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Ténéré

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.

Ténéré ( Abzinawa : Tenere, a zahiri: "Hamada") yanki ne na hamada a kudu ta tsakiyar Sahara . Ya ƙunshi babban fili na yashi wanda ya tashi daga arewa maso gabashin Nijar zuwa yammacin Chadi, wanda ya mamaye fili fiye da 400,000 square kilometres (150,000 sq mi) . An ce iyakokin Ténéré su ne tsaunin Aïr a yamma, tsaunin Hoggar a arewa, da Djado Plateau a arewa maso gabas, tsaunin Tibesti a gabas, da kwarin tafkin Chadi a kudu. Babban yankin hamada, Erg du Bilma, yana tsakiya ne kusan

Suna[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sunan Ténéré ya fito ne daga harshen Abzinawa, ma'ana "hamada", kamar yadda kalmar Larabci ta "Hamada", Sahara, ta zo a cikin yankin gaba daya. [1]

Yanayi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ténéré yana da yanayi mai zafi na hamada ( Köppen weather classification BWh ), irin na babban hamadar Sahara . Yanayin yana da bushewa, zafi sosai, rana da bushewa duk shekara kuma kusan babu rayuwar shuka. Matsakaicin yanayin zafi sama da 40 °C (104 °F) na kimanin watanni 5 da ƙari a cikin yankuna mafi zafi, kuma ana yin rikodin yanayin zafi mai girma kamar 50 ° C (122 ° F) yana yiwuwa sosai a lokacin bazara. Matsakaicin zafin jiki na shekara-shekara yana kusa da 35 ° C (95 ° F) har ma da ƙari. A cikin watannin “hunturu”, matsakaita yanayin zafi yana tsayawa sama da 25°C (77°F) kuma gabaɗaya yana shawagi a kusa da 30°C (86°F).

Adadin hazo na shekara yana da ƙasa sosai-ɗaya daga cikin mafi ƙarancin ruwan sama da ake samu a Duniya-kusan mm 10 (0.39 in) zuwa 15 mm (0.59 in), kuma akai-akai shekaru da yawa na iya wucewa ba tare da ganin ruwan sama ba kwata-kwata. Ruwa yana da wuyar samun sananne, har ma a ƙarƙashin ƙasa, kuma rijiyoyin na iya yin nisa da ɗaruruwan mil.

Tsawon lokacin hasken rana kuma yana daya daga cikin sakamako mafi girma a doron kasa a kusan sa'o'i 4,000, wato kusan kashi 91% na hasken rana tsakanin fitowar alfijir da faduwar rana. Wannan yanki na hamadar Sahara yana daya daga cikin mafi tsananin yanayi a duniya. A cewar wani binciken NASA, mafi sunniest tabo a duniya zai zama rugujewar kagara a Agadem a kudu maso gabashin Ténéré, kuma yana da ko da sarari sama fiye da iyakacin duniya hamada overall. The Ténéré, kazalika da sauran Babban Hamada, suna daga cikin mafi matsananci yanayi a duniya .

Hoton hoto[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Arakao
Gwargwadon tekun dune Ténéré da aka gani daga sararin samaniya

Yawancin Ténéré wani kwandon lebur ne, sau ɗaya gadon tafkin Chadi na prehistoric. A arewa, da Ténéré ne a sararin yashi takardar - gaskiya, featureless 'Ténéré' na labari kai har zuwa low tuddai na Tassili du Hoggar tare da Algerian iyaka. A cikin tsakiya, Bilma Erg ta samar da layuka na ƙananan dunes masu sauƙi waɗanda hanyoyin ke yin titin yau da kullun don ayarin azalai ko gishiri. A yamma, tsaunin Aïr ya tashi. Zuwa kudu maso gabas, Ténéré yana iyaka da tsaunin Kaouar da ke gudana kilomita 100 arewa zuwa kudu. A gindin, ya ta'allaka ne da igiyar ruwa ciki har da shahararriyar Bilma . Tsire-tsire na lokaci-lokaci, kamar dutsen marmara na Blue Mountains da ba a saba gani ba a arewa maso yamma kusa da Adrar Chiriet, ko tsaunin Agram kusa da bakin Fachi da Adrar Madet a arewa, ba safai ba ne amma fitattun alamomi.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A lokacin Carboniferous lokacin, yankin yana ƙarƙashin teku; daga baya ya kasance dajin wurare masu zafi. Wata babbar makabartar dinosaur tana kudu maso gabashin Agadez a Gadoufaoua ; An gano burbushin halittu da yawa a wurin, wadanda suka bace daga kasa. Kimanin cikakken samfurin dabbar mai rarrafe Sarcosuchus mai rarrafe mai kama da kada, wanda ake yi wa lakabi da SuperCroc, masana burbushin halittu ne suka gano a can .

A lokacin farkon tarihin ɗan adam, wannan ƙasa ce mai albarka wacce ta fi dacewa da rayuwar ɗan adam fiye da yadda take a yanzu. Mutanen zamani ne ke zaune a yankin tun zamanin Paleolithic kusan shekaru 60,000 da suka wuce. Sun yi farautar namun daji kuma sun bar shaidar kasancewarsu a cikin nau'ikan kayan aikin dutse da suka haɗa da ƙanana, filayen kiban kibiya. A lokacin zamanin Neolithic kimanin shekaru 10,000 da suka gabata, mafarauta na dā, mutanen Holocene Kiffian na farko, sun ƙirƙira zane-zanen dutse da zane-zanen kogo waɗanda har yanzu ana iya samun su a duk faɗin yankin.

