Gimbiya Alice na Battenberg

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Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Gimbiya Alice na Battenberg
1885 Alice.jpg
Rayuwa
Cikakken suna Victoria Alice Elizabeth Julia Marie of Battenberg
Haihuwa Windsor Castle (en) Fassara, ga Faburairu, 25, 1885
ƙasa Birtaniya
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (en) Fassara
Mazaunin Darmstadt (en) Fassara
Landan
Jugenheim (en) Fassara
Malta
Corfu (en) Fassara
Athens
Buckingham Palace (en) Fassara
Mutuwa Buckingham Palace (en) Fassara, Disamba 5, 1969
Makwanci Church of Maria Magdalene (en) Fassara
St George's Chapel (en) Fassara
Yan'uwa
Mahaifi Prince Louis of Battenberg
Mahaifiya Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine
Yara
Siblings
Ƙabila Battenberg family (en) Fassara
Karatu
Harsuna German (en) Fassara
Turanci
Faransanci
Greek (en) Fassara
Sana'a
Sana'a nurse (en) Fassara, nun (en) Fassara, charity worker (en) Fassara da aristocrat (en) Fassara
Imani
Addini Anglicanism (en) Fassara
Greek Orthodox Church (en) Fassara
Signature of Princess Alice of Battenberg, later Princess Andrew of Greece and Denmark.jpg

Gimbiya Alice na Battenberg (haihuwa Victoria Alice Elizabeth Julia Marie; 25 ga Fabrairu 1885 - 5 Disamba 1969) ita ce mahaifiyar Yarima Philip da surukarta wacce ake kira da Sarauniya Elizabeth II . Ita ce tattaba kunnen Sarauniya Victoria, an haife ta ne a cikin Windsor Castle kuma ta girma a Burtaniya wato kasar ingila dake turai, da daular Jamusawa, da Rum . A Hessian gimbiya da haihuwa, ta kasance memba na Battenberg iyali, a morganatic reshe na House of Hesse-Darmstadt . Ta kasance mai kururuwa kurkusa ne . Bayan ta auri Yarima Andrew na Girka da Denmark a shekara ta 1903, ta ɗauki salon mijinta, ta zama Gimbiya Andrew na Girka da Denmark . Ta rayu a Girka har zuwa lokacin hijira yawancin akasarin dangin Girka a shekarar 1917. Bayan dawowar ta Girka 'yan shekaru bayan haka, an zargi mijinta a wani bangare saboda kayen da kasar ta yi a yakin Greco-Turkish (1919 - 1922), kuma an sake tilasta dangi zuwa gudun hijira har zuwa lokacin da aka maido da masarautar Girka a 1935 . A shekarar 1930, aka gano ta da cutar schizophrenia kuma ta himmatu ga wani dakin kula da lafiya a Switzerland . bayan haka, ta rayu daban da mijinta. Bayan murmurewar ta, ta sadaukar da yawancin shekarun da ta rage a aikin ba da gudummawa a Girka. Ta zauna a Athens a lokacin Yaƙin Duniya na biyu, tana ba da mafaka ga Yahudawa 'yan gudun hijirar, wanda a ciki aka ɗauke ta a matsayin " Adalci Tsakanin Al'umma " ta wurin taron tunawa da Isra'ila na Holocaust, Yad Vashem . Bayan da yaki, ta zauna a Girka da kuma kafa wani Greek Orthodox reno domin na nuns da aka sani da Kirista Sisterhood da Martha da Maryamu. Bayan faduwar Sarki Constantine na II na Girka da kuma sanya dokar soja a Girka a shekarar 1967, danta da surukarta sun gayyace ta da zama a Fadar Buckingham a Landan, inda ta mutu bayan shekaru biyu. A shekara ta 1988, an canza gawar ta daga wani wuri a inda aka haife ta, Windsor Castle, zuwa Cocin Maryamu Magdalene a wurin taron Masarauta na Orthodox na Rasha na wannan sunan a Dutsen Zaitun a Urushalima .

