Rigakafin Covid-19

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Yadda alluran COVID-19 ke aiki. Bidiyon yana nuna tsarin allurar rigakafin, daga allura tare da RNA ko allurar rigakafin ƙwayar cuta, zuwa ɗauka da fassarar, kuma zuwa motsawar rigakafi da tasiri.
Taswirar da ke nuna rabon yawan mutanen da aka yiwa cikakken allurar rigakafin COVID-19 dangane da jimillar yawan ƙasar
Taswirar ƙasashe ta matsayin yarda 

A COVID-19 maganin nena alurar yana nufin samar da rigakafi da tsanani na numfashi ciwo coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), da cutar da cewa yana sa coronavirus cuta 2019 (COVID-19). Kafin cutar ta COVID -19, kafaffen ilimin ya wanzu game da tsari da aikin coronaviruses da ke haifar da cututtuka kamar matsanancin ciwo na numfashi (SARS) da ciwon numfashi na Gabas ta Tsakiya (MERS). Wannan ilimin ya hanzarta bunƙasa dandamali daban -daban na allurar rigakafi a farkon shekarar 2020.[1] Farkon abin da aka fi mayar da hankali kan alluran rigakafin SARS-CoV-2 ya kasance kan hana alamun cutar, galibi rashin lafiya mai tsanani.[2] A ranar 10 ga watan Janairu na shekarar 2020, an raba bayanan jerin kwayoyin halittar SARS-CoV-2 ta hanyar GISAID, kuma zuwa 19 ga watan Maris, masana'antar magunguna ta duniya ta ba da sanarwar babban alƙawarin magance COVID-19.[3] Alluran rigakafin COVID-19 ana yaba su sosai saboda rawar da suka taka wajen rage yaduwar, tsananin, da mutuwar da COVID-19 ya haifar.[4]

Kasashe da yawa sun aiwatar da tsare - tsaren rabe - raben matakai waɗanda ke ba da fifikon waɗanda ke cikin haɗarin rikitarwa, kamar tsofaffi, da waɗanda ke cikin haɗarin kamuwa da watsawa, kamar ma'aikatan kiwon lafiya.[5] Ana yin la'akari da amfani na wucin gadi kashi ɗaya don faɗaɗa allurar rigakafi ga mutane da yawa har zuwa samun allurar rigakafi.[6][7][8][9]

Yawatan zuwa ranar 4 ga watan Oktoba na shekarar 2021, an gudanar da alluran biliyan 6.36 na COVID -19 a duk duniya bisa rahotannin hukuma daga hukumomin lafiyar jama'a na ƙasa. [10]AstraZeneca tana tsammanin samar da allurai biliyan 3 a cikin 2021, allurar Pfizer -BioNTech biliyan 1.3, da Sputnik V, Sinopharm, Sinovac, da Janssen biliyan 1 kowannensu. Moderna yana da niyyar samar da allurai miliyan 600 da allurar Convidecia miliyan 500 a cikin shekarar 2021.[11][12] Zuwa watan Disamba na shekarar 2020, sama da allurar rigakafin biliyan 10 ƙasashe sun riga sun rigaya,[13] tare da kusan rabin allurai da ƙasashe masu samun kuɗi suka saya wanda ya ƙunshi 14% na yawan mutanen duniya.[14]

Bayan Fage[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wani Ma'aikacin jirgin saman Amurka yana karbar allurar COVID-19, Disamba 2020

Kafin COVID -19, ba a taɓa yin allurar rigakafin cutar a ƙasa da shekaru da yawa ba – kuma babu allurar rigakafin cutar don hana kamuwa da cutar coronavirus a cikin mutane.[15] Koyaya, an samar da alluran rigakafin cututtukan dabbobi da dama da coronaviruses ke haifarwa, gami da (kamar na 2003) cutar mashako a cikin tsuntsaye, coronavirus canine, da feline coronavirus .[16] Ayyukan da suka gabata don haɓaka allurar rigakafin ƙwayoyin cuta a cikin dangin Coronaviridae wanda ke shafar mutane an yi niyya ne ga matsanancin ciwo na numfashi (SARS) da ciwon numfashi na Gabas ta Tsakiya (MERS). An gwada alluran rigakafin SARS[17] da MERS[18] a cikin dabbobin da ba ɗan adam ba.

Dangane da binciken da aka buga a shekarar 2005 da 2006, ganowa da haɓaka sabbin alluran rigakafi da magunguna don kula da SARS shine fifiko ga gwamnatoci da hukumomin kiwon lafiyar jama'a a duniya a wancan lokacin.[19][20][21] Babu wani magani ko allurar rigakafi da aka tabbatar yana da aminci da tasiri akan SARS a cikin mutane.[22][23] Haka kuma babu wata allurar rigakafin cutar MERS.[24] Lokacin da MERS ta zama ruwan dare, an yi imanin cewa binciken SARS na yanzu na iya samar da samfuri mai amfani don haɓaka alluran rigakafi da warkewa daga kamuwa da cutar MERS-CoV.[25][26] Tun daga watan Maris shekarar 2020, akwai allurar rigakafin MERS guda ɗaya (tushen DNA) wanda ya kammala Mataki I gwaji na asibiti a cikin mutane,[27] da wasu uku da ke kan ci gaba, duk alluran rigakafin ƙwayoyin cuta ne: adenoviral-vectored (ChAdOx1-MERS, BVRS-GamVac) da MVA -vectored (MVA-MERS-S).[28]