Neolithic Subpluvial ya kasance wani tsawaita yanayin yanayi, daga kimanin 7,500-7,000 BC zuwa kusan 3,500-3,000 BC, na yanayin jika da ruwan sama a tarihin yanayi na arewacin Afirka. An gabace shi kuma ya biyo bayan lokaci mai bushewa da yawa[ana buƙatar hujja]</link> . Rubuce-rubucen kayan tarihi da yawa waɗanda suka fara tun daga wannan lokacin, waɗanda galibi ana gano su a matsayin wani ɓangare na al'adun Tenerian, suna cikin hamadar hamadar da ke kan iyakokin Nijar, Aljeriya da Libiya . [2] Yawan mutane ya ragu yayin da Sahara ta bushe, kuma a shekara ta 2500 BC, ya zama bushe kamar yadda yake a yau.

A cikin 'yan kwanakin nan, Ténéré ta kasance hanyar hayewa ga bakin haure na Afirka da ke neman yin ƙaura zuwa Turai.

Yawan jama'a[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Dutsen Kaouar, kusa da Bilma, wanda ke samar da sarkar tsaunuka a gabashin Ténéré.

Ténéré ba ta da yawan jama'a sosai. Fachi da Bilma su ne kawai ƙauyuka waɗanda ba a gefen Tenéré ba.

Yayin da sanannun Abzinawa suka mamaye tsaunin Aïr da Agadez zuwa yamma, kuma har yanzu suna gudanar da ayarin gishiri ga ƴan kasuwa Hausawa, sauran mazauna Ténéré, waɗanda aka samu daga tudu kamar Fachi gabas, su ne waɗanda ba Berber Kanuri da Toubou, na karshen. tunani  ya fito daga cikin asalin mutanen Sahara.

Mulki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A shekarar 1960, yankin Abzinawa ya zama wani yanki na jamhuriyar Nijar mai cin gashin kanta. An raba shi gida bakwai . Babban yanki na Ténéré yanki ne mai kariya, ƙarƙashin kulawar Aïr da Ténéré Reserve Natural Reserve .

Garuruwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Cibiyar gudanarwa ta Ténéré ita ce garin Agadez, kudu da tsaunin Aïr da yammacin Tenere. Hakanan akwai ƙauyuka daban-daban na oasis, wasu kamar Bilma da Séguedine dangane da samar da gishiri.

Matsugunai da ƙauyukan Ténéré:

Alamomin ƙasa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Arbre du Ténéré (itacen Ténéré)

An kuma san hamada don bishiyar bishiyar Ténéré, da zarar an yi tunanin kasancewa cikin mafi nisa a duniya. Da yake kusa da rijiya ta ƙarshe kafin shiga Grand Erg du Bilma a kan hanyar zuwa Fachi, ayarin gishiri sun dogara da bishiyar a matsayin alamar ƙasa har sai da direban babbar mota ya rushe ta a 1973.

An maye gurbinsa da wani sassaka na karfe kuma an ajiye gawarwakin a gidan tarihi na Yamai (babban birnin Nijar). An dasa sabbin bishiyoyi amma saboda karancin ruwa (rijiyar da ke kusa da ita tana da zurfin kusan mita 40), ba tare da bata lokaci ba ta hanyar matafiya ta ga sun kasa tsira. Duk da wannan rashin tausayi, ana nuna bishiyar akan taswirorin yankin a matsayin wata alama ta musamman, kamar yadda mafi ƙarancin sanannun Arbre Perdu (Lost Tree) ke a cikin Tenere na gaskiya zuwa arewa, yammacin Chirfa.

Wani abin tunawa ga jirgin UTA mai lamba 772, da'irar duwatsu masu duhu mai tsawon ƙafa 200 da fashewar madubai 170 waɗanda ke wakiltar kowane wanda harin ta'addancin 1989 ya ruguje jirgin, an gina shi a watan Mayu da Yuni 2007 a 16°51′53″N 11°57′13″E.

Duba[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Duban bayani
Shigar da hoton da ke sama

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Aïr da Ténéré National Nature Reserve
  • Jamus
  • Green Sahara
  • Babur Ténéré
  • Ofishin Jakadancin Berliet-Ténéré

Nassoshi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Samuel Decalo. Kamus na Tarihi na Nijar. Scarecrow Press, London da New Jersey (1979). ISBN 0-8108-1229-0
  • Jolijn Geels. Nijar. Bradt London da Globe Pequot New York (2006). ISBN 1-84162-152-8 .
  • Chris Scott. Sahara Overland. Trailblazer (2004). ISBN 1-873756-76-3.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Decalo, p.222. Geels and other sources give the Tamasheq meaning as "Desert beyond the desert".
  2. Garcea, E.A.A. (ed.) 2013. Gobero: The No-Return Frontier. Archaeology and Landscape at the Saharo-Sahelian Borderland'. Frankfurt, Africa Magna Verlag.