Yancin Kungiya

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Yancin ƙungiya ya ƙunshi duka haƙƙin ɗan adam na shiga ko barin ƙungiyoyi da son rai, da 'yancin ƙungiyar don ɗaukar matakan gama kai don biyan bukatun membobinta, da haƙƙin ƙungiya ta karɓar ko ƙi memba bisa wasu sharuɗɗa. Ana iya bayyana shi a matsayin haƙƙin mutum wanda yake haɗuwa tare da wasu mutane don bayyana gaba ɗaya, inganta, bi da / ko kare muradin gama gari. [1] 'Yancin kafa kungiyoyi ne duka wani mutum dama da kuma wani na gama dama, tabbas da duk zamani da mulkin demokaraɗiyya] doka tsarin, ciki har da Amurka da Dokar' Yancin, labarin 11 na Turai Yarjejeniyar a kan Human Rights, da Canada, da Yarjejeniya na 'yancinsu da walwalarsu, da kuma na kasa da kasa doka, gami da shafuffuka 20 da 23 na Sanarwar Kare Hakkin Dan-Adam ta Duniya da kuma labarin 22 na Yarjejeniyar Kasa da Kasa kan 'Yancin Dan Adam da Siyasa Sanarwa kan Ka'idoji da Hakkokin Aiki na Laborungiyar Laborasashen Duniya ma sun tabbatar da waɗannan haƙƙoƙin akan yancin kungiyoyi.

An bayyana ofancin ƙungiya ta hanyar haƙƙin shiga ƙungiyar ƙwadago, don shiga cikin 'yancin faɗar albarkacin baki ko shiga cikin ƙungiyoyin muhawara, jam'iyyun siyasa, ko wata ƙungiya ko ƙungiya, gami da ƙungiyoyin addinai da ƙungiyoyi, ' yan uwantaka, da kungiyoyin wasanni da ba Tilas ya kasance daga wata ƙungiya. [2] Yana da alaƙa sosai da 'yancin taro, musamman a ƙarƙashin Dokar' Yancin Amurka . 'Yancin taro galibi yana da alaƙa da abubuwan siyasa. Koyaya, (misali Tsarin Mulki na Amurka, kayan haƙƙin ɗan adam, da sauransu) 'yancin walwala da haɗuwa na iya haɗawa da ' yancin walwala . A Amurka, tun da an taƙaita dokar 'Yancin Civilasa ta 1968 na ' yanci na tarayya game da gidaje, ilimi, da kasuwanci idan ya zo ga launin fata ko ƙabila .

Kotuna da wakilai na kananan hukumomin na iya sanya takunkumi kan duk wani hakki na wanda aka yankewa hukunci a matsayin sharadin doka. 'Yanci ga ofishin ƙungiya da damar yancin haɗuwa ana tabbatar da su a ƙarƙashin wasu yanayi, kamar yarda da laifi ko yanke hukunci, umarnin hanawa da hanyoyin bincike da kamewa.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kwadago

Yancin kungiyoyi ta amince yin tarayya da ƙungiyoyi gwargwadon zaɓin mutum, kuma don ƙungiyoyin su ɗauki matakin inganta buƙatunsu, ya kasance sifa ce da ake buƙata ga kowace al'umma ta demokraɗiyya. Saboda yancin ƙungiya dole ne ya yarda da tushen iko da ƙungiya da yawa, ba tare da gwamnati ba, ya kasance babban makircin danniya ga duk al'ummomin kama-karya. A cikin Burtaniya, an haramta duk nau'ikan "haɗuwa" kuma masu aikata laifi, musamman ƙungiyoyin ma'aikata, har zuwa Dokar haɗuwa ta 1825 . Bayan wannan, har yanzu bai kasance ba har sai Dokar Kamfanoni 1856, Unionungiyar Tradeungiyar Ciniki ta 1871 da Dokar Laifin Laifi da Kariyar Kayan Gida ta 1875 cewa kamfanoni sannan ƙungiyoyin kwadago suka zama halal gaba ɗaya. A cikin Jamus, an kafa irin wannan dokokin danniya ga kungiyoyin kwadago da kungiyoyin dimokiradiyya na gwamnatin Bismarck karkashin Sozialistengesetze ("Ayyukan Socialist") a cikin 1878. Wadannan sun kasance cikin karfi har zuwa 1890. A shekara ta 1933, kwadago da aka sake haramta ta farkisanci mulkin kama karya na Hitler 's National Socialist Party, da kuma da ta kasance kungiya ta kashin da aka nationalized da kuma a hade a cikin wani yunkuri gwamnatin ta sarrafawa Jamus Labor Front . A Yammacin Jamus bayan Yaƙin Duniya na II, ƙungiyoyin ƙwadago masu zaman kansu sun tashi da sauri kuma Grundgesetz na Jamhuriyar ta ba da tabbaci. A Amurka, kotunan jihohi daban-daban sun rarraba kungiyoyin kwadagon, a lokuta daban-daban, a matsayin masu takaita kasuwanci . A karkashin dokar Clayton ta 1914, an ba kungiyoyin kwadago 'yanci gaba daya don tsarawa tare da yin aiki tare don tabbatar da yarjejeniyoyin gama gari, duk da haka an cigaba da fuskantar cikas har zuwa lokacin da Dokar Hulda da Ma'aikata ta Kasa ta 1935 ta kirkiro da cikakkiyar lambar kwadago.