Alluran rigakafin da ke amfani da ƙwayar cuta mai rauni ko rauni wanda aka girma cikin ƙwai yawanci yana ɗaukar sama da shekaru goma don haɓakawa.[29][30]Sabanin haka, mRNA kwayar halitta ce da za a iya yin ta da sauri, kuma an fara bincike kan mRNA don yaƙar cututtuka shekaru da yawa kafin cutar ta COVID-19 ta masana kimiyya kamar Drew Weissman da Katalin Karikó, waɗanda suka gwada akan beraye. Moderna ya fara gwajin ɗan adam na rigakafin mRNA a cikin shekarar 2015. [31] An kuma samar da allurar rigakafin ƙwayoyin cuta don cutar ta COVID-19 bayan an riga an share fasahar don Ebola. [31]

Kamar yadda aka ba da izini ko allurar rigakafi da yawa na COVID-19 ko lasisi don amfani, yanzu ana tantance ingancin allurar rigakafin cutar (RWE) ta amfani da sarrafa shari'ar da nazarin lura.[32] Wani bincike yana binciken kariya ta dindindin akan SARS-CoV-2 da alluran mRNA ke bayarwa.[33] A ranar 10 ga watan Agusta na shekarar 2021, wani bincike ya nuna cewa cikakken adadin ɗaukar allurar rigakafin yana da alaƙa da juzu'in juzu'i na SARS-CoV-2 a cikin ƙasashe 16 (R-squared = 0.878).[34]

Tsara[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tun daga watan Satumba shekara ta 2020, goma sha ɗaya daga cikin masu neman allurar rigakafin a cikin ci gaban asibiti suna amfani da masu talla don haɓaka rigakafi. [35] Adjuvant immunological abu ne da aka ƙera tare da allurar rigakafi don haɓaka martanin rigakafi ga antigen, kamar ƙwayar COVID -19 ko ƙwayar mura. [36] Musamman, ana iya amfani da wani adjuvant wajen tsara ɗan takarar rigakafin COVID -19 don haɓaka rigakafin rigakafi da ingancinsa don ragewa ko hana kamuwa da COVID -19 a cikin mutanen da aka yiwa allurar. [37] [38] Adjuvants da aka yi amfani da su a cikin allurar rigakafin COVID-19 na iya zama mai tasiri musamman ga fasaha ta amfani da ƙwayar COVID-19 mara aiki da recombinant protein-based ko vector-based vaccines. [39] Gishirin Aluminium, wanda aka sani da “alum”, shine farkon adjuvant da aka yi amfani da shi don allurar riga -kafi mai lasisi, kuma shine adjuvant na zaɓi a cikin kashi 80% na alluran rigakafi. [39] Alum adjuvant yana ƙaddamar da nau'ikan kwayoyin halitta da na salula don haɓaka rigakafin rigakafi, gami da sakin cytokines masu kumburi.

Binciken asibiti[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Binciken asibiti na rigakafin COVID-19 shine binciken asibiti akan alluran COVID-19, gami da ingancin su, inganci da amincin su. Akwai alluran riga-kafi guda 22 da gwamnatocin kasashe suka ba da izini don amfani da su, tare da alluran rigakafi guda shida da aka amince da su don gaggawa ko cikakken amfani da akalla ɗaya daga cikin manyan hukumomin da WHO ta amince da su; kuma biyar daga cikinsu suna cikin Mataki na IV. 204 alluran rigakafi a ƙarƙashin gwajin asibiti wanda har yanzu ba a ba da izini ba. Hakanan akwai gwaje -gwaje na asibiti guda tara akan darussan allurar rigakafi daban -daban.

A cikin gwaji na Mataki na III, alluran COVID -19 da yawa sun nuna inganci har zuwa 95% don hana kamuwa da cututtukan COVID -19. Aƙalla alluran rigakafin guda ashirin ne aƙalla ikon hukuma guda na ƙasa don amfanin jama'a: allurar DNA ɗaya (ZyCoV-D) alluran RNA guda biyu (Pfizer-BioNTech da Moderna), alluran rigakafi guda goma na al'ada (BBIBP-CorV, Kwalejin Kimiyya ta China, CoronaVac , Covaxin, CoviVac, COVIran Barekat, FAKHRAVAC, Minhai-Kangtai, QazVac, da WIBP-CorV), alluran rigakafin ƙwayoyin cuta guda biyar (Sputnik Light, Sputnik V, Oxford-AstraZeneca, Convidecia, da Janssen), da alluran subunit biyar (Abdala, EpiVacCorona, MVC-COV1901, Soberana 02, da ZF2001). Gabaɗaya, 'yan takarar allurar rigakafin 330 suna cikin matakai daban -daban na ci gaba, tare da 102 a cikin binciken asibiti, gami da 30 a gwajin Phase I, 30 a gwajin Phase I -II, 25 a gwajin Phase III, da 8 a ci gaban Phase IV.Template:Excerpt

Matsalolin bayan allurar rigakafi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayan allurar rigakafin embolic da abubuwan thrombotic, wanda kuma ake kira allurar rigakafin rigakafin thrombocytopenia (VIPIT), rigakafin thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT), ko thrombosis tare da ciwon thrombocytopenia (TTS) wasu nau'ikan cututtukan da ke hana jini. adadi kaɗan ne na mutanen da a baya suka karɓi allurar rigakafin COVID-19 na Oxford-AstraZeneca (AZD1222) yayin barkewar COVID-19. Daga baya kuma an bayyana shi a cikin allurar rigakafin COVID-19 na Janssen (Johnson & Johnson) wanda ya kai ga dakatar da amfani da shi har sai an sake duba lafiyar sa.