Gimbia Alice na Battenberg.

Farkon Rayuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Alice an haife ta ne a dakin Tapestry a Windsor Castle a Berkshire a gaban kakarta, Sarauniya Victoria. [1] Ita ce ɗan fari na Yarima Louis na Battenberg da matar sa Princess Victoria na Hesse da Rhine . Mahaifiyarta ita ce babbar 'yar Louis IV, Grand Duke na Hesse da Princess Alice na Burtaniya ,' yar sarauniya ta biyu. Mahaifinta shi ne babban ɗan Yarima Alexander na Hesse kuma ta Rhine ta hanyar aurenta ga Countess Julia Hauke, wacce aka kirkiro a Princess of Battenberg a 1858 Louis III, Grand Duke na Hesse . Heran uwanta uku, Louise, George, da Louis, daga baya sun zama Sarauniyar Sweden, Marquess na Milford Haven, da Earl Mountbatten na Burma bi da bi.An yi wa kirista Victoria Alice Elizabeth Julia Marie a Darmstadt ranar 25 ga Afrilu 1885. Tana da wasu iyayen Allah guda shida: kakansu uku da suka rage, Grand Duke Louis na Hesse, Prince Alexander na Hesse da Rhine, da Julia, Princess of Battenberg; kakanta Grand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna na Russia da gimbiya Marie na Erbach-Schönberg ; da kakarta Sarauniya Victoria. [2] Alice ta yi amfani da ƙuruciyarta a tsakanin Darmstadt, London, Jugenheim, da Malta (inda mahaifinsu jami'in sojan ruwan yake a wasu lokutan). [3] Mahaifiyarta ta lura cewa tayi jinkirin koyan magana, kuma ta damu da yadda ake furta kalamanta marasa tushe. A ƙarshe, an gano ta da kurma bayan haihuwarta bayan kakarta, Princess Battenberg, ta gano matsalar kuma ta kai ta ga ƙwararren likitan kunne. Tare da ƙarfafawa daga mahaifiyarta, Alice ta koya wa karatu biyu da leɓe ta harshen Ingilishi da Jamusanci. [4] Koyon karatu ne mai zaman kansa, ta yi karatun Faransanci, [5] kuma daga baya, bayan takaddamarta, ta koyi Hellenanci . [6] Shekarunta na farko sun kasance tare da dangin danginsa, kuma ita amarya ce a bikin auren Duke na York (daga baya King George V ) da Maryamu ta Teck a 1893. [7] Bayan 'yan makonni kafin ranar haihuwar ta na sha shida ta halarci jana'izar Sarauniya Victoria a cikin St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, kuma jim kaɗan bayan haka an tabbatar da shi cikin bangaskiyar Anglican . [8]

Aure[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Alice tare da 'ya'yanta biyu na farko, Margarita da Theodora, c. 1910

