Magudanar ruwa

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Magudanar ruwa
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na rain gutter (en) Fassara
Amfani roof drainage (en) Fassara
Babban shigar bututun polyethylene mai yawa a cikin aikin magudanar ruwa, Mexico.
Rain gutter and downspout
A downspout in Strasbourg Place du Chateau.

Magudanar[1] [2] ruwa shi ne wurin wucewar ruwa ko na wucin gadi cire ruwan saman da ruwan da ke ƙasa daga wurin da ke da ruwa. Magudanar ruwa na cikin gida na mafi yawan ƙasar noma yana da kyau don hana ruwa mai tsanani (yanayin anaerobic da ke cutar da ci gaban tushen), amma kuma yawancin ƙasa suna buƙatar magudanar ruwa na wucin gadi don inganta samarwa ko sarrafa kayan ruwa.[3]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tarihin farko[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ragowar magudanar ruwa a Lothal kusan 3000 BC

Wayewar Kwarin Indus tana da tsarin magudanar ruwa da magudanar ruwa. Kuma Dukkan gidaje a manyan biranen Harappa da Mohenjo-daro sun sami damar samun ruwa da wuraren magudanar ruwa. An kuma kai ruwan sharar gida zuwa magudanar ruwa da aka rufe, wanda ke kan manyan tituna.

Karni na 18 da 19[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ruwan Tank, magudanar tarihi a cikin birnin Sydney

Ƙirƙirar magudanar ruwan bututun da aka ƙirƙira ga Sir Hugh Dalrymple, wanda ya mutu a shekara ta 1753.

Ayyuka na yanzu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bututun magudanar ruwa mai sassauƙa na filastik (PVC), ana amfani da shi don zubar da ruwa daga rufin gidan zama ko gini

Geotextiles[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sabbin tsarin magudanar ruwa sun haɗa da tacewa na geotextile waɗanda ke riƙe da hana kyawawan hatsi na ƙasa shiga da toshe magudanar. Geotextiles su ne yadudduka na roba da aka kera musamman don aikace-aikacen injiniyan farar hula da muhalli . Geotextiles an ƙera su don riƙe kyakkyawan barbashi na ƙasa yayin barin ruwa ya wuce. A cikin tsarin magudanar ruwa na yau da kullun, za a shimfiɗa su tare da rami wanda za'a cika su da ƙaƙƙarfan kayan granular : tsakuwa, harsashi na teku, dutse ko dutse . Sannan Daga nan sai a naɗe geotextile a saman dutsen sannan a rufe ramin da ƙasa. Ruwan cikin ƙasa yana ratsa ta cikin geotextile kuma yana gudana ta cikin dutsen zuwa fashewa. Kuma A cikin babban yanayin ruwa na ƙasa an shimfiɗa bututu mai raɗaɗi ( PVC ko PE ) tare da gindin magudanar don ƙara yawan ruwan da ake ɗauka a cikin magudanar ruwa.

A madadin, ana iya yin la'akari da tsarin magudanar ruwa na filastik da aka riga aka yi da HDPE, galibi yana haɗa geotextile, fiber na koko ko fil fil . Kuma Amfani da waɗannan kayan ya ƙara zama ruwan dare saboda sauƙin amfani da su wanda ke kawar da buƙatun jigilar kaya da shimfidar magudanar ruwa wanda a koyaushe ya fi tsada fiye da magudanar ruwa da siminti.

A cikin shekaru 30 da suka gabata geotextile, masu tace PVC da masu tace HDPE sun zama mafi yawan amfani da kafofin tace ƙasa. Suna da arha don samarwa da sauƙin kwanciya, tare da kaddarorin sarrafa masana'anta waɗanda ke tabbatar da aikin tacewa na dogon lokaci ko da a cikin yanayin ƙasa mara kyau.

Madadin karni na 21[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ayyukan Jama'a na Seattle sun ƙirƙiri shirin matukin jirgi mai suna Street Edge Alternatives (SEA Streets) Project. Aikin yana mai da hankali kan zayyana tsarin "don samar da magudanar ruwa wanda yafi kwaikwayi yanayin yanayin kasa kafin a ci gaba fiye da tsarin bututun gargajiya". Titunan suna da ramuka a gefen titin, tare da ƙera shuke-shuken a duk faɗin yankin. Ƙaddamar da matakan da ba a tare da su ba yana ba da damar ruwa ya ɓullo da yardar rai zuwa wuraren da ba za a iya jurewa a gefen tituna ba. Saboda dashen shuka, ruwan da ke gudu daga cikin birni ba ya shiga cikin ƙasa kai tsaye, amma kuma yana iya shiga cikin yanayin da ke kewaye. To Amman Kuma Sa ido da Hukumar Kula da Ayyukan Jama'a ta Seattle ta yi rahoton raguwar kashi 99 na ruwan guguwa da ke barin aikin magudanar ruwa [4]

Magudanar ruwa ya yi wani babban nazari na muhalli a cikin 'yan kwanakin nan a Burtaniya. Tsarukan Magudanar Ruwa na Birane (SUDS) an ƙera su don ƙarfafa ƴan kwangila don shigar da tsarin magudanar ruwa wanda ya fi kwaikwayi yanayin kwararar ruwa a yanayi. Tun da shekarata 2010 na gida da na yanki a Burtaniya ana buƙatar doka don sanya SUDS cikin kowane ayyukan ci gaba da suke da alhakinsa.