A cikin watan Afrilu na shekarar 2021, AstraZeneca da EMA sun sabunta bayanan su don ƙwararrun masana kiwon lafiya game da AZD1222, suna cewa "an yi la'akari da abin da ya dace" cewa akwai alaƙar alaƙa tsakanin alurar riga kafi da faruwar thrombosis a haɗe tare da thrombocytopenia da wancan, "kodayake irin wannan munanan halayen. ba su da yawa, sun wuce abin da ake tsammani a cikin yawan jama'a ".

Sharuɗɗa daga ƙungiyoyin ƙwararru suna ba da shawarar magani tare da wasu magungunan kashe kuɗaɗen maye maimakon heparin, saboda akwai yuwuwar hakan na iya haɓaka abin da ke faruwa.Template:Excerpt

Nau'in rigakafi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tsarin zane wanda ke nuna nau'ikan alluran rigakafi guda uku don ƙirƙirar SARS -CoV -2 sunadarai don hanzarta mayar da martani: (1) RNA allura, (2) allurar subunit, (3) allurar rigakafin ƙwayoyin cuta.
Ana amfani da dandamalin allurar rigakafi don SARS-CoV-2. Cikakkun alluran rigakafin ƙwayar cuta sun haɗa da naƙasassun ƙwayoyin cuta da marasa aiki . Protein da peptide subunit alluran yawanci a hade tare da wani adjuvant domin bunkasa immunogenicity. Babban fifikon ci gaban allurar rigakafin SARS-CoV-2 ya kasance akan amfani da furotin gaba ɗaya a cikin tsarinta, ko abubuwan da ke ciki, kamar yankin RBD . An samar da alluran rigakafin ƙwayoyin cuta da yawa waɗanda ba a sake yin su ba, musamman an mai da hankali kan adenovirus, yayin da ba a mai da hankali sosai kan kwararar ƙirar ƙwayoyin cuta.

Akalla dandamali fasaha daban -daban guda tara suna ƙarƙashin bincike da haɓakawa don ƙirƙirar ingantaccen allurar rigakafin COVID -19.[35][36]Yawancin dandamali na 'yan takarar allurar rigakafi a cikin gwajin asibiti suna mai da hankali kan furotin na coronavirus da bambance -bambancensa a matsayin farkon antigen na COVID -19 kamuwa da cuta, [37] tunda furotin S yana haifar da martani na rigakafi.[38] An samar da dandamali a cikin 2020 wanda ya haɗa da fasahar nucleic acid (RNA da DNA mai canza nucleoside ), ƙwayoyin cuta marasa cutarwa, peptides, sunadaran sake haɗawa, ƙwayoyin cuta masu rai, da ƙwayoyin cuta marasa aiki.[39][40][41][42]

Yawancin fasahar allurar rigakafin da ake haɓakawa don COVID-19 ba kamar alluran riga-kafi bane da ake amfani da su don hana mura, amma suna amfani da dabarun “ƙarni na gaba” don yin niyya daidai da hanyoyin kamuwa da COVID-19. [43][44] Da yawa daga cikin allurar rigakafi suna amfani da maye gurbi na 2P don kulle furotin mai ƙyalli a cikin saitin sa na farko, yana ƙarfafa amsawar rigakafin rigakafi ga ƙwayar cutar kafin ta shiga jikin ɗan adam. [45] Dandalin allurar rigakafi a cikin ci gaba na iya haɓaka sassauƙa don magudi na antigen, da tasiri don ƙulla dabarun kamuwa da COVID -19 a cikin ƙungiyoyin jama'a masu saukin kamuwa, kamar ma'aikatan kiwon lafiya, tsofaffi, yara, mata masu juna biyu, da mutanen da ke da rauni na rigakafi . [37] [46]

Alluran RNA[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 

Siffar aikin allurar rigakafin RNA. Messenger RNA da ke cikin allurar rigakafin yana shiga sel kuma an fassara shi zuwa sunadaran waje, wanda ke haifar da amsawar rigakafi.

Yawancin alluran COVID-19, gami da allurar Pfizer-BioNTech da Moderna, an yi amfani da su don amfani da RNA don tayar da martanin rigakafi. Lokacin da aka shigar da shi cikin jikin ɗan adam, RNA da ke cikin allurar tana aiki azaman manzo RNA (mRNA) don haifar da sel don gina furotin na SARS-CoV-2. Wannan yana koya wa jiki yadda ake ganewa da lalata ɓarnar da ta dace. Alluran RNA sau da yawa, amma ba koyaushe ba, suna amfani da RNA mai canza nucleoside . Ana isar da isar da mRNA ta hanyar haɗaɗɗiyar ƙwayar ƙwayar cuta a cikin ƙwayoyin nanoparticles waɗanda ke kare ƙwayoyin RNA kuma suna taimakawa shaƙar su cikin sel.[47][48][49][50]

Alluran RNA sune alluran COVID -19 na farko da aka ba da izini a Burtaniya, Amurka da Tarayyar Turai.[51][52] Alluran da aka ba da izini na irin wannan shine allurar Pfizer – BioNTech[53][54][55] da Moderna.[56][57] Allurar CVnCoV RNA daga CureVac ta gaza a cikin hanyoyin asibiti.[58]

halayen rashin lafiyan suna da wuya. A watan Disambar 2020, 1,893,360 allurai na farko na Pfizer – BioNTech COVID -19 gudanar da allurar rigakafi ya haifar da lamuran 175 na mummunan rashin lafiyan, wanda 21 daga cikinsu anaphylaxis ne.[59] Domin 4,041,396 Moderna COVID ‑ 19 gwamnatocin allurar rigakafin cutar a watan Disamba na shekarar 2020 da watan Janairu na shekarar 2021, lokuta goma na anaphylaxis ne aka ruwaito. Kusan anoparticles[60] na lipid sun kasance masu alhakin halayen rashin lafiyan.[61]