Doka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yarjejeniyar Turai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tsarin mulkin Italiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A Italiya an kafa yancin ƙungiya a cikin Mataki na gama Sha takwas 18 na Tsarin Mulki, wanda ke cewa:

Dokar 'Yancin Afirka ta Kudu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Afrika ta kudu

Dokar 'yancin Kundin Tsarin Mulkin Afirka ta Kudu ta kafa' yancin walwala a Sashe na goma Sha takwas 18, wanda ya ce "Kowa na da 'yancin walwala." Bugu da kari, Sashe na sha bakwai 17 ya ce "Kowane mutum na da hakkin ya zauna lafiya ba tare da makami ba, don ya hallara, ya yi zanga-zanga, ya gabatar da koke-kokensa", don haka ya kafa 'yancin yin taro . 'Yancin ma'aikata na' yancin walwala da haɗin kai dangane da haƙƙin kafa ƙungiyoyin ƙwadago da kuma yarjejeniyar gama gari an yarda da su daban, a cikin Sashe na 23. [3]

Tsarin Mulkin Amurka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tsarin mulkin America da wasu mutane ke tattaunawa

Yayinda Kwaskwarimar Tsarin Mulki ta Tsarin Mulki ta Amurka ta bayyana haƙƙin tattarawa da kai ƙara ga gwamnati, rubutun na da Kwaskwarimar Farko bai faɗi takamaiman haƙƙin haɗi ba. Koyaya, Kotun Koli ta Amurka da aka gudanar a NAACP v. Alabama (1958) cewa 'yancin yin ƙungiya wani muhimmin bangare ne na ' yancin faɗar albarkacin baki saboda, a yawancin lokuta, mutane na iya yin magana mai ma'ana kawai lokacin da suka shiga tare da wasu. Sauran kararrakin Kotun Koli da ke tattare da batun ‘yancin yin tarayya sun hada da:

  • 'Yan uwantaka na Railroad Trainmen v. Virginia , 377 US 1 (1964)
  • Mineungiyar Ma'aikata ta vasa v. Barungiyar Lauyoyi ta Jihar Illinois , 389 US 217 (1967)
  • Healey v. Yakubu , 408 US 169 (1972)
  • NAACP v. Claiborne Hardware Co. , 458 US 898 (1982)
  • Yaron Scouts na Amurka v. Dale , 530 US 640 (2000)
  • Janus v. AFSCME , A'a. 16-1466, 585 US ___ (2018)

Batutuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

M tarayya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Babban jigon 'yanci na mutum shine haƙƙin zaɓi don shiga da kiyaye wasu alaƙar ɗan'adam. Wadannan alaƙar ɗan adam suna ɗauke da nau'ikan "m tarayya." Misalin misali na "kusanci na tarayya" shine dangi. Ya danganta da ikon shi kuma yana iya kaiwa ga zubar da ciki, hana haihuwa da kuma masu zaman kansu, baligi, ba kasuwanci da kuma haɗin jima'i.

