Abu Nuwas

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Rayuwa
Haihuwa Ahvaz, 756
ƙasa Daular Abbasiyyah
Mutuwa Bagdaza, 814 (Gregorian)
Karatu
Harsuna Larabci
Sana'a
Sana'a maiwaƙe, lyricist (en) Fassara da marubuci
Artistic movement waƙa
Imani
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Abu Nuwas al-Hasan ibn Hāni al-Hakami (variant: Al-Ḥasan ibn Hāni 'Abd al-Awal al-Sabāḥ, Abū 'Ali ( الحسن بن هانئ بن عبد الأول بن الصباح ،ِابو علي ), wanda aka fi sani da Abu Nuwas al-Salamī ( أبو نواس السلمي ) [1] ko kuma kawai Abu Nuwas [2] ( أبو نواس Abu Novās ); c. 756 – c. 814) mawaƙin Larabci ne na gargajiya, kuma babban wakilin waƙar zamani (muhdath) wanda ya haɓaka a shekarun farko na Khalifancin Abbasid . [3] Ya kuma shigar da folkloric hadisin, bayyana sau da yawa a cikin dubu, kuma Daya Nights .

Rayuwar farko[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An haifi Abu Nuwas a lardin Ahvaz ( Lardin Khuzestan na zamani) na Khalifancin Abbasiyawa, ko dai a birnin Ahvaz ko kuma ɗaya daga cikin gundumomin da ke makwabtaka da shi. Ranar haihuwarsa ba ta da tabbas, an haife shi a tsakanin shekara ta 756 zuwa shekara ta 758. Mahaifinsa shi ne Hani, mutumin Sham ko Farisa wanda ya yi aikin sojan halifa Banu Umayyawa na karshe Marwan II ( r . 744-750 ). Mahaifiyarsa ’yar Farisa ce mai suna Gulban, wadda Hani ta sadu da ita sa’ad da take hidimar ‘yan sandan Ahvaz. Abu Nuwas yana da shekara 10, mahaifinsa ya rasu. [4] [5]

Tun yana ƙarami Abu Nuwas ya bi mahaifiyarsa zuwa birnin Basra a ƙasar Iraqi inda ya halarci makarantar kur'ani kuma ya zama Hafiz tun yana karami. Kyawun kuruciyarsa da kwarjininsa sun ja hankalin mawakin Kufan, Abu Usama Waliba bn al-Hubab al-Asadi, wanda ya kai Abu Nuwas Kufa yana matashi mai koyo. A cikin Abu Nuwas Waliba ya gane basirarsa a matsayin mawaƙi kuma ya ƙarfafa shi ga wannan sana'a, amma kuma yana sha'awar jima'i da saurayin kuma yana iya yin lalata da shi. Dangantakar Abu Nuwas da samarin samari lokacin da ya girma a matsayinsa na namiji kamar ya yi kama da nasa gogewar da Waliba.

Aiki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ismail bin Nubakht ɗaya daga cikin mutanen Nuwas yana cewa kamar haka:

“Ban taba ganin wani mutum da ya fi Abu Nuwas ilimi mai zurfi ba, ko wanda, da abin tunawa da yawa, ya mallaki littattafai kadan. Bayan mutuwarsa, sai muka binciko gidansa, sai kawai muka sami littafin rufewa guda daya mai dauke da wata takarda, a cikinta akwai tarin maganganu da abubuwan lura da nahawu.” [6]

Farkon tarihin waqoqinsa da tarihinsa su ne kamar haka: [7]