Adenovirus vector alluran rigakafi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Waɗannan alluran rigakafin misalai ne na alluran rigakafin ƙwayoyin cuta na ƙwayoyin cuta, ta amfani da harsashin adenovirus wanda ke ɗauke da DNA wanda ke haɗa furotin SARS-CoV-2.[62][63] Alluran rigakafin ƙwayoyin cuta na COVID-19 ba sa yin kwafi, ma'ana ba sa yin sabbin ƙwayoyin ƙwayoyin cuta, amma suna haifar da antigen ne kawai wanda ke haifar da martani na rigakafi. [64]

Alluran da aka ba da izini na irin wannan shine allurar COVID-19 na Oxford-AstraZeneca,[65][66][67] allurar Sputnik V COVID-19, Convidecia, da Janssen COVID-19.[68][69]

Convidecia da Janssen COVID-19 duka alluran rigakafin guda ɗaya ne waɗanda ke ba da ƙarancin dabaru kuma ana iya adana su ƙarƙashin firiji na yau da kullun.[70][71]

Sputnik V yana amfani da Ad26 don kashi na farko, wanda yayi daidai da kashi ɗaya kawai na Janssen, da Ad5 don kashi na biyu, wanda yayi daidai da kashi ɗaya kawai na Convidecia.[72]

A ranar 11 ga Agustan 2021, masu haɓaka Sputnik V sun ba da shawara, dangane da karuwar shari'ar Delta cewa Pfizer ya gwada ɓangaren Ad26 (wanda ake kira sigar '' Haske '')[73] azaman mai ɗaukar hoto:

Laifukan Delta sun karu a Amurka & Isra’ila sun nuna alluran rigakafin mRNA suna buƙatar ƙarfafawa daban -daban don ƙarfafawa da tsawaita martanin rigakafi. #SputnikV ya fara ba da haɗin kai da daidaitawa, gwajin haduwa & nuna 83.1% inganci vs Delta. A yau RDIF tana ba Pfizer don fara gwaji tare da Sputnik Light azaman mai ƙarfafawa.[74]

Alluran rigakafin ƙwayar cuta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Allurar da ba ta aiki ba ta ƙunshi ƙwayoyin ƙwayoyin cuta waɗanda aka yi girma a cikin al'adu sannan kuma an kashe su ta amfani da hanyar kamar zafi ko formaldehyde don rasa ƙarfin samar da cuta, yayin da har yanzu ke motsa martani na rigakafi.[75]

Alluran rigakafin wannan nau'in shine CoronaVac na China,[76][77][78] BBIBP-CorV,[79] da WIBP-CorV ; Covaxin na Indiya; daga baya a wannan shekarar CoviVac na Rasha;[80] allurar rigakafin Kazakhstani QazVac;[81] da Barekat na COVIran na Iran.[82] Alluran rigakafi a cikin gwajin asibiti sun haɗa da allurar Valneva COVID-19 .[83] [84] ]

Subunit alluran rigakafi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Alluran subunit suna gabatar da antigens guda ɗaya ko fiye ba tare da gabatar da ƙwayoyin ƙwayoyin cuta ba. Magungunan antigens da ke da alaƙa sau da yawa sunadaran furotin, amma suna iya zama kowane ƙwayar cuta wanda ke guntun ƙwayoyin cuta.[85]

Alluran rigakafin guda uku na irin wannan sune allurar peptide EpiVacCorona,[86] ZF2001,[87] da MVC-COV1901.[88] Alluran rigakafin da ke da izini sun haɗa da allurar Novavax COVID-19,[89] Soberana 02 ( allurar rigakafi ), da allurar Sanofi-GSK .

Allurar V451 a baya tana cikin gwajin asibiti, wanda aka dakatar saboda an gano cewa allurar na iya haifar da sakamako mara kyau ga gwajin HIV na gaba.[90][91]

Intranasal[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Alluran rigakafi na intranasal suna yin niyyar rigakafin mucosal a cikin mucosa na hanci wanda shine ƙofar don shigar da hoto a jikin mutum.[92][93] An tsara waɗannan allurar rigakafin don ƙarfafa abubuwan rigakafi na hanci, kamar IgA . [94] Bugu da kari ga inhibiting da cutar, hanci alluran samar da sauƙi na gwamnati saboda ba needles (da rakiyar allura phobia ) ne da hannu. [95] [96] An amince da allurar rigakafin hanci don wasu cututtuka, kamar mura . [95] [96] Tun daga shekarar 2021, allurar rigakafin hanci ɗaya kawai, <i id="mwAgI">Flumist</i> (Amurka); <i id="mwAgM">Fluenz Tetra</i> (Tarayyar Turai), an ba shi izini a Amurka da Turai don amfani da shi azaman rigakafin mura.[97][98]

Sauran iri[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ƙarin nau'ikan alluran rigakafin da ke cikin gwaji na asibiti sun haɗa da allurar ƙwayoyin cuta kamar ƙwayoyin cuta, allurar rigakafin ƙwayar cuta ta DNA da yawa,[99][100][101][102][103][104]aƙalla alluran rigakafin ƙwayar cuta na lentivirus guda biyu[105][106] allurar riga -kafi, da kwayar cutar stomatitis ta vesicular stomatitis wanda ke nuna furotin na SARS -CoV -2.[107]

Masana kimiyya sun bincika ko alluran riga -kafi na yanayin da ba su da alaƙa na iya haɓaka tsarin garkuwar jiki da rage tsananin cutar COVID -19.[108] Akwai shaidar gwaji cewa allurar rigakafin cutar tarin fuka ta BCG tana da tasiri na musamman akan tsarin garkuwar jiki, amma babu shaidar cewa wannan allurar tana da tasiri akan COVID-19.[109]

Shiryawa da cigaba[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tun daga watan Janairun 2020, an hanzarta haɓaka allurar rigakafin ta hanyar haɗin gwiwar da ba a taɓa yin irinta ba a masana'antar magunguna da yawa tsakanin gwamnatoci.

