Abu Sufyan ibn Harb

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Sakhr ibn Harb ibn Umayya ibn Abd Shams (Larabci: صخر بن حربن أمية بن عبد شمس, romanized: Yinkhr ibn Ḥarb ibn Umayya ibn ʿAbd Shams; c. 565 - c. 653), wanda aka fi sani da kunya Abu Sufyan (Larabci: أبو سفيان, romanzed: Abū Sufyān), babban abokin hamayya ne wanda ya juya abokin annabin musulinci Muhammad. Ya kasance jagora kuma dan kasuwa daga kabilar Quraysh na Makka. A lokacin da yake fara aiki, yakan jagoranci safarar kwastomomi zuwa Siriya. Ya kasance cikin manyan shugabannin adawa na Meccan ga Muhammad, annabin Islama kuma memba na Quraysh, yana ba da umarnin Meccans a yaƙin Uhud da Trench a shekara ta 625 da 627. Koyaya, lokacin da Muhammad ya shiga Makka a cikin 630, Abu Sufyan yana cikin waɗanda suka fara gabatarwa kuma an ba shi gungumen azaba a cikin ƙasar Musulmi, yana taka rawa a Yaƙin Hunayn da kuma lalata rukunin wurare na al-Lat a Ta'if. Bayan mutuwar Muhammad, wataƙila Halifa Abu Bakr ya nada shi gwamnan Najran (r. 632-634) na wani lokacin da ba a bayyana ba. Daga baya Abu Sufyan ya taka rawa wajen tallafawa sojojin musulmai a yakin Yarmouk a kan Rumawa a Siriya. 'Ya'yansa Yazid da daga baya aka ba Mu'awiya mukamai a wannan lardin kuma na biyun ya ci gaba da kafa Umayyad Khalifanci a shekara ta 661.

Rayuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Farkon aiki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sunan Abu Sufyan Sakhr kuma an haife shi a c. 565 ga mahaifin Harb ibn Umayya shugaban kabilar Kuraishawa na Makka, kuma mahaifiyar Safiyya bint Hazn ibn Bujayr. Iyalin na zuriyar Banu Abd Shams ne na Kuraishawa, ɗan'uwan Banu Hashim, wanda annabin Musulunci Muhammad yake cikinsa. Abu Sufyan yana daga cikin jagororin kuraishawa masu adawa da Muhammad a shekarun da suka gabaci Hijira (hijira Muhammad da mabiyansa daga Makka zuwa Madina a shekara ta 622). Shahararren mai kudi kuma dan kasuwa, Abu Sufyan ya tsunduma harkokin kasuwanci a kasar Sham, inda galibi yakan bi ayarin Makka zuwa yankin.[1] Ya mallaki fili a kusa da Damascus.[2][3]

Adawa da Musulunci[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A shekara ta 624, wani ayarin Abu Sufyan yana kan hanyar komawa Makka daga Siriya ya fuskanci hari daga hannun Muhammad, wanda hakan ya sa ya aika neman taimako.[1] A cikin mayar da martani, an tura sojojin Meccan mai ƙarfi 1,000 waɗanda Abu Jahl ya jagoranta.[1] A cikin rikice-rikicen da suka biyo baya, Abu Sufyan, "ta hanyar fasaha da kwazo da jagoranci ya nisanta da musulmai", a cewar masanin tarihin W. Montgomery Watt.[1] Koyaya, a karkashin umarnin Abu Jahl, Meccans sun bi sahun kai tsaye tare da musulmai, wanda hakan ya haifar da ayyukan Alkur’ani a yakin Badr. An kashe Abu Jahl da mahaifin matar Abu Sufyan, Utbah ibn Rabi'ah. An kashe dan Abu Sufyan Hanzala kuma an kama wani ɗa, Amr, amma an sake shi.[1] Bayan haka, an tuhumi Abu Sufyan da rama asarar Meccan, umarnin da ya yi na iya zama gado. Ya yi asara mai yawa ga musulmai a yakin Uhud a shekara ta 625, amma Quraysh ba su gamsu da sakamakon yakin ba.[1] Shekaru biyu bayan haka, ya jagoranci yunƙurin kewaye Madina, amma masu kare musulmin sun sha kaye a yaƙin Tren.[1] Wataƙila motsin sa ya sami rauni daga wannan gazawar, kamar yadda Meccan ya ba da umarni a cikin yaƙin tare da Muhammad ya wuce zuwa ga abokan hamayyarsa na Qurayshi, Safwan ibn Umayya, Ikrima ibn Abi Jahl da Suhayl bn Amr.[1]