Amincewa da ma'amala[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A Amurka, ƙungiyoyi masu bayyana ra'ayi ƙungiyoyi ne waɗanda ke shiga cikin ayyukan da Kwaskwarimar Farko ta kiyaye - magana, taro, latsawa, roƙo ga gwamnati don magance korafe-korafe, da aiwatar da addini kyauta . A cikin Roberts v. Amurka Jaycees, Kotun Koli ta Amurka ta ce ƙungiyoyi ba za su iya ware mutane ba saboda dalilan da ba su da alaƙa da furucin ƙungiyar. Koyaya, a cikin yanke shawara na gaba na Hurley v. 'Yan Luwadi Ba'amurke,' Yan Madigo, da Bisexual Group na Boston, Kotun ta yanke hukuncin cewa wata kungiya na iya ware mutane daga kasancewa membobin su idan kasantuwar su zai shafi karfin kungiyar wajen bayar da shawarwarin wani ra'ayi. Gwamnati ba za ta iya, ta hanyar amfani da dokokin yaki da nuna wariya ba, tilasta kungiyoyi su hada da sakon da ba sa son isarwa.

Dalibai

Koyaya, wannan ra'ayin ba ya aiki yanzu a cikin tsarin Jami'ar saboda hukuncin Kotun Supremeoli a cikin Legungiyar Shari'a ta Kirista v. Martinez (2010), wacce ta goyi bayan manufofin Kwalejin Shari'a ta Hastings cewa yanayin makarantar game da fahimtar ƙungiyoyin ɗalibai ra'ayi ne na tsaka-tsaki da tunani. Wannan dai da nifin wasu Manufofin na buƙatar ƙungiyoyin ɗalibai su ba da izinin "kowane ɗalibi ya shiga, ya zama memba, ko neman matsayin jagoranci, ba tare da la'akari da matsayinsu ko imaninsu ba" don haka, ana iya amfani da shi don ƙin yarda da ƙungiyar a matsayin ƙungiyar ɗalibai ta hukuma saboda ta buƙaci ta mambobi su tabbatar a rubuce cewa "Na yi imani da: Baibul a matsayin hurarriyar maganar Allah; Allahn Ubangijinmu, Yesu Kristi, dan Allah; Mutuwar mutuwar Yesu Kiristi saboda zunubanmu; Tashin jikinsa da dawowar kansa; Kasancewa da ikon Ruhu Mai Tsarki a cikin aikin sabuntawa; da kuma Yesu Almasihu, ɗan Allah, shine Ubangijin rayuwata. " Kotun ta yi tunanin cewa saboda wannan binciken na tsarin mulki yana faruwa ne a mahallin ilimi iƙirarin da suka sa Kotun ta yi amfani da matakin ƙuntatawa na yin magana a cikin iyakantattun tarurruka na jama'a. Don haka, manufofin duk-masu zuwa kwaleji abu ne mai kyau, yanayin tsaka-tsakin ra'ayi game da samun damar tattaunawar kungiyar daliban na fadin duniya.

Ayyadewa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hakkin mallakar Kwaskwarimar Farko na tarayya a cikin Kundin Tsarin Mulki na Amurka an iyakance shi da hukuncin kotuna. Misali, haramun ne a Amurka a yi la’akari da launin fata wajen aiwatarwa da kwangiloli masu zaman kansu banda aure domin ba'a San nuna wariya, Wannan iyakance akan 'yanci na kungiya ya samu sakamako ne daga Sashe na 1981 na Take na 42 na Dokar Amurka, kamar yadda yayi daidai da Kwaskwarimar Farko a shawarar 1976 ta Runyon v. Mallaka .

Gwamnatoci galibi suna buƙatar kwangila na mannewa tare da kamfanoni masu zaman kansu don dalilai na lasisi, kamar su tare da Hukumar Kula da Masana'antu ta Kuɗi don cinikin kasuwar hannayen jari a cikin dokar Maloney ta 1938 da aka yi kwaskwarima ga Dokar Musayar Tsaro ta 1934 . Waɗannan kwangila galibi suna hana haɗuwa tare da mambobin da aka hana, kamar yadda ake gani a Amurka v. Merriam, 108 F.3d 1162.

Kungiyoyin kwadago ta kasance yawan adawa da ƙarfi yayin ƙarni na sha tara 19, tare da ma ƙasashe masu sassaucin ra'ayi kamar su Ingila sun hana ta tsawon lokuta (a batun Burtaniya, tsakanin 1820 da 1824).