Magudanar ruwan ramuka ya tabbatar da mafi kyawun samfuri a cikin shekaru ashirin da suka gabata azaman zaɓin magudanar ruwa. Kuma A matsayin tsarin magudanar ruwa ta tashar an tsara shi don kawar da buƙatar ƙarin tsarin aikin bututun da za a girka daidai da magudanar ruwa, rage tasirin muhalli na samarwa tare da inganta tarin ruwa. Bakin karfe, tashar kankare, PVC da HDPE duk kayan da ake samu don magudanar ruwa waɗanda suka zama matsayin masana'antu akan ayyukan gini.

Magudanar ruwa a cikin masana'antar gini[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ana sanya bututu don nutsewa

Injiniyan farar hula ne ke da alhakin magudanar ruwa a ayyukan gine-gine. Daga cikin tsare-tsaren sun zayyana dukkan hanyoyin, magudanan titi, magudanun ruwa, magudanan ruwa da magudanan ruwa da ke aikin gine-gine . Yayin aikin ginin zai tsara duk matakan da ake bukata don kowane abubuwan da aka ambata a baya.

Injiniyoyin farar hula da manajojin gine-gine suna aiki tare da masu gine-gine da masu kulawa, masu tsarawa, masu binciken adadi, ma'aikata gabaɗaya, da kuma ƴan kwangila. Yawanci, sannan yawancin hukunce-hukuncen suna da wasu dokoki na magudanar ruwa don yin hukunci gwargwadon matakin mai mallakar ƙasa zai iya canza magudanar ruwa daga fakitinsa.

Zaɓuɓɓukan magudanar ruwa don masana'antar gini sun haɗa da:

  • Magudanar ruwa, wanda ke katse ruwa a gullies (maki). Gullies suna haɗawa da bututun magudanar ruwa a ƙarƙashin ƙasa kuma ana buƙatar haƙa mai zurfi don sauƙaƙe wannan tsarin. Ana buƙatar goyon bayan ramuka masu zurfi a cikin siffar katako, strutting ko shoring.
  • Magudanar ruwa ta tashar, wanda ke hana ruwa tare da duk hanyar tashar. Magudanar ruwa yawanci ana kera ta ne daga siminti, karfe, polymer ko abubuwan da aka haɗa. Matsakaicin tsaka-tsakin magudanar ruwa ya fi girma fiye da magudanar ruwa kuma aikin tono da ake buƙata yawanci ba shi da zurfi sosai.

Fuskar buɗaɗɗen magudanar ruwa yawanci yana zuwa ne ta hanyar gratings (polymer, filastik, ƙarfe ko ƙarfe) ko rami ɗaya (magudanar ruwa) wanda ke tafiya tare da saman ƙasa (wanda aka kera daga karfe ko ƙarfe). Tsarin bita

Magudanar ruwa a cikin ganuwar riƙewa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tsarin riƙon ƙasa kamar riƙon bango shima yana buƙatar yin la'akari da magudanar ruwa na ƙasa. Dan haka Ganuwar rikowa na yau da kullun ana gina su ne da kayan da ba za a iya jurewa ba wanda zai iya toshe hanyar ruwan ƙasa. Lokacin da ruwan karkashin kasa ya toshe, matsa lamba na ruwa na hydrostatic yana tasowa a bango kuma yana iya haifar da babbar lalacewa. Idan ba a zubar da matsa lamba na ruwa yadda ya kamata ba, ganuwar da ke riƙewa na iya yin ruku'u, motsawa, karaya da raguwa. Matsin ruwa kuma yana iya lalata ɓangarorin ƙasa waɗanda ke kaiwa ga ɓata bayan bango da ramukan nutse a cikin ƙasan da ke sama. Sannan Tsarin magudanar magudanar ruwa na gargajiya na iya haɗawa da, Magudanar ruwa na Faransa, magudanar ruwa ko ramukan kuka. Don hana zaizayar ƙasa, ana shigar da yadudduka tace geotextile tare da tsarin magudanar ruwa.

Dalilan magudanar ruwa na wucin gadi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tashar magudanar ruwa a wajen Magome, Japan bayan ruwan sama mai yawa. Yi la'akari da cewa protuberances suna haifar da ruwa mai tayar da hankali, yana hana lalata daga zama a cikin tashar.

