Salman Rushdi

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Salman Rushdi
Ɗan Adam
Bayanai
Jinsi namiji
Ƙasar asali Birtaniya, Tarayyar Amurka da Indiya
Sunan asali سلمان رشدی
Sunan haihuwa احمد سلمان رشدی
Suna Salman da Ahmed
Sunan dangi Rushdie (en) Fassara
Taken daraja Knight Bachelor (en) Fassara
Gajeren suna Salman Rushdie
IPA transcription (en) Fassara sælˈmɑːn ˈrʊʃdi
Shekarun haihuwa 19 ga Yuni, 1947
Wurin haihuwa Mumbai
Uba Anis Ahmed Rushdie (en) Fassara
Mata/miji Marianne Wiggins (en) Fassara, Padma Lakshmi (en) Fassara, Elizabeth West (en) Fassara, Clarissa Luard (en) Fassara da Rachel Eliza Griffiths (en) Fassara
Yarinya/yaro Zafar Rushdie (en) Fassara da Milan Rushdie (en) Fassara
Yaren haihuwa Urdu, Turancin Birtaniya da Harshen Kashmiri
Harsuna Urdu, Turanci da Harshen Kashmiri
Writing language (en) Fassara Urdu, Turanci da Harshen Kashmiri
Mai aiki Emory University (en) Fassara
Ilimi a Rugby School (en) Fassara, King's College (en) Fassara da Cathedral and John Connon School (en) Fassara
Work period (start) (en) Fassara 1975
Notable work (en) Fassara The Satanic Verses (en) Fassara
Archives at (en) Fassara Stuart A. Rose Manuscript, Archives, and Rare Book Library (en) Fassara
Motsi historical criticism (en) Fassara
Mamba na Royal Society of Literature (en) Fassara, PEN America (en) Fassara da American Academy of Arts and Sciences (en) Fassara
Nau'in magic realism (en) Fassara
Influenced by (en) Fassara Italo Calvino (en) Fassara, Vladimir Nabokov (en) Fassara, Christopher Hitchens (en) Fassara da Gabriel García Márquez
Gagarumin taron stabbing of Salman Rushdie (en) Fassara
Shafin yanar gizo salmanrushdie.com
Depicted by (en) Fassara Salman Rushdie ('The Moor') (en) Fassara
Has works in the collection (en) Fassara Smithsonian American Art Museum (en) Fassara
Copyright status as a creator (en) Fassara works protected by copyrights (en) Fassara
Documentation files at (en) Fassara SAPA Foundation, Swiss Archive of the Performing Arts (en) Fassara
Salman Rushdi

Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie CH FRSL (/sælˈmɑːn ˈrʊʃdi/; an haife shi a ranar sha tara 19 ga watan Yunin shekara ta alif dubu ɗaya da ɗari tara da arba'in da bakwai 1947) ɗan asalin Indiya ne ɗan littafin Birtaniya-Amurka.[1] Ayyukansa sau da yawa suna haɗuwa da gaskiyar sihiri tare da tarihin tarihi kuma da farko suna hulɗa da haɗin kai, rushewa, da ƙaura tsakanin wayewar Gabas da Yamma, yawanci ana saita su a yankin Indiya. Littafin Rushdie na biyu, Midnight's Children a shekarar dubu ɗaya da ɗari tara da tamanin da ɗaya (1981), ya lashe kyautar Booker a shekarar dubu ɗaya da ɗari tara da tamanin da ɗaya 1981 kuma an dauke shi "mafi kyawun littafin duk masu nasara" a lokuta biyu, yana nuna bikin cika shekaru ashirin da biyar 25 da arba'in 40 na kyautar.

