Albert Einstein

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Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein Head.jpg
ɗan Adam
jinsinamiji Gyara
sunan asaliAlbert Einstein Gyara
sunaAlbert Gyara
sunan dangiEinstein Gyara
lokacin haihuwa14 ga Maris, 1879 Gyara
wurin haihuwaUlm Gyara
lokacin mutuwa18 ga Afirilu, 1955 Gyara
wurin mutuwaPrinceton Gyara
dalilin mutuwaabdominal aortic aneurysm Gyara
wajen rufewaNational Museum of Health and Medicine Gyara
ubaHermann Einstein Gyara
uwaPauline Koch Gyara
siblingMaja Einstein Gyara
mata/mijiElsa Einstein, Mileva Marić Gyara
yarinya/yaroHans Albert Einstein, Eduard Einstein, Lieserl Einstein Gyara
yaren haihuwaGerman Gyara
harsunaTuranci, German Gyara
place of origin (Switzerland)Zürich Gyara
field of worktheoretical physics Gyara
present in workMarie Curie: The Courage of Knowledge Gyara
makarantaETH Zurich, Luitpold-Gymnasium, Alte Kantonsschule Aarau, University of Zurich Gyara
professorshipFarfesa, academician Gyara
academic degreeDoctor of Philosophy in Physics Gyara
doctoral advisorAlfred Kleiner, Heinrich Burkhardt, Heinrich Friedrich Weber Gyara
dalibiErnst G. Straus Gyara
student ofHeinrich Friedrich Weber Gyara
residenceEinsteinhaus Caputh, Einsteinhaus, Jamus, München, Princeton Gyara
jam'iyyaGerman Democratic Party Gyara
ƙabilaJewish people, Ashkenazi Jews, Germans Gyara
addiniagnosticism, Judaism Gyara
participant ofManhattan Project Gyara
archives atSwiss Literary Archives, Albert Einstein Archives, ETH Zurich University Archives Gyara
official websitehttp://einstein.biz/ Gyara
Regensburg ClassificationBF 5620 Gyara
described at URLhttp://www.einsteinsommerhaus.de/index.php?id=539&no_cache=1, https://www.ige.ch/de/ueber-uns/einstein.html Gyara
test takenintelligence test Gyara
WordLift IDhttp://data.thenextweb.com/tnw/entity/albert_einstein Gyara

Albert Einstein An haife shi a 14 March 1879; yarasu a April 1955) haifaffen kasar Jamus ne theoretical physicist[1] wanda ya Samar da theory of relativity, daya daga cikin ginshikan ilimin physics ayanzu (tareda quantum mechanics).[2][3] Ayyukan sa sun shahara ne akan philosophy din kimiyya.[4][5] Mutane sun sansa akan mass–energy equivalence formula, which has been dubbed "the world's most famous equation".[6] Ya lashe kyautar 1921 ta Nobel Prize a Physics "Dan ayyukan sa akan theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect",[7] a pivotal step in the development of quantum theory.

A Farkon fara aikinsa, Einstein yayi tunanin Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. Wannan ne yakaisa ga Samar da special theory of relativity kansa a lokacin yana Swiss Patent Office a garin Bern (1902–1909), Switzerland. However, he realized that the principle of relativity could also be extended to gravitational fields, and he published a paper on general relativity a 1916 with his theory of gravitation. yacigaba da kokarin warware matsalar statistical mechanics and quantum theory, hakan yakaisa ga yin bayani akan particle theory da kuma motion of molecules. Ya kuma yi bincike akan thermal properties of light wanda yazama itace Farkon photon theory of light. A 1917, he applied the general theory of relativity to model the structure of the universe.[8][9]

Einstein yayi rayuwa a kasar Switzerland daga tsakanin shekara ta 1895 zuwa 1914, baccin shekara daya dayayi a Prague, daga nan ne yayarda yabar amfani da matsayin sa Dan kasar Jamus a 1896, sannan ya karbi sakamakon sa na diploma daga Swiss federal polytechnic school (daga bayan nan Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, ETH) dake Zürich a 1900. Bayan zamansa Mara kasa na tsawon shekara biyar (5) yazama dan kasar Switzerland a 1901, wanda yacigaba da rikewa har karshen rayuwarsa. A shekara ta 1905, yasamu sakamako na PhD daga jami'ar Zurich. A wannan shekara ya wallafa four groundbreaking papers a lokacin dinshi annus mirabilis (miracle year) wanda yakaisa zuwa ga sanayyar makarantu a shekararsa 26. Einstein yakarantar da theoretical physics a Zurich tsakanin 1912 zuwa 1914 kafin yabar Berlin, inda aka zabesa Prussian Academy of Sciences. A 1933, sanda Einstein yake ziyara a United States, Adolf Hitler yakai karagar mulki. Saboda alakarsa da Jewish, Einstein bai koma kasar Jamus ba.[10] Yasamu matsaguni a kasar United States daga nan yazama Dan kasa a shekarar 1940.[11] a jajibirin Yakin duniya II, Ya aika da letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt inda yake labarta masa cewar akwai yuwuwar samarda "wasu sabbin bamabamai da ba'a taba irinsu ba" kuma yaga Amurika sunfara binciken kirkiransu. Wannan yasa aka fara Aikin Manhattan. Einstein yataimaki Allies, amma bai goyi bayan amfani da makaman karedangi ba. Yasa hannu a Russell–Einstein Manifesto philosopher Biritaniya wato Bertrand Russell, whanda ya bayyana illolin makaman karedangin. Yayi hadin gwiwa da Institute for Advanced Study dake Princeton, New Jersey, har zuwa lokacin dayarasu a shekarar 1955.