Musulunta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ko da yake bai shiga tattaunawar sulhu da aka yi a Hudaibiyya a shekara ta 628 ba, ya yi tattaunawar zaman lafiya da Muhammad a Madina lokacin da ga dukkan alamu abokan Kuraishawa suka karya yarjejeniyar.[1] Ba a fayyace ba game da sakamakon waɗannan tattaunawar, amma Watt ya ɗauka cewa Abu Sufyan da Muhammad sun shiga fahimtar iri iri.[1] A lokacin da Muhammadu ya ci Makkah a shekara ta 630, Abu Sufyan ya taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen mika wuya ga birnin, yana daga cikin shugabannin Kuraishawa na farko da suka mika wuya da kuma ba da kariya ga bangarensa.[1] Ya yi yaki tare da musulmi a yakin Hunain da Banu Thaqif na Ta'if, kishiyoyin gargajiya na Makka, da masu goyon bayan kabilanci daga kungiyar Hawazin.[1] A wannan yakin, wanda ya kare da gagarumin nasarar musulmi, ya rasa idonsa, kuma an ba shi ladan kaso mai yawa na ganima saboda jaruntakarsa.[1] Saboda alakarsa ta kasuwanci da Ta'if a baya, inda shi ma ya mallaki dukiya da dangi, Abu Sufyan ya taka rawa wajen ruguza haramin maguzawa na al-Lat a birnin.[1]

Daga baya rai da mutuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An nada Abu Sufyan a matsayin gwamnan Najran, a Kudancin Arabia, ko dai Muhammad ko kuma wataƙila, ta kalifa ta farko, Abu Bakr (r. 632-634).[1] Tun da farko ya yi adawa da nasarar Muhammadu a matsayin shugaban kasar Musulmi.[1] Abu Sufyan, ganin babu wani fata cewa dan Banu Abd Shams zai iya samun wannan mukami, da nufin ci gaba da shugabanci a hannun danginsa na kusa, Banu Hashim, musamman Ali ibn Abi Talib, dan uwan, suruki kuma farkon mai goyon bayan Muhammad.[4] A cewar masanin tarihin Wilferd Madelung, Abu Sufyan, ta hanyar shugabancin Banu Abd Shams da karimci da ya samu daga Muhammad, ya kasance wajibin ne ta hanyar lambar girmamawa ta baiwa Ali irin wannan tallafi, kamar yadda in ba haka ba "zai kasance abin kunya".[4] Ali, duk da haka, ya ki goyon bayansa, yana mai cewa marigayi Abu Sufyan ya musulunta da kuma yiwuwar koma baya daga al'ummar Musulmi idan ya yarda da goyon baya.[5] Masana tarihi na Yammacin Turai sun yi watsi da wannan lamari a matsayin farfagandar da kafofin al'adun musulmai, wadanda a al'adance suke adawa da Umayyads,[6] reshen Banu Abd Shams wanda Abu Sufyan ya kasance wanda kuma daga karshe ya zama dangin Khalifanci a shekara ta 661 har zuwa 750.

Abu Bakr ya ba da umarnin mamaye musulmin Levant, wanda ya ba Banu Abd Shams gungumen azaba, duk da adawar da suka yi masa a farko, wanda ya nemi a daidaita shi.[2] An nada dan Abu Sufyan Yazid a matsayin wanda zai jagoranci jagorancin jagorancin cin nasarar. Abu Sufyan ya kasance a Yaƙin Yarmouk, wanda ya haifar da nasarar musulmai a kan Rumawa a Siriya. Shekarunsa na tsufa a lokacin ya sanya ba zai yiwu ya shiga cikin yaƙin ba.[1] Dangane da wani asusun da Sayf bn Umar ya ambata, ya lura da yaƙin tare da sheikh larabawa da ba a bayyana ba (shuwagabannin), kuma asusun da al-Tabari ya ambata ya kara lura cewa ya "faɗa" sojojin musulmai.[7] Yaansa Yazid ya riƙe matsayin umarni a cikin yaƙin kuma daga baya ya mutu a cikin annoba a Palestine a cikin 639.[1] Wani daga cikin 'ya'yansa, Mu'awiya, Halifa Umar ibn al-Khattab (r. 634-644). Magajin Umar, Uthman ibn Affan (r. 644-656), dan zuriyar Abu Sufyan daga Umayya ibn Abd Shams kuma an san shi da nuna ƙauna ta musamman ga danginsa. Don haka, ya nuna girmamawa ga Abu Sufyan, tare da al-Hakam ibn Abi al-As da al-Walid ibn Uqba na layin Umayyad na Banu Abd Shams, da al-Abbas bn Abd al-Muttalib na Banu Hashim, ta hanyar kyale su zauna a kan kursiyinsa a Madina.[8] Abu Sufyan ya mutu a shekara ta 653 yana da shekara 88.[1]