Gimbiya Alice ta sadu da Yarima Andrew na Girka da Denmark (wanda aka sani da suna Andrea a cikin dangi), ɗan na huɗu na sarki George I na Girka da Olga Constantinovna na Rasha, yayin da suke Landan don Sarki King na Edward VII na 1902. [9] Sun yi aure a cikin bikin jama'a a 6 Oktoba 1903 a Darmstadt. Kashegari, an yi bukukuwan aure biyu na addini; daya Lutheran a Ikilisiyar Ikklisiya, da kuma Orthodox Orthodox a cikin dakin ibada na Rasha a kan Mathildenhöhe . [10] Ta ɗauki salon mijinta, ta zama "Princess Andrew". [11] Amarya da ango sun kasance suna da alaƙa da gidan sarauta na Burtaniya, Jamus, Russia, Denmark, da Girka, kuma bikin auren nasu ya kasance ɗayan manyan tarurrukan zuriyar Sarauniya Victoria da Christian IX na Denmark da aka gudanar kafin Yakin Duniya na ɗaya . [12] Yarima da Gimbiya Andrew na da 'ya'ya biyar, dukkansu kuma daga baya sunada' yayansu. Bayan bikin aurensu, Yarima Andrew ya ci gaba da aiki a aikin soja kuma Princess Andrew ya shiga cikin ayyukan agaji. A shekara ta 1908, ta ziyarci Rasha don bikin Grand Duchess Marie na Rasha da Yarima William na Sweden . Yayin da take can, ta yi magana da kakanta, Grand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna, wacce ke tsara tsare-tsaren don kafuwar tsarin kula da ilimin addini. Gimbiya Andrew ta halarci jigon harsashin ginin sabuwar cocin. Daga baya a shekara, Grand Duchess ya fara ba da duk mallakarta a shirye don ƙarin rayuwa ta ruhaniya. [13] Bayan dawowar su Girka, Yarima da Gimbiya Andrew sun ga halin da ake ciki na siyasa yana taɓarɓarewa, saboda gwamnatin Athens ta ƙi goyi bayan majalisar dokokin Cretan, wacce ta yi kira ga ƙungiyar Crete (wacce har yanzu tana cikin mulkin Ottoman ) tare da yankin Girka. Wata rukunin jami’an da basu gamsu da ita ba sun kirkiro wata kungiyar soja mai kishin kasa ta Girka wacce a karshe ta kai ga murabus din Yarima Andrew daga aikin soja da kuma karuwar ikon Eleftherios Venizelos . [14]

Rikicin Rayuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sakamakon tashin Balkan Wars, an sake dawo da Yarima Andrew a cikin sojoji, kuma Gimbiya Andrew ta zama mai jinya, tana taimakawa a ayyukan da kuma kafa asibitoci a filin, aikin da Sarki George V ya ba ta na Royal Red Cross a 1913. [15] A lokacin yakin duniya na daya, surukinta Sarki Constantine I na Girka sun bi ka'idodin tsaka tsaki duk da cewa dimokaradiyya da aka zaba ta Venizelos tana goyon bayan Allies . Gimbiya Andrew da 'ya'yanta an tilasta musu yin mafaka a cikin harabar fada a lokacinda aka yi kisan Faransawa a Athens ranar 1 ga Disamba 1916. [16] Ya zuwa watan Yuni 1917, kawancewar Sarki ta shiga tsakani ya zama abin da har ya sa ba a tilasta ta ita da sauran membobin gidan sarautar Girka a zaman bauta yayin da surukarta ta kaurace. A cikin 'yan shekaru masu zuwa, mafi yawan dangin sarauta na Girka sun zauna a Switzerland . [17]

Gimbiya Alice na Battenberg a shekara ta 1907.

Rashin Lafiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Iyalin sun zauna a wani karamin gida da Princess George na Girka suka yi a Saint-Cloud, a bayan birnin Paris, inda Princess Andrew ya taimaka a shagon sadaka don 'yan gudun hijirar Girka. [18] Ta fara bin addini sosai, kuma a cikin Oktoba 1928, ta musulunta zuwa Cocin Orthodox na Girka . [19] A wannan lokacin hunturu, ta juya zuwa Turanci na kare mijinta game da abin da ya aikata yayin Yaƙin Greco-Turkish. [20] [21] Bayan haka bayan haka, ta fara da'awar cewa tana samun sakon Allah kuma tana da iko na warkarwa. [22] A cikin 1930, bayan fama da mummunan tashin hankali, Princess Andrew ya kamu da cutar kansa ta rashin hankali, da farko ta Thomas Ross, likitan mahaukata wanda ya kware a hargitsi, daga baya kuma Sir Maurice Craig, wanda ya kula da Sarki George na gaba a gaba kafin ya yi magana. far. [23] An tabbatar da gano cutar a asibitin santa na Ernst Simmel a Tegel, Berlin . [24] An cire Gimbiya Andrew daga danginsa da karfi kuma aka sanya shi a asibitin Sanda na Ludwig Binswanger a Kreuzlingen, Switzerland. [25] Mashahuri ne kuma sanannen ma'aikata tare da marasa lafiya da dama, wadanda suka hada da Vaslav Nijinsky, mawaƙa da mawaƙa, waɗanda ke can a lokaci guda kamar yadda Gimbiya Andrew. [26] Binswanger ya kuma gano gimbiya ta da cutar schizophrenia. Dukansu shi da Simmel sun nemi shawarar Sigmund Freud, wanda ya yi imanin cewa yaudarar ta ne sakamakon ɓacin rai. Ya ba da shawarar " X-raying her ovaries don ya kashe mata libido." Gimbiya Andrew ta nuna rashin amincewar ta da cewa tana da raunin kuma sau da yawa ta yi kokarin barin matsugunin. [23]