  • Yahya ibn al-Faɗl da Yakubu bn al-Sikkit sun tsara waƙarsa ƙarƙashin nau'ikan batutuwa goma, maimakon a jeri na haruffa. Al-Sikkit ya rubuta sharhi mai shafuka 800. [7]
  • Abu Sa'īd al-Sukkari [lower-alpha 1] gyara waƙarsa, inda ya ba da sharhi da bayanan harshe; ya kammala gyara kusan kashi biyu bisa uku na gawar folios dubu daya. [7] [8]
  • Abu Bakr bn Yahya aI-Sūli ya gyara aikinsa, yana tsara kasidu da haruffa, kuma ya gyara wasu sifofi na ƙarya.
  • 'Alī ibn hamzah al-Iṣbahāni shima ya gyara rubuce-rubucensa, yana tsara ayyuka da haruffa. [7]
  • Yusuf bin al-Dāyah [7]
  • Abu Hiffan [lower-alpha 2] [7]
  • Ibn al-Washsha' Abu Tayyib, malamin Baghdad [7]
  • Ibn 'Ammār [lower-alpha 3] ya rubuta sharhi kan aikin Nuwas, gami da kawo misalai na zargin satar bayanai.
  • Al-Munajjim iyali: Abu Mansur; Yahya ibn Abi Mansur; Muḥammad ibn Yahya; 'Ali ibn Yahya; Yahya ibn Ali; Ahmad ibn Yahya; Haruna bn Ali; 'Ali ibn Harun; Ahmad bn Ali; Harun bin Ali bin Harun.
  • Abu al-Hasan al-Sumaysāṭī kuma ya rubuta yabon Nuwas. [7]

Ɗauri da mutuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ya rasu a lokacin yakin basasar Abbasiyawa kafin al-Ma'amun ya ci gaba daga Khurasan a shekara ta 199 ko 200 bayan hijira (814-816 AD). [7] Domin ya yawaita aikata buguwa, Nuwas an daure shi a zamanin mulkin Al-Amin, jim kadan kafin mutuwarsa.

An yi sabani a kan dalilin mutuwarsa: daban-daban guda hudu na rasuwar Abu Nuwas sun tsira. 1. Iyalin Nawbakht ne suka kashe shi da guba, bayan an tsara shi da wata waka mai ban sha'awa. 2. Ya mutu a wani gidan abinci yana sha har ya mutu. 3. Nawbakht ne ya yi masa dukan tsiya, saboda irin satar da aka jingina masa; Giya ya bayyana yana da rawar gani a cikin motsin motsin zuciyar sa na ƙarshe na sa'o'insa na ƙarshe - wannan da alama haɗuwa ce ta asusun ɗaya da biyu. 4. Ya rasu a gidan yari, sigar da ta ci karo da tatsuniyoyi masu yawa da ke nuni da cewa zuwan mutuwarsa ya yi fama da rashin lafiya kuma abokansa suka ziyarce shi (duk da cewa ba a kurkuku ba). Wataƙila ya mutu ne saboda rashin lafiya, kuma wataƙila a gidan dangin Nawbakht, inda tatsuniya ta zo cewa sun kashe shi. An binne Nuwas ne a makabartar Shunizi da ke Bagadaza.

Gado[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tasiri[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Nuwas yana ɗaya daga cikin adadin marubutan da aka yi la'akari da ƙirƙira nau'in adabi na mu'amma (a zahiri "makafi" ko "babu"), ƙacici-ka-cici da ake warwarewa "ta hanyar haɗa haruffan kalmar ko sunan da za a samu" . Ya kuma kammala nau'ikan Larabci guda biyu: Khamriyya (waƙar giya) da kuma Tardiyya (waƙar farauta). Ibn Quzman, wanda yake rubuce-rubuce a cikin Al-Andalus a karni na 12, ya yaba masa sosai kuma an kwatanta shi da shi.

Tunawa da juna[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Birnin Baghdad yana da wurare da dama da aka sanya wa mawakin suna. Titin Abū Nuwas yana tafiya a gefen gabas na Kogin Tigris, a wata unguwa da ta kasance wurin baje kolin birnin. Wurin shakatawa na Abu Nuwas yana kan nisan kilomita 2.5 tsakanin gadar Jumhouriya da wurin shakatawa da ke kan kogi a Karada kusa da gadar 14 ga Yuli .

A cikin 1976, an sanya sunan wani rami a duniyar Mercury don girmama Abu Nuwas. [9]

Kungiyar Abu Nawas, wacce aka kafa a shekarar 2007 a Aljeriya, an sanya mata sunan mawakin. Babban manufar kungiyar ita ce hukunta masu luwadi a Aljeriya, suna neman a soke doka mai lamba 333 da 338 na kundin hukunta laifukan Aljeriya wanda har yanzu ke daukar liwadi a matsayin laifin dauri da kuma tara tara.