Ƙasa mai dausayi na iya buƙatar magudanar ruwa don a yi amfani da su wajen noma . A Arewacin Amurka da Turai, glaciation ya haifar da ƙananan tafkuna masu yawa waɗanda a hankali suka cika da humus don yin marshes . Wasu daga cikinsu an zubar da su ta hanyar amfani da buɗaɗɗen ramuka da ramuka don yin ciyayi, waɗanda galibi ana amfani da su don amfanin gona masu daraja kamar kayan lambu .

Mafi girman aikin wannan nau'in a cikin duniya yana gudana tsawon ƙarni a cikin Netherlands . Yankin da ke tsakanin Amsterdam, Haarlem da Leiden ya kasance, a zamanin da kafin tarihin fadama da kananan tafkuna. Yanke Turf (Haka ma'adinan Peat ), rangwame da zaizayar ruwa a hankali ya haifar da samuwar babban tabki guda, Haarlemmermeer, ko tafkin Haarlem. Ƙirƙirar injunan bututun iska a ƙarni na 15 ya ba da izinin magudanar ruwa daga wasu yankunan bakin teku, amma magudanar ruwa na ƙarshe na tafkin dole ne ya jira ƙirar manyan famfunan tururi da yarjejeniya tsakanin hukumomin yankin. Kawar da tafkin ya faru tsakanin shekarar 1849 zuwa shekarata 1852, wanda ya haifar da dubban kilomita 2 na sabuwar ƙasa.

Filayen bakin teku da ɓangarorin kogin na iya samun ruwan tebur na lokaci ko na dindindin kuma dole ne su sami ingantaccen magudanar ruwa idan za a yi amfani da su don aikin gona. Misali shine yankin citrus na citrus na Florida . Bayan an sami ruwan sama mai yawa, ana amfani da famfunan magudanar ruwa don hana lalacewa ga tsire-tsire na citrus daga ƙasa mai jika sosai. Noman shinkafa yana buƙatar cikakken sarrafa ruwa, saboda filayen suna buƙatar ambaliyar ruwa ko magudanar ruwa a matakai daban-daban na zagayowar amfanin gona. Har ila yau, Netherlands ta jagoranci hanya a cikin irin wannan magudanar ruwa, ba wai kawai don zubar da ƙasa a bakin teku ba, to amma a zahiri tana tura tekun har sai an ƙara yawan al'ummar asali.

A cikin yanayi mai ɗanɗano, ƙasa na iya zama isasshiyar noman noma in ban da cewa takan zama ruwa na ɗan lokaci kowace shekara, daga narke dusar ƙanƙara ko kuma daga ruwan sama mai yawa. Ƙasar da aka fi sani da yumbu za ta wuce ruwa a hankali a hankali, yayin da tushen tsiron ya shaƙa saboda yawan ruwan da ke kewaye da tushen yana kawar da motsin iska a cikin ƙasa gaba data.</br> Sauran ƙasan na iya samun ƙasa mara nauyi na ƙasa mai ma'adinai, wanda ake kira da ƙarfi ko ɗumbin dutsen da ba ya da ƙarfi zai iya ƙarƙashin ƙasa mara zurfi. Magudanar ruwa yana da mahimmanci musamman wajen samar da 'ya'yan itace . Ƙasar da ba ta da kyau ba za ta iya shayar da ruwa ba har tsawon mako guda na shekara, wanda ya isa ya kashe itatuwan 'ya'yan itace da kuma tsadar amfanin ƙasa har sai an sami maye gurbin. A cikin kowane ɗayan waɗannan yanayin magudanar ruwa da ya dace yana ɗaukar zubar da ruwa na ɗan lokaci don hana lalacewa ga amfanin gona na shekara ko na shekara.

Wurare masu bushewa galibi ana noma su ta hanyar ban ruwa, kuma mutum ba zai ɗauki magudanar ruwa ya zama dole ba. Duk da haka, ruwan ban ruwa ko da yaushe yana dauke da ma'adanai da gishiri, wanda za'a iya tattara shi zuwa matakan mai guba ta hanyar evapotranspiration . Sannan Ƙasar da ke da ban ruwa na iya buƙatar ɗigon ruwa na lokaci-lokaci tare da yawan ruwan ban ruwa da magudanar ruwa don sarrafa gishirin ƙasa .

A typical drain in Bankstown, New South Wales

Duba wasu abubuwan[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. "Merriam Webster Online, Thesaurus".
  2. "drainpipe". Collins English Dictionary. Archived from the original on 31 July 2016. Retrieved 4 December 2020.
  3. Francis Joseph Patry 1974. Roof Drain Arrangement. United States Patent 3909412 Archived 2012-03-24 at the Wayback Machine
  4. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named seattle

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