Salman Rushdi

Bayan littafinsa na huɗu, The Satanic Verses dubu ɗaya da ɗari tara da tamanin da takwas (1988), Rushdie ya zama batun yunkurin kisan kai da yawa da barazanar mutuwa, gami da fatwa da ke kira ga mutuwarsa da Ruhollah Khomeini, babban shugaban Iran ya bayar. Masu tsattsauran ra'ayi sun yi kisan kai da bama-bamai da yawa waɗanda suka ambaci littafin a matsayin abin motsawa, wanda ya haifar da muhawara game da tantancewa da tashin hankali na addini. A cikin shekara ta dubu biyu da ashirin da biyu 2022, wani mutum ya soke Rushdie bayan ya yi gaggawar zuwa mataki inda aka shirya marubucin ya gabatar da lacca a wani taron a Chautauqua, New York.

A shekara ta dubu ɗaya da ɗari tara da tamanin da ukku 1983, an zabi Rushdie a matsayin abokin Royal Society of Literature . An nada shi Commandeur de l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres na Faransa a shekarar dubu ɗaya da ɗari tara da casa'in da tara 1999. An ba Rushdie lambar yabo a shekara ta dubu biyu da bakwai 2007 saboda hidimomin da ya yi wa wallafe-wallafen.[2] A shekara ta dubu biyu da takwas 2008, The Times ta sanya shi na goma sha ukku 13 a cikin jerin manyan marubutan Burtaniya hamsin 50 tun shekarar alif dubu ɗaya da ɗari tara da arba'in da biyar 1945.[3] Tun daga shekara ta alif dubu biyu 2000, Rushdie ta zauna a Amurka. An ba shi suna Babban Mawallafi a Mazaunin a Cibiyar Harkokin Jarida ta Arthur L. Carter ta Jami'ar New York a shekarar alif dubu biyu da goma sha biyar 2015. Tun da farko, ya koyar a Jami'ar Emory. An zabe shi a Kwalejin Fasaha da Harafi ta Amurka . A cikin shekara ta alif dubu biyu da goma sha biyu 2012, ya wallafa Joseph Anton: A Memoir, wani labarin rayuwarsa bayan abubuwan da suka faru bayan The Satanic Verses. An kira Rushdie daya daga cikin mutane ɗari 100 mafi tasiri a duniya ta mujallar Time a watan Afrilu na shekara ta alif dubu biyu da ashirin da uku 2023.

Tarihin rayuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Rayuwa ta farko da tarihin iyali[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An haifi Ahmed Salman Rushdie a Bombay a ranar sha tara 19 ga watan Yuni shekarar alif dubu ɗaya da ɗari tara da arba'in da bakwai 1947 a lokacin mulkin Burtaniya, a cikin dangin Musulmi na Kashmiri na Indiya. Shi ne ɗan Anis Ahmed Rushdie, lauya mai ilimin Cambridge wanda ya zama ɗan kasuwa, da Negin Bhatt, malami. An kori mahaifin Rushdie daga Ma'aikatan Jama'a na Indiya (ICS) bayan ya bayyana cewa takardar shaidar haihuwa da ya gabatar yana da canje-canje don sa ya zama ƙarami fiye da yadda yake. Rushdie tana da 'yan'uwa mata uku.[4] Ya rubuta a cikin tarihinsa na shekarar alif dubu biyu da goma sha biyu 2012 cewa mahaifinsa ya ɗauki sunan Rushdie don girmama Averroes (Ibn Rushd).

Salman Rushdi

Rushdie ya girma a Bombay kuma ya yi karatu a Cathedral da John Connon School a Fort, South Bombay, kafin ya koma Ingila don halartar Rugby School a Rugby, Warwickshire, sannan kuma King's College, Cambridge, daga inda ya kammala karatu tare da digiri na farko a tarihi.