Ana kimanta matakai da yawa tare da duk hanyar ci gaba, gami da:[110][111]

  • matakin yarda da guba na allurar (amincin sa),
  • kai hari ga jama'a masu rauni,
  • buƙatar ingantaccen tasirin allurar rigakafi,
  • tsawon lokacin kariyar rigakafi,
  • tsarin bayarwa na musamman (kamar na baka ko hanci, maimakon allura),
  • tsarin tsari,
  • kwanciyar hankali da halaye na ajiya,
  • izinin amfani da gaggawa kafin lasisi na yau da kullun,
  • mafi kyawun masana'antu don haɓakawa zuwa biliyoyin allurai, da
  • yada allurar rigakafi.

Kalubale[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An sami ƙalubale na musamman da yawa tare da ci gaban allurar COVID -19.

Gaggawar ƙirƙirar allurar rigakafin cutar ta COVID -19 ya haifar da jadawalin jadawalin da ya rage takamaiman lokacin haɓaka allurar rigakafin, a wasu lokuta haɗa matakan gwaji na asibiti sama da watanni, tsari wanda galibi ana yin sa a cikin shekaru.[112] An bayyana shirye -shiryen kiwon lafiyar jama'a a cikin "tsere don yin allurar rigakafin mutane" tare da allurar rigakafin farko.[113]

Lokaci don gudanar da bincike na asibiti – yawanci tsari ne mai tsari wanda ke buƙatar shekaru – ana matsa su cikin aminci, inganci, da gwajin gwaji da ke gudana lokaci guda sama da watanni, mai yuwuwar ɓarna tabbacin tsaro.[114][115] A matsayin misali, masu haɓaka allurar rigakafin cutar Sinawa da Cibiyar Kula da Cututtuka da Cututtuka ta China ta gwamnati sun fara ƙoƙarinsu a cikin Janairu 2020,[116] kuma zuwa Maris suna bin 'yan takara da yawa a cikin ɗan gajeren lokaci, tare da burin nuna ƙarfin fasahar Sinawa kan waɗanda na. Amurka, kuma don sake kwantar da hankalin Sinawa game da ingancin allurar rigakafin da ake samarwa a China. [117][118]

Saurin haɓakawa da hanzarin samar da allurar rigakafin cutar ta COVID -19 ana tsammanin zai ƙara haɗarin da gazawar isar da ingantaccen, allurar rigakafi. [119][120] Bugu da ƙari, bincike a jami'o'i yana toshewa ta hanyar nesanta jiki da rufe dakunan gwaje -gwaje.[121][122]

Dole ne alluran rigakafin su ci gaba ta matakai da yawa na gwajin asibiti don gwada aminci, rigakafi, tasiri, matakan kashi da illolin allurar ɗan takarar.[123][124] Masu haɓaka allurar rigakafin dole ne su saka hannun jari a ƙasashen duniya don samun isasshen mahalarta don Mataki Gwaje -gwajen asibiti na II - III lokacin da kwayar cutar ta tabbatar da cewa " manufa ce mai motsi" na canza adadin watsawa a cikin da cikin ƙasashe, yana tilasta kamfanoni yin gasa don mahalarta gwaji.[125] Masu shirya gwaji na asibiti kuma na iya haɗuwa da mutanen da ba sa son yin allurar rigakafi saboda jinkirin allurar[126] ko rashin yarda da ilimin fasahar rigakafin da ikon hana kamuwa da cuta.[127] Yayin da ake haɓaka sabbin alluran rigakafi yayin bala'in COVID -19, lasisin 'yan takarar allurar rigakafin COVID -19 yana buƙatar ƙaddamar da cikakkun bayanai game da ci gaba da ingancin masana'anta.[128][129][130]

Ƙungiyoyi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kasashen duniya, Samun damar COVID-19 Kayan aikin hanzari shine G20 da shirin Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya (WHO) da aka sanar a watan Afrilu na shekarar 2020.[131][132] Tsarin tallafi ne na giciye don baiwa abokan tarayya damar raba albarkatu da ilimi. Ya ƙunshi ginshiƙai guda huɗu, kowannensu yana gudanar da ayyukan haɗin gwiwa biyu zuwa uku: Alluran rigakafi (wanda kuma ake kira " COVAX "), Diagnostics, Therapeutics, and Health Systems Connector. [133] WHO ta watan Afrilu na shekarar 2020 "R&D Blueprint (don) coronavirus labari" ya rubuta "babban, na ƙasa da ƙasa, rukunin yanar gizo, gwajin gwajin asibiti daban-daban" don ba da damar "kimantawa na lokaci ɗaya na fa'idodi da haɗarin kowane alƙawarin ɗan takara mai alƙawarin a cikin 3- Watanni 6 ana ba da shi don fitina. " Hadin gwiwar allurar rigakafin na WHO zai ba da fifiko kan waɗanne alluran rigakafi ya kamata su shiga cikin Mataki II kuma III gwaje -gwaje na asibiti, da ƙayyade daidaiton Mataki Ka'idoji na III ga duk alluran rigakafin da suka kai matakin gwaji mai mahimmanci.[134]

