Albert Einstein

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Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein Head.jpg
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Haihuwa Ulm Translate, 14 ga Maris, 1879
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Yan'uwa
Mahaifi Hermann Einstein
Mahaifiya Pauline Koch
Abokiyar zama Mileva Marić Translate  (16 ga Janairu, 1903 -  14 ga Faburairu, 1919)
Elsa Einstein Translate  (1919 -  20 Disamba 1936)
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Makaranta University of Zurich Translate 30 ga Afirilu, 1905) doctorate Translate : physics Translate
Luitpold-Gymnasium Translate
(1888 - 1894)
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(1895 - Satumba 1896) Matura Translate
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(1896 - 1900) Bachelor of Science Translate : mathematics education Translate
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Sana'a theoretical physicist Translate, philosopher of science Translate, inventor Translate, science writer Translate, pedagogue Translate, university teacher Translate, physicist Translate, marubucin labaran da ba almara, philosopher Translate, marubuci, malami, scientist Translate, mathematician Translate da patent examiner Translate
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Bern Translate
Institute for Advanced Study Translate
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Swiss Federal Institute of Intellectual Property Translate  (16 ga Yuni, 1902 -  1909)
University of Bern Translate  (1908 -  1909)
University of Zurich Translate  (1909 -  1911)
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Muhimman ayyuka special relativity Translate
general relativity Translate
photoelectric effect Translate
theory of relativity Translate
theory of Brownian Motion Translate
mass–energy equivalence Translate
Planck constant Translate
Einstein field equations Translate
quantum mechanics Translate
unified field theory Translate
Kyautuka
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Influenced by Fyodor Dostoyevsky Translate, Hermann Minkowski Translate, Baruch Spinoza Translate, Mahatma Gandhi, Arthur Schopenhauer Translate, Hendrik Lorentz Translate, George Bernard Shaw Translate, Isaac Newton, Riazuddin Translate, David Hume Translate, Thomas Young Translate, Bernhard Riemann Translate, Moritz Schlick Translate, James Clerk Maxwell Translate, Paul Valéry Translate, Karl Pearson Translate, Henry George Translate da Ernst Mach Translate
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einstein.biz/
Albert Einstein signature 1934.svg

Albert Einstein An haife shi a 14 March 1879; yarasu a April 1955) haifaffen kasar Jamus ne theoretical physicist[1] wanda ya Samar da theory of relativity, daya daga cikin ginshikan ilimin physics ayanzu (tareda quantum mechanics).[2][3] Ayyukan sa sun shahara ne akan philosophy din kimiyya.[4][5] Mutane sun sansa akan mass–energy equivalence formula, which has been dubbed "the world's most famous equation".[6] Ya lashe kyautar 1921 ta Nobel Prize a Physics "Dan ayyukan sa akan theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect",[7] a pivotal step in the development of quantum theory.

A Farkon fara aikinsa, Einstein yayi tunanin Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. Wannan ne yakaisa ga Samar da special theory of relativity kansa a lokacin yana Swiss Patent Office a garin Bern (1902–1909), Switzerland. However, he realized that the principle of relativity could also be extended to gravitational fields, and he published a paper on general relativity a 1916 with his theory of gravitation. yacigaba da kokarin warware matsalar statistical mechanics and quantum theory, hakan yakaisa ga yin bayani akan particle theory da kuma motion of molecules. Ya kuma yi bincike akan thermal properties of light wanda yazama itace Farkon photon theory of light. A 1917, he applied the general theory of relativity to model the structure of the universe.[8][9]

Einstein yayi rayuwa a kasar Switzerland daga tsakanin shekara ta 1895 zuwa 1914, baccin shekara daya dayayi a Prague, daga nan ne yayarda yabar amfani da matsayin sa Dan kasar Jamus a 1896, sannan ya karbi sakamakon sa na diploma daga Swiss federal polytechnic school (daga bayan nan Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, ETH) dake Zürich a 1900. Bayan zamansa Mara kasa na tsawon shekara biyar (5) yazama dan kasar Switzerland a 1901, wanda yacigaba da rikewa har karshen rayuwarsa. A shekara ta 1905, yasamu sakamako na PhD daga jami'ar Zurich. A wannan shekara ya wallafa four groundbreaking papers a lokacin dinshi annus mirabilis (miracle year) wanda yakaisa zuwa ga sanayyar makarantu a shekararsa 26. Einstein yakarantar da theoretical physics a Zurich tsakanin 1912 zuwa 1914 kafin yabar Berlin, inda aka zabesa Prussian Academy of Sciences. A 1933, sanda Einstein yake ziyara a United States, Adolf Hitler yakai karagar mulki. Saboda alakarsa da Jewish, Einstein bai koma kasar Jamus ba.[10] Yasamu matsaguni a kasar United States daga nan yazama Dan kasa a shekarar 1940.[11] a jajibirin Yakin duniya II, Ya aika da letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt inda yake labarta masa cewar akwai yuwuwar samarda "wasu sabbin bamabamai da ba'a taba irinsu ba" kuma yaga Amurika sunfara binciken kirkiransu. Wannan yasa aka fara Aikin Manhattan. Einstein yataimaki Allies, amma bai goyi bayan amfani da makaman karedangi ba. Yasa hannu a Russell–Einstein Manifesto philosopher Biritaniya wato Bertrand Russell, whanda ya bayyana illolin makaman karedangin. Yayi hadin gwiwa da Institute for Advanced Study dake Princeton, New Jersey, har zuwa lokacin dayarasu a shekarar 1955.