Einstein yayi wallafe wallafe akan kimiyya fiye da waraka 300 da wasu guda 150 wadanda basu shafi kimiyya..[8][12] nasarorinsa akan ilimi da asalinsa yasa anama sunansa "Einstein" kamar sunan "genius".[13] Eugene Wigner Yayi rubutu game da Einstein dayake dangantashi da ire-irensa, "fahimtar Einstein ya zarfi har fahimtar Jancsi von Neumann, tunaninsa yafi ratsawa da asali akan na von Neumann. Kuma wannan jawabi da baza'a taba mancewa ba."[14]

Anazarci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. cite web |url=http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1921/einstein-bio.html |title=Albert Einstein – Biography |accessdate=7 March 2007 |publisher=Nobel Foundation| archiveurl= https://web.archive.org/web/20070306133522/http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1921/einstein-bio.html%7C archivedate= 6 March 2007 | deadurl= no
  2. cite journal | last1 = Whittaker | first1 = E. | authorlink = E. T. Whittaker| doi = 10.1098/rsbm.1955.0005 | title = Albert Einstein. 1879–1955 | journal = Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society | volume = 1 | pages = 37–67 | date = 1 November 1955| jstor = 769242| doi-access = free
  3. cite book|author1=Fujia Yang|author2=Joseph H. Hamilton|title=Modern Atomic and Nuclear Physics|date=2010|publisher=World Scientific|isbn=978-981-4277-16-7
  4. Cite journal |title=Einstein's Philosophy of Science |url=http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/einstein-philscience/#IntWasEinEpiOpp |website=Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy |publisher=The Metaphysics Research Lab, Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI), Stanford University |editor-first=Don A. | editor-last=Howard |date=2014 |orig-year=First published 11 February 2004 |accessdate=2015-02-04
  5. Cite journal |first=Don A. | last=Howard |title=Albert Einstein as a Philosopher of Science |url=http://www3.nd.edu/~dhoward1/vol58no12p34_40.pdf |format=PDF |date=December 2005 |journal=Physics Today |volume=58 |issue=12 |pages=34–40 |via=University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, author's personal webpage |accessdate=2015-03-08|bibcode=2005PhT....58l..34H |doi=10.1063/1.2169442
  6. cite book |first=David | last=Bodanis |title=E = mc2: A Biography of the World's Most Famous Equation |location=New York |publisher=Walker |date=2000
  7. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Nobel Prize
  8. 8.0 8.1 cite web |url=https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/2011/advanced-physicsprize2011.pdf |title=Scientific Background on the Nobel Prize in Physics 2011. The accelerating universe |publisher=Nobel Media AB |page=2 |format=PDF |accessdate=2015-01-04
  9. cite news |last=Overbye |first=Dennis |authorlink=Dennis Overbye |title=A Century Ago, Einstein's Theory of Relativity Changed Everything |url=https://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/24/science/a-century-ago-einsteins-theory-of-relativity-changed-everything.html |date=24 November 2015 |work=The New York Times |accessdate=24 November 2015
  10. cite journal |date=9 June 2017 |first=Thomas |last=Levenson |journal=The Atlantic |title=The Scientist and the Fascist |url=https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2017/06/einstein-germany-and-the-bomb/528534/
  11. cite book|author1=Paul S. Boyer|author2=Melvyn Dubofsky|title=The Oxford Companion to United States History|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=SgtyKzBes6QC&pg=PA218%7Cdate=2001%7Cpublisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-508209-8|page=218}}
  12. cite book |editor=Paul Arthur Schilpp |date=1951 |title=Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist |volume=II |publisher=Harper and Brothers Publishers (Harper Torchbook edition) |location=New York |pages=730–746. His non-scientific works include: About Zionism: Speeches and Lectures by Professor Albert Einstein (1930), "Why War?" (1933, co-authored by Sigmund Freud), The World As I See It (1934), Out of My Later Years (1950), and a book on science for the general reader, The Evolution of Physics (1938, co-authored by Leopold Infeld).
  13. Cite web |url=http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=Einstein |title=Result of WordNet Search for Einstein |version=3.1 |publisher=The Trustees of Princeton University |accessdate=2015-01-04
  14. The Recollections of Eugene P. Wigner, By Eugene Paul Wigner, Andrew Szanton, (Springer, 11 Nov 2013), page 170