Takaddama[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yayin da ayyukansa ke yawo cikin 'yanci har zuwa farkon shekarun ƙarni na ashirin, an buga bugu na farko na ayyukansa da aka tantance a Alkahira a cikin shekara ta 1932. A watan Janairun shekara ta 2001, da Masar ma'aikatar al'adu da umarnin kona wasu 6,000 kofe na littattafai na Nuwas ta homoerotic shayari. [10] [11] A Saudi Global Larabci Encyclopedia shigarwa ga Abu Nuwas, duk ambaci na pederasty aka tsallake.

A cikin shahararrun al'adu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ya bayyana a matsayin mutum a cikin labarai da dama a cikin dare dubu da daya, inda aka jefa shi a matsayin abokin Harun al-Rashid.

Abu Nuwas wanda aka fi sani da almara shine babban jarumin litattafan The Father of Locks (Dedalus Books, 2009) da The Khalifah's Mirror (2012) na Andrew Killeen, wanda a ciki aka nuna shi a matsayin ɗan leƙen asiri mai aiki ga Ja' far al-Barmaki . [12]

A cikin littafin tarihin ƙasar Sudan, Season of Migration to the North (1966) na Tayeb Salih, ɗaya daga cikin jaruman littafin, Mustafa Sa'eed ɗan ƙasar Sudan, ya yi nuni da waƙar soyayyar Abu Nuwas da yawa a matsayin hanyar lalata da wata budurwa Bature a Landan: "Ashe, ba ka ji daɗi da duniya ta farka, da cewa tsohon budurwa ruwan inabi akwai domin shan?" [13]

Mawaƙin Tanzaniya Godfrey Mwampemwa ( Gado ) ya ƙirƙiri littafin ban dariya na Swahili mai suna Abunuwasi wanda aka buga a 1996. Yana dauke da wani dan dabara mai suna Abunuwasi a matsayin jarumin a cikin labarai guda uku ya zabo kwarjini daga tatsuniyar Afirka ta Gabas da kuma almara Abu Nuwasi na dare dubu da daya . [14] [15]

A cikin daren Larabawa na Pasolini, labarin Sium ya dogara ne akan waƙar batsa na Abu Nuwas. Ana amfani da waqoqin asali a duk fage.

Bugawa da fassarori[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Dīwan Abu Nu'ās, khamriyāt Abu Nu'ās, ed. by 'Ali Najīb 'Aṭwi (Beirut 1986).
  • Esat Ayıldız. "Ebû Nuvâs'ın Şarap (Hamriyyat) Şiirleri" . Bozok Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi 18/18 (Aralık 2020): 147-173 .
  • Ya Kabila Mai Son Samari . Hakim Bey (Entimos Press / Abu Nuwas Society, 1993). Tare da rubutun tarihin rayuwa na masana akan Abu Nuwas, an ɗauko mafi yawa daga shigarwar tarihin rayuwar Ewald Wagner a cikin The Encyclopedia of Islam.
  • Cousing tare da Gazelles, Waƙoƙin Homoerotic na Tsohon Baghdad . Kasidu goma sha bakwai na Abu Nuwas wanda Jaafar Abu Tarab ya fassara. (iUniverse, Inc., 2005).
  • Jim Colville. Wakokin Giya da Biki: Khamriyat Abu Nuwas. (Kegan Paul, 2005).
  • The Khamriyyāt of Abū Nuwas: Medieval Bacchic Poetry, trans. na Fuad Matthew Caswell (Kibworth Beauchamp: Matador, 2015). Trans. daga 'Aṭwi 1986.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Ibn-Hallikān 1961.
  2. Garzanti
  3. Esat Ayyıldız. "Ebû Nuvâs’ın Şarap (Hamriyyât) Şiirleri". Bozok Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi 18 / 18 (2020): 147-173.
  4. Wagner 2007.
  5. Fatehi-Nezhad, Azarnoosh & Negahban 2008.
  6. Arbuthnot 1890.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 Ibn al-Nadīm 1970.
  8. Flügel 1862.
  9. Mahoney 2013.
  10. Al-Hayat, 13 January 2001
  11. Middle East Report, 219 Summer 2001
  12. Killeen 2009.
  13. Ṣāliḥ 1991.
  14. Pilcher 2005.
  15. Gado 1998.

Majiyoyi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kara karantawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]


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