Einstein yayi wallafe wallafe akan kimiyya fiye da waraka 300 da wasu guda 150 wadanda basu shafi kimiyya..[8][12] nasarorinsa akan ilimi da asalinsa yasa anama sunansa "Einstein" kamar sunan "genius".[13] Eugene Wigner Yayi rubutu game da Einstein dayake dangantashi da ire-irensa, "fahimtar Einstein ya zarfi har fahimtar Jancsi von Neumann, tunaninsa yafi ratsawa da asali akan na von Neumann. Kuma wannan jawabi da baza'a taba mancewa ba."[14]

Anazarci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. cite web |url=http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1921/einstein-bio.html |title=Albert Einstein – Biography |accessdate=7 March 2007 |publisher=Nobel Foundation| archiveurl= https://web.archive.org/web/20070306133522/http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1921/einstein-bio.html%7C archivedate= 6 March 2007 | deadurl= no
  2. cite journal | last1 = Whittaker | first1 = E. | authorlink = E. T. Whittaker| doi = 10.1098/rsbm.1955.0005 | title = Albert Einstein. 1879–1955 | journal = Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society | volume = 1 | pages = 37–67 | date = 1 November 1955| jstor = 769242| doi-access = free
  3. cite book|author1=Fujia Yang|author2=Joseph H. Hamilton|title=Modern Atomic and Nuclear Physics|date=2010|publisher=World Scientific|isbn=978-981-4277-16-7
  4. Cite journal |title=Einstein's Philosophy of Science |url=http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/einstein-philscience/#IntWasEinEpiOpp |website=Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy |publisher=The Metaphysics Research Lab, Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI), Stanford University |editor-first=Don A. | editor-last=Howard |date=2014 |orig-year=First published 11 February 2004 |accessdate=2015-02-04
  5. Cite journal |first=Don A. | last=Howard |title=Albert Einstein as a Philosopher of Science |url=http://www3.nd.edu/~dhoward1/vol58no12p34_40.pdf |format=PDF |date=December 2005 |journal=Physics Today |volume=58 |issue=12 |pages=34–40 |via=University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, author's personal webpage |accessdate=2015-03-08|bibcode=2005PhT....58l..34H |doi=10.1063/1.2169442
  6. cite book |first=David | last=Bodanis |title=E = mc2: A Biography of the World's Most Famous Equation |location=New York |publisher=Walker |date=2000
  7. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Nobel Prize
  8. 8.0 8.1 cite web |url=https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/2011/advanced-physicsprize2011.pdf |title=Scientific Background on the Nobel Prize in Physics 2011. The accelerating universe |publisher=Nobel Media AB |page=2 |format=PDF |accessdate=2015-01-04
  9. cite news |last=Overbye |first=Dennis |authorlink=Dennis Overbye |title=A Century Ago, Einstein's Theory of Relativity Changed Everything |url=https://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/24/science/a-century-ago-einsteins-theory-of-relativity-changed-everything.html |date=24 November 2015 |work=The New York Times |accessdate=24 November 2015
  10. cite journal |date=9 June 2017 |first=Thomas |last=Levenson |journal=The Atlantic |title=The Scientist and the Fascist |url=https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2017/06/einstein-germany-and-the-bomb/528534/
  11. cite book|author1=Paul S. Boyer|author2=Melvyn Dubofsky|title=The Oxford Companion to United States History|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=SgtyKzBes6QC&pg=PA218%7Cdate=2001%7Cpublisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-508209-8|page=218}}
  12. cite book |editor=Paul Arthur Schilpp |date=1951 |title=Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist |volume=II |publisher=Harper and Brothers Publishers (Harper Torchbook edition) |location=New York |pages=730–746. His non-scientific works include: About Zionism: Speeches and Lectures by Professor Albert Einstein (1930), "Why War?" (1933, co-authored by Sigmund Freud), The World As I See It (1934), Out of My Later Years (1950), and a book on science for the general reader, The Evolution of Physics (1938, co-authored by Leopold Infeld).
  13. Cite web |url=http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=Einstein |title=Result of WordNet Search for Einstein |version=3.1 |publisher=The Trustees of Princeton University |accessdate=2015-01-04
  14. The Recollections of Eugene P. Wigner, By Eugene Paul Wigner, Andrew Szanton, (Springer, 11 Nov 2013), page 170