A cikin kungiyar kwadago ta kasa da kasa, 'yancin yin tarayya wani hakki ne da aka bayyana a karkashin ka'idojin kwadago na kasa da kasa a matsayin' yancin ma'aikata na tsara da ciniki baki daya . 'Yancin kafa kungiyoyi, a cikin wannan ma'ana, yana gane a matsayin muhimman hakkokin adam dama da dama da takardun ciki har da hakkokin yan-adam da International Labor Organization Yarjejeniyar C87 da Yarjejeniyar C98 - biyu na takwas na asali, core kasa da kasa aiki nagartacce. '' Ofancin ƙungiya 'na iya komawa zuwa hana doka a kan kwangila masu zaman kansu waɗanda aka yi yarjejeniya tsakanin masu ba da aiki mai zaman kansu da ma'aikatansu da ke buƙatar ma'aikata a wani wurin aiki su shiga ƙungiya a matsayin wa'adi da yanayin aiki. Magoya bayan wannan nau'in 'yanci na kungiya na zaman kansu sun yi iƙirarin cewa' yancin shiga ƙungiya ya haɗa da haƙƙin shiga ƙungiyar. A Amurka, kalmar '' yancin yin aiki 'ta fi dacewa ga irin wannan dokar a ko ina.

"Kotun Koli a yau (1-21-1997) ta takaita iyawar masu shirya kungiyar kwadago na zuwa dukiyar wani ma'aikaci don rarraba wallafe-wallafe ko neman ma'aikata su shiga kungiyar kwadagon. A cikin ra’ayi daga 6 zuwa 3 da Mai Shari’a Clarence Thomas ta rubuta, Kotun ta ce Hukumar Kula da Harkokin Kwadago ta Kasa ta kasa ba da cikakkiyar kariya ga ’yancin mallakar ma’aikata a lokacin da ta zartar da dokar shekaru hudu da suka gabata da ke bai wa masu shirya kungiyar kwarin gwiwar samun dama zuwa yankunan kamar filin ajiye motoci na cibiyoyin cin kasuwa ko masana'antu a ko ina. " -New York Times

Ka'idar[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dimokiradiyya da kungiyoyin jama'a[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Jeremy McBride ya bayar da hujjar cewa girmama 'yancin yin tarayya da dukkan hukumomin gwamnati da yin amfani da wannan' yanci ta kowane bangare na al'umma suna da mahimmanci duka don kafa " dimokiradiyya ta gaskiya" da kuma tabbatar da cewa, da zarar an cimma hakan, ya kasance "mai lafiya da bunkasa". Dangane da wannan yana ganin kafa jam’iyyun siyasa a matsayin babbar alama ta ‘yancin walwala da jindaɗin.

'Yancin ƙungiya ba kawai ana aiwatar da su ba ne kawai a ma'anar siyasa ba, har ma don yawancin abubuwan sha'awa - kamar al'adu, shakatawa, wasanni da taimakon jama'a da jin kai. Jeremy McBride ya bayar da hujjar cewa kafa kungiyoyi masu zaman kansu ( kungiyoyi masu zaman kansu ), wadanda ya yi daidai da na kungiyoyin farar hula, shi ne "'ya'yan aikin hadin gwiwa". [1]

'Yan Liberiyanci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

'Yanci masu sassaucin ra'ayi sun yi amannar cewa yayin da' yancin yin ƙungiya ya haɗa da haƙƙin ma'aikata don yin ƙungiya ƙungiya da kuma janye aikinsu hakan kuma ya amince da haƙƙin mai ba da aiki don maye gurbin wannan aikin. Sun kuma yi imanin cewa inda ƙungiyoyin kwadagon ke yin amfani da karfi ko dabaru na tayar da hankali, irin waɗannan halayen za su kasance cikin keta haƙƙin mutum da haƙƙin mallaka. Wasu masu sukar kungiyar kwadagon suna zargin cewa irin wannan keta haddin lamarin ya saba faruwa da ayyukan kungiyar kwadago.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • 'Yancin jama'a
  • Associationungiyar kyauta (Markisanci da rashin tsari)
  • Aikin Jiha na Kyauta
  • Gurguzu mai ra'ayin gurguzu
  • Hakkin yin aiki
  • Dogaro da kai
  • Mai ba da rahoto na Musamman na Majalisar oninkin Duniya kan 'yancin walwala da haɗuwa cikin lumana
  • Ba da son rai

Bayanan kula[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 

  1. 1.0 1.1 Jeremy McBride, Freedom of Association, The Essentials of Human Rights, Hodder Arnold, London, 2005, p. 18
  2. Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 20, 2
  3. Constitution of South Africa Chapter 2: Bill of Rights