Iyali[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Iyalin gidan Sufyani masu mulki na khalifancin Umayyawa. Sufyani kuwa zuriyar Abu Sufyan ne

Mata da yara[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Ṣāfiya bint Abi al-As.
    1. Ramla (Ummu Habiba). Da farko ta auri Ubayd-Allah bn Jahsh, wanda ta haifa masa diya daya, wato Habiba bint Ubayd Allah. Bayan rasuwar Ubayd Allah, ta auri Muhammad.
    2. Ummama. Da farko ta auri Huwaytib bn Abdil-Uzza, wanda ta haifa masa ɗa guda daya mai suna Abu Sufyan.[9]:169
  2. Zainab bint Nawfal of the Kinana.[10]
    1. Yazīd.
  3. Hind bint Utba.
    1. Hanzala (wanda aka kashe a yakin Badar). Hind tana nufin Hanzala a matsayin "ɗan fari".[11]:313,337,385
    2. Mu'awiya I.
    3. Utba An ce an haife shi “a zamanin Annabi” wato bayan shekara ta 610.[12] Yana da ɗa mai suna al-Walid.
    4. Juwayriya. Mijinta na farko shi ne al-Sayib ibn Abi Hubaysh. Mijinta na biyu shi ne Abd al-Rahman bn al-Harith.[9]:169
    5. Ummu Haka. Ta auri Abd Allah bn Uthman Al-Thaqafi, wanda ta haifa masa ɗa guda, Abdurrahman.[9][13]
  4. Safiya bint Abi Amr ibn Umayya.
    1. Amr (wanda aka kama shi a yakin Badar sannan aka sake shi).[11]:313
    2. Hind Ta auri al-Harith bn Nawfal, wanda ta haifi ‘ya’ya shida: Abd Allah, Muhammad al-Akbar, Rabi’a, Abdurrahman, Ramla da Umm al-Zubayr.[9]:169
    3. Sakhra. Ta auri Sayyid bn al-Akhnas kuma ance ta haihu da shi.[9]:169
  5. Lubaba bint Abi al-As.
    1. Maymuna (Amina). Ta auri Urwa bn Mas’ud al-Thaqafi, ta haifa masa da da a kalla Dawud.[11]:589 Mijinta na biyu shi ne al-Mughira bn Shu'ba.[9]:169
  6. Atiqa bint Abi Udhayhir[11]:189 na kabilar Daws.[14]:220
    1. Anbasa.[14]

Sauran yara: Ḥārith,[15] Al-Faraa,[11] Azzah.[16]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 Watt 1960, p. 151.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Madelung 1997, p. 45.
  3. Donner 1981, p. 96.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Madelung 1997, p. 40.
  5. Madelung 1997, pp. 40–41.
  6. Madelung 1997, p. 41.
  7. Donner 1981, p. 362.
  8. Madelung 1997, p. 109.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 Muhammad ibn Saad, Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir vol. 8. Translated by Bewley, A. (1995). The Women of Madina. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.
  10. Ibn Hajar. Al-Isaba vol. 6 p. 658 #9271.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 Muhammad ibn Ishaq. Sirat Rasul Allah. Translated by Guillaume, A. (1955). The Life of Muhammad. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  12. Ibn Hajar. Al-Isaba vol. 5 p. 60 #6248.
  13. "Hadith - Book of Divorce - Sahih al-Bukhari - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com. Retrieved 2020-11-25.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari. Tarikh al-Rusul wa'l-Muluk. Translated by Morony, M. G. (1987). Volume 18: Between Civil Wars: The Caliphate of Mu'awiyah. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Littafi Mai Tsarki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]