Yakin Duniya Na II[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A lokacin Yaƙin Duniya na II, Princess Andrew yana cikin mawuyacin hali na samun surukuta ya yi yaƙi da Jamusawa da ɗa a cikin rundunar sojojin ruwa ta Biritaniya. Kakanninta, Prince Victor zu Erbach-Schönberg , [27] shi ne jakadan na Jamus a Girka har zuwa lokacin da sojojin Axis suka kwace iko da Athens a cikin watan Afrilun 1941. Ita da surukarta, Gimbiya Nicholas na Girka, sun zauna a Athens tsawon lokacin yakin, yayin da yawancin kabilun gidan sarautar Girka suka kasance a cikin zaman gudun hijira a Afirka ta Kudu. [28] [29] Ta fita daga ƙaramin ɗakinta kuma ta shiga gidan surukarta gidan George guda uku a tsakiyar Athens. Ta yi aiki a kungiyar agaji ta Red Cross, ta taimaka wajen shirya kayan dafa abinci na miya don matsananciyar yunwa sannan ta tashi zuwa Sweden don dawo da kayayyakin asibiti a kan batun ziyarar 'yar uwarta, Louise, wacce ta auri Yarima . [30] Ta shirya matsuguni biyu ga marayu da yaran da suka rasa, da kuma wurin kula da marasa lafiya don mahallai marasa kyau. [31]

Tankar Jamus a birnin Athens a lokacin Yakin Duniya na Biyu.

A nazarci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Vickers, p. 2
  2. Vickers, p. 19
  3. Template:Citation
  4. Vickers, pp. 24–26
  5. Vickers, p. 57
  6. Vickers, pp. 57, 71
  7. Vickers, pp. 29–48
  8. Vickers, p. 51
  9. Vickers, p. 52
  10. The Russian Chapel was the personal possession of Nicholas II of Russia and his wife Alexandra Feodorovna (Alix of Hesse), Alice's maternal aunt. It was constructed between 1897 and 1899 at the personal expense of the Russian imperial couple for use during family visits to Darmstadt. Source: Template:Citation
  11. Eilers, p. 181
  12. Template:Citation
  13. Vickers, pp. 82–83
  14. Clogg, pp. 97–99
  15. Template:Citation
  16. Vickers, p. 121
  17. Van der Kiste, pp. 96 ff.
  18. Vickers, pp. 176–178
  19. Template:Citation
  20. Template:Citation
  21. Vickers, pp. 198–199
  22. Vickers, p. 200
  23. 23.0 23.1 Cohen, D. (2013), "Freud and the British Royal Family", The Psychologist, Vol. 26, No. 6, pp. 462–463
  24. Vickers, p. 205
  25. Vickers, p. 209
  26. Vickers, p. 213
  27. The son of Princess Andrew's godmother and aunt, Princess Marie of Battenberg, who had married into the Erbach-Schönberg family.
  28. Vickers, p. 292
  29. Template:Citation
  30. Vickers, pp. 293–295
  31. Vickers, p. 297

Littattafai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]