Haka kuma gwamnatocin kasa sun shiga cikin raya allurar rigakafi. Kanada ta ba da sanarwar bayar da kuɗaɗen ayyukan bincike na allurar bincike guda 96 a kamfanoni da jami'o'in Kanada, tare da shirye -shiryen kafa “bankin allurar rigakafi” wanda za a iya amfani da shi idan wani barkewar cutar coronavirus ta sake faruwa,[135] da kuma tallafawa gwajin asibiti da haɓaka masana'antu da samar da sarƙoƙi don alluran rigakafi. .[136]

Kasar Sin ta ba da lamuni mai araha ga mai samar da allurar rigakafin ta hanyar babban bankin ta, kuma "cikin sauri ta samar da fili ga kamfanin" don gina tsire-tsire.[137] Kamfanoni uku na allurar rigakafi da cibiyoyin bincike suna samun tallafi daga gwamnati don tallafawa bincike, gudanar da gwajin asibiti, da masana'antu.[138]

Burtaniya ta kafa kwamitin aikin rigakafin COVID -19 a cikin watan Afrilu shekarar 2020 don ƙarfafa ƙoƙarin cikin gida don hanzarta haɓaka rigakafin ta hanyar haɗin gwiwar masana'antu, jami'o'i, da hukumomin gwamnati. Ya ƙunshi kowane mataki na ci gaba daga bincike zuwa masana'antu.[139]

A cikin Amurka, Hukumar Bincike da Ci gaban Biomedical (BARDA), wata hukumar tarayya da ke ba da tallafin fasahar yaƙi da cuta, ta ba da sanarwar saka hannun jari don tallafawa ci gaban allurar rigakafin COVID-19 na Amurka, da ƙera mafi kyawun 'yan takara.[140][141] A watan Mayu shekarar 2020, gwamnati ta ba da sanarwar bayar da kuɗaɗe don wani shiri mai sauri da ake kira Operation Warp Speed . [142][143] Ya zuwa watan Maris na shekarar 2021, BARDA ta ba da kimanin kimanin dala biliyan 19.3 a ci gaban rigakafin COVID-19.[144]

Manyan kamfanonin harhada magunguna da gogewa wajen yin allurar rigakafi a sikelin, ciki har da Johnson & Johnson, AstraZeneca, da GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), sun kulla kawance da kamfanonin fasahar kere -kere, gwamnatoci, da jami'o'i don hanzarta ci gaba zuwa alluran rigakafin.[145]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Samfuran binciken rigakafin COVID -19 a cikin injin daskarewa na NIAID (a ranar 30 ga watan Janairu shekarar 2020)

COVID-19's ya haifar da ƙwayar cuta, SARS-CoV-2 (matsanancin ciwon huhu na numfashi coronavirus 2), an ware shi a ƙarshen shekarar 2019. An buga jerin kwayoyin halittarsa ​​a ranar 11 ga watan Janairu shekarar 2020, yana haifar da martani na gaggawa na ƙasa da ƙasa don shirya don fashewa da hanzarta ci gaban. allurar rigakafin COVID-19. Tun daga shekarar 2020, an hanzarta haɓaka allurar rigakafin ta hanyar haɗin gwiwar da ba a taɓa yin irinta ba a masana'antun magunguna na ƙasashe da yawa tsakanin gwamnatoci. Zuwa watan Yuni na shekarar 2020, kamfanoni, gwamnatoci, kungiyoyin kiwon lafiya na duniya, da kungiyoyin bincike na jami'a sun saka gomomin biliyoyin daloli don samar da 'yan takarar allurar rigakafin da kuma shirye -shiryen shirye -shiryen rigakafin duniya don yin rigakafin kamuwa da cutar COVID -19. Dangane da Hadin gwiwar Innovations na Shirye -shiryen Cutar (CEPI), rabe -raben yanki na ci gaban rigakafin COVID -19 yana nuna ƙungiyoyin Arewacin Amurka suna da kusan 40% na aikin, idan aka kwatanta da 30% a Asiya da Ostiraliya, 26% a Turai, da 'yan ayyukan a Kudancin Amurka da Afirka.

A watan Fabrairu shekarar 2020, Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya (WHO) ta ce ba ta tsammanin samun allurar rigakafin SARS -CoV ‑ 2 a cikin kasa da watanni 18. Masanin ilmin dabbobi Paul Offit yayi sharhi cewa, a hangen nesa, ci gaban allurar rigakafi mai inganci cikin watanni 11 abu ne mai ban mamaki. Yawan saurin kamuwa da cuta na COVID-19 a duk duniya yayin shekarar 2020 ya ƙarfafa ƙawancen ƙasashe da ƙoƙarin gwamnati don hanzarta shirya albarkatu don yin allurar rigakafi da yawa akan takaitaccen lokacin, tare da masu neman allurar rigakafin guda huɗu waɗanda ke shiga kimantawar ɗan adam a cikin Maris (duba allurar COVID-19 rial Gwaji da matsayin izini ).

A ranar 24 ga watan Yuni shekarar 2020, China ta amince da allurar rigakafin CanSino don iyakance amfani a cikin sojoji, da alluran rigakafin ƙwayoyin cuta guda biyu don amfanin gaggawa cikin ayyukan haɗari. A ranar 11 ga watan Agustan shekarar 2020, Rasha ta ba da sanarwar amincewa da allurar rigakafin ta Sputnik V don amfanin gaggawa, kodayake bayan wata ɗaya kawai an raba ƙananan allurar don amfani da ita a wajen gwajin mataki na 3.