Rayuwa ta mutum[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Rushdie ta yi aure sau biyar kuma ta sake aure sau hudu, kuma tana da akalla wata dangantaka mai mahimmanci. Ya fara auren Clarissa Luard, jami'in wallafe-wallafen Majalisar Fasaha ta Ingila, daga shekarun alif dubu ɗaya da ɗari tara da saba'in da shida 1976 zuwa shekara ta alif dubu ɗaya da ɗari tara da tamanin da bakwai 1987.[5][6] Ma'auratan suna da ɗa, Zafar, wanda aka haifa a shekara ta alif dubu ɗaya da ɗari tara da saba'in da tara 1979, wanda ya auri mawaƙan jazz na London Natalie Rushdie .[7] Ya bar Clarissa Luard a tsakiyar shekarun alif dubu ɗaya da ɗari tara da tamanin 1980 ga marubucin Australiya Robyn Davidson, wanda abokinsu Bruce Chatwin ya gabatar da shi.[8] Rushdie da Davidson ba su taɓa yin aure ba, kuma sun rabu a lokacin da ya saki Clarissa a shekarar alif dubu ɗaya da ɗari tara da tamanin da bakwai 1987. Matar Rushdie ta biyu ita ce marubuciyar litattafan Amurka Marianne Wiggins; sun yi aure a shekarar alif dubu ɗaya da ɗari tara da tamanin da takwas 1988 kuma sun sake aure a shekarar alif dubu ɗaya da ɗari tara da casa'in da uku 1993. Matarsa ta uku, daga shekarun alif dubu ɗaya da ɗari tara da casa'in da bakwai 1997 zuwa shekara ta alif dubu biyu da huɗu 2004, ita ce edita ta Burtaniya kuma marubuciya Elizabeth West; suna da ɗa, Milan, wanda aka haifa a shekarar alif dubu ɗaya da ɗari tara da casa'in da bakwai 1997. A shekara ta 2004, jim kadan bayan kisan aurensa na uku, Rushdie ya auri Padma Lakshmi, 'yar wasan kwaikwayo ta Indiya, samfurin, kuma mai karɓar bakuncin shirin talabijin na gaskiya na Amurka Top Chef . Rushdie ya bayyana cewa Lakshmi ya nemi saki a watan Janairun, shekarar alif dubu biyu da bakwai 2007, kuma daga baya a wannan shekarar, a watan Yuli, ma'auratan sun shigar da shi. A shekarar 2021, Rushdie ya auri mawakiyar Amurka da marubuciya Rachel Eliza Griffiths.

A shekarar 1999, Rushdie yana da aiki don gyara ptosis, matsala tare da ƙwayar ƙwayar ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwayar ƙwaya ta ƙwayar ƙwace ta ƙwayar cuta ta ƙwayar ƙira ta ƙwayar ajiya ta ƙwaƙwalyar ƙwayar cutawa. A cewar Rushdie, ya sa ya zama da wahala a gare shi ya buɗe idanunsa. "Idan ban yi wa tiyata ba, a cikin 'yan shekaru daga yanzu ba zan iya buɗe idanuna ba", in ji shi.[9]

Tun daga shekara ta 2000, Rushdie ta zauna a Amurka, galibi kusa da Union Square a Lower Manhattan, Birnin New York. Shi mai sha'awar kungiyar kwallon kafa ta Ingila Tottenham Hotspur ne .

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Mai farautar Butterfly
  • Rashin amincewa da Musulunci
  • Censorship a Kudancin Asiya
  • Gaskiya mai ban tsoro
  • Indiyawa a cikin babban birnin New York
  • Jerin fatwas
  • Jerin marubutan Indiya
  • PEN International
  • Littattafan zamani
  • Rashin mutunci

Bayani[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Pointon, Graham (ed.
  2. "Birthday Honours List – United Kingdom."
  3. "The 50 Greatest British Writers Since 1945".
  4. Error:No page id specified on YouTube
  5. Descended from the gentry family LUARD, formerly of Byborough.
  6. Empty citation (help)
  7. Free BMD website.
  8. Bruce Chatwin, letter to Ninette Dutton, 1 November 1984, in Under the Sun: The Letters of Bruce Chatwin, ed.
  9. ""Rushdie: New book out from under shadow of fatwa", CNN, 15 April 1999.

Haɗin waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]