba da babban matakin teburin ruwa ya haifar da salination ƙasa .

Yin amfani da acid humic na iya hana yawan salination, musamman idan aka ba da ban ruwa mai yawa.[ana buƙatar hujja] iya gyara duka anions da cations kuma su kawar da su daga tushen tushen .[ana buƙatar hujja]

Za a iya amfani da nau'in dasa shuki waɗanda zasu iya jure wa yanayin gishiri don rage teburin ruwa don haka rage yawan haɓakar capillary da haɓakar haɓakar gishirin saman. Tsire-tsire masu jure wa gishiri sun haɗa da gishiri, Kuma wani tsiro da ake samu a yawancin Arewacin Amurka da a yankunan Bahar Rum na Turai .

Kwayoyin ƙasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yellow naman gwari, naman kaza da ke taimakawa wajen lalata kwayoyin halitta

Lokacin da tsutsotsi ke fitar da najasa a cikin nau'in simintin gyare -gyare, ana yin daidaitaccen zaɓi na ma'adanai da kayan abinci na shuka a cikin nau'i mai sauƙi don samun tushen tushen . Simintin gyare-gyare na Earthworm ya fi girma sau biyar a cikin samuwar nitrogen, sau bakwai mafi yawa a cikin phosphates da ake da su kuma sau goma sha ɗaya mafi girma a cikin potash fiye da na sama na sama 150 millimetres (5.9 in) kasa. Nauyin simintin gyaran kafa na iya zama sama da 4.5 kg a kowace shekara. Sannan Ta hanyar burrowing, ƙwayar ƙasa tana inganta porosity na ƙasa, ƙirƙirar tashoshi waɗanda ke haɓaka hanyoyin iska da magudanar ruwa.

Sauran mahimman kwayoyin halittar ƙasa sun haɗa da nematodes, mycorrhiza da ƙwayoyin cuta . Kashi ɗaya bisa huɗu na nau'in dabbobi suna rayuwa ƙarƙashin ƙasa. Dangane da rahoton Hukumar Abinci da Aikin Noma ta shekarata 2020 "Yanayin ilimin halittu na ƙasa - Matsayi, ƙalubale da abubuwan da za a iya samu", akwai manyan gibi a cikin ilimin ilimin halittu a cikin ƙasa.

Ƙasar da ta lalace tana buƙatar takin roba don samar da yawan amfanin ƙasa. Rashin tsari yana ƙaruwa da zaizayar ƙasa kuma yana ɗaukar nitrogen da sauran gurɓatattun abubuwa zuwa cikin koguna da koguna.

Kowanne kashi ɗaya ya karu a cikin kwayoyin halitta na ƙasa yana taimakawa ƙasa ta riƙe ƙarin galan 20,000 a kowace kadada.

Ma'adinai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Don ba da damar shuke-shuke da cikakken fahimtar yuwuwar su na phytonutrients, ana aiwatar da aikin ma'adinai na ƙasa a wasu lokuta. Wannan na iya haɗawa da ƙara dakataccen dutse ko kariyar ƙasa mai sinadarai. Kuma A kowane hali maƙasudin shine yaƙar ƙarancin ma'adinai . Ana iya amfani da ma'adanai masu yawa, gami da abubuwan gama gari kamar su phosphorus da ƙarin abubuwa masu ban mamaki kamar su zinc da selenium . Sannan Bincike mai zurfi yana nazarin sauye-sauyen lokaci na ma'adanai a cikin ƙasa tare da lamba mai ruwa.

Ambaliyar ruwa na iya kawo maɓalli masu mahimmanci zuwa wani fili mai cike da ruwa. Duk da yake wannan tasirin ba zai zama abin sha'awa ba idan ambaliya ta haifar da haɗari ga rayuwa ko kuma idan naɗaɗɗen ya samo asali ne daga ƙasa mai albarka, wannan tsari na ƙari ga ambaliyar ruwa wani tsari ne na halitta wanda zai iya sake farfado da ilimin kimiyyar ƙasa ta hanyar ma'adinai.

Duba wasu abubuwan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ci gaban karatu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Predicting euler erosion by water, a guide to conservation planning in the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Agricultural handbook no. 703 (1997)
  2. Perimeter landscaping of Carneros Business Park, Lumina Technologies, Santa Rosa, Ca., prepared for Sonoma County, Ca. (2002)