Abokan hulɗa na Pfizer - BioNTech sun gabatar da buƙatar izinin Amfani da Gaggawa (EUA) ga Hukumar Abinci da Magunguna ta Amurka (FDA) don allurar mRNA BNT162b2 (sinadarin aiki tozinameran) a ranar 20 ga watan Nuwamba shekarar 2020. A ranar 2 ga watan Disamba na shekarar 2020, Magunguna da Kula da Lafiya na Burtaniya. Hukumar Kula da Kayayyaki (MHRA) ta ba da izini na ɗan lokaci don allurar Pfizer -BioNTech, ta zama ƙasa ta farko da ta amince da allurar kuma ƙasa ta farko a Yammacin duniya don amincewa da amfani da kowane allurar COVID -19. Tun daga ranar 21 ga watan Disamba shekara ta 2020, ƙasashe da yawa da Tarayyar Turai sun ba da izini ko amincewa da allurar Pfizer -BioNTech COVID -19. Bahrain da Hadaddiyar Daular Larabawa sun ba da izinin tallan gaggawa na BBIBP-CorV, wanda Sinopharm ya ƙera. A ranar 11 ga watan Disamba shekara ta 2020, FDA ta ba da EUA don maganin Pfizer -BioNTech COVID -19. Mako guda bayan haka, sun ba da EUA don mRNA-1273 (elasomeran mai aiki), allurar Moderna.

A ranar 31 ga watan Maris shekarar 2021, gwamnatin Rasha ta ba da sanarwar cewa sun yi rajistar rigakafin COVID -19 na farko ga dabbobi. Anyi wa lakabi da Carnivac-Cov, allurar rigakafi ce ga dabbobi masu cin nama, gami da dabbobin gida, da nufin hana maye gurbi da ke faruwa yayin watsawar SARS-CoV-2.Template:ExcerptA watan Yunin shekarar 2021, wani rahoto ya bayyana cewa allurar UB-612, wanda COVAXX na Amurka ya samar, wani kamfani ne wanda ya kafa kamfanin Blackwater Erik Prince . A cikin jerin saƙonnin rubutu ga Paul Behrends, babban abokin aikin da aka dauka don aikin COVAXX, Yarima ya bayyana damar samun riba a siyar da allurar COVID-19. COVAXX bai ba da bayanai daga gwajin asibiti kan aminci ko inganci ba. An ba da alhakin ƙirƙirar cibiyoyin sadarwa na rarrabawa ga wani yanki na Abu Dhabi, wanda aka ambata a matsayin "Windward Capital" akan harafin COVAXX amma a zahiri Windward Holdings ne. Babban mai hannun jarin kamfanin, wanda ke kula da "ayyukan ƙwararru, kimiyya da fasaha", shine Erik Prince. A cikin watan Maris na shekarar 2021, COVAXX ya tara dala biliyan 1.35 a cikin keɓaɓɓen wuri.[146]

Inganci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayanai na baya-bayan nan daga karatu a Amurka da wasu ƙasashe sun gano cewa akwai allurar rigakafin COVID-19 daga Amurka “tana da matuƙar kariya daga rashin lafiya, asibiti, da mutuwa sakamakon COVID-19.” Idan aka kwatanta da cikakkun mutanen da aka yiwa allurar rigakafin, CDC ta gano cewa mutanen da ba su yi allurar rigakafin ba sun fi kamuwa da cutar sau 5, sau 10 mafi kusantar yin asibiti, kuma sau 11 sun fi mutuwa. Ya zuwa watan Yunin shekarar 2021, sama da kashi 96% na likitocin Amurka sun sami cikakkiyar rigakafin COVID-19.

A ƙarshen watan Agusta shekarar 2021, bayan bambance-bambancen Delta ya zama mai rinjaye, bincike ya kammala cewa alluran COVID-19 sun ba da kariya 55 bisa ɗari daga kamuwa da cuta, kashi 80 daga kamuwa da alamomin cutar, kuma aƙalla kashi 90 cikin ɗari a kan asibiti. Bambancin na Delta, wanda kusan kashi 40 cikin ɗari ya fi kamuwa da alpha, ya zama mafi ƙarfi a lokacin bazara na shekarar 2021. Duk da haka, alluran rigakafin har yanzu suna da kariya daga mummunan rashin lafiya da asibiti tare da raguwar inganci. Hakazalika CDC ta gano cewa alluran rigakafin sun kai kashi 90 cikin ɗari a hana rigakafin asibiti.

Sakamakon rahotannin CDC, Shugaba Joe Biden ya ce "kusan duka" asibitocin COVID-19 da mutuwa a Amurka suna cikin mutanen da ba a yi musu allurar rigakafi ba. Wani bincike a jihar Washington ya gano cewa mutanen da ba su yi allurar rigakafin ba sun fi saurin kamuwa da COVID-19 sau shida, sau 37 mafi kusantar yin asibiti, kuma sau 67 suna iya mutuwa, idan aka kwatanta da waɗanda aka yi wa allurar.

Masu bincike sun lura cewa duk da cewa ba allurar rigakafin da ake yi a yanzu an tsara su ba ne akan bambancin Delta, duk da haka suna da inganci sosai, amma zuwa ƙaramin mataki: kariya ta faɗi daga 91% zuwa 66%. Wani kwararre ya bayyana cewa "wadanda suka kamu da cutar bayan allurar rigakafi har yanzu ba sa rashin lafiya kuma ba sa mutuwa kamar abin da ke faruwa kafin allurar." "Wannan kwayar cutar ita ce mafi inganci kwayar cutar don nemo sabbin rundunonin da ke da rauni," in ji Dokta Eric Topol, darekta kuma wanda ya kafa Cibiyar Fassara Binciken Scripps. A ƙarshen watan Agusta na shekarar 2021 bambancin Delta ya kai kashi 99 cikin 100 na lamuran Amurka kuma an same shi ya ninka haɗarin rashin lafiya mai tsanani da asibiti ga waɗanda ba a riga sun yi allurar ba.

Abubuwan da suka faru[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Munanan abubuwan da suka faru masu alaƙa da karɓar sabbin alluran rigakafin COVID-19 suna da fa'ida ga jama'a. [147] Duk alluran rigakafin da ake gudanarwa ta allurar intramuscular, gami da alluran COVID-19, suna da illa masu alaƙa da rauni mai rauni da ke da alaƙa da hanya da shigar da wani abu na waje cikin jiki.[148] Waɗannan sun haɗa da ciwon kai, jajaye, kurji, da kumburi a wurin allurar. Sauran illolin na kowa sun haɗa da gajiya, ciwon kai, myalgia (ciwon tsoka), da arthralgia (ciwon haɗin gwiwa) wanda gaba ɗaya ke warwarewa cikin 'yan kwanaki.[149] Effectaya daga cikin abubuwan da ba su da yawa (wanda ke faruwa a ƙasa da 1 cikin mutane 1,000) shine rashin hankali (rashin lafiyan) ga ɗaya ko fiye daga cikin sinadaran rigakafin, wanda a wasu lokuta mawuyaci na iya haifar da anaphylaxis.[150][151][152][153] Haɗarin haɗarin haɗarin haɗarin haɗarin thrombosis mai alaƙa da haɗarin mutuwa yana da alaƙa da yawancin marasa lafiyar mata marasa lafiya, bayan gudanar da allurar Janssen (Johnson da Johnson)[154][155] da Oxford-AstraZenica COVID-19.[156][157][158][159]

Al'umma da al'adu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Rarraba[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Lura game da tebur zuwa dama: Adadi da yawan mutanen da suka karɓi aƙalla kashi ɗaya na allurar COVID-19 (sai dai in an lura in ba haka ba). Zai iya haɗawa da allurar rigakafin waɗanda ba 'yan ƙasa ba, wanda zai iya tura jimillar fiye da 100% na yawan jama'ar yankin. Ana sabunta tebur yau da kullun ta hanyar bot. [note 1]

A cikin Tarayyar Turai, alluran COVID ‑ 19 suna da lasisi a ƙarƙashin Izinin Tallafi na Yanayi wanda baya keɓe masu ƙira daga iƙirarin alhakin farar hula da gudanarwa.[160] Yayin da kwangilolin siye tare da masu kera allurar rigakafin suka kasance a asirce, ba su ƙunshi keɓancewar alhaki har ma da illolin da ba a sani ba a lokacin lasisi. [161]

Ofishin Bincike na Jarida, wata ƙungiyar labarai mai zaman kanta, ta ba da rahoto a cikin binciken da jami'ai da ba a ambaci sunan su ba a wasu ƙasashe, kamar su Argentina da Brazil, suka ce Pfizer ya buƙaci garanti kan ƙarar shari'o'in shari'a sakamakon illa a cikin hanyar yin watsi da abin da ya dace. kadarori kamar ajiyar bankin tarayya, gine -ginen ofisoshin jakadanci ko sansanonin soji, suna wuce abin da ake tsammani daga wasu ƙasashe kamar Amurka.[162] Yayin binciken majalisar na barkewar cutar a Brazil, wakilin Pfizer ya ce sharuddansa na Brazil iri daya ne da sauran kasashen da ta kulla yarjejeniya da su.[163]

Ya zuwa 9 ga watan Oktoba shekarar 2021, an yi allurar rigakafin COVID-19 biliyan 6.47 a duk duniya, tare da kashi 46 na yawan mutanen duniya sun sami aƙalla kashi ɗaya. Yayin da ake gudanar da alluran rigakafin miliyan 23.6 a kullum, kashi 2.3 na mutanen da ke cikin ƙasashe masu ƙarancin kuɗi sun sami aƙalla allurar farko zuwa Oktoba 2021, a cewar rahotannin hukuma daga hukumomin kiwon lafiya na ƙasa, wanda Duniyar Mu ta tattara.

A yayin barkewar cutar kan lokaci mai sauri da sikelin shari'o'in COVID-19 a cikin shekarar 2020, ƙungiyoyin ƙasa da ƙasa kamar Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya (WHO) da Hadin gwiwa don Innovations na Ciwon Cutar (CEPI), masu haɓaka allurar rigakafi, gwamnatoci, da masana'antu sun kimanta rarraba abubuwan da suka faru magungunan rigakafi). Ana iya shawo kan daidaikun ƙasashe da ke samar da allurar rigakafi don fifita babban mai siyarwa don kera ko samar da sabis na farko ga ƙasarsu. bukata.

A cikin watan Afrilu shekarar 2020, an ba da rahoton cewa Burtaniya ta amince ta yi aiki tare da wasu ƙasashe 20 da ƙungiyoyin duniya ciki har da Faransa, Jamus da Italiya don nemo allurar rigakafi da raba sakamakon, kuma 'yan ƙasar Burtaniya ba za su sami fifikon fifiko ga kowane sabon COVID ba. Alluran rigakafi 19 da jami'o'in Burtaniya suka biya masu biyan haraji. Kamfanoni da yawa sun yi niyyar fara yin allurar rigakafin a kan farashi mai ƙima, sannan su ƙara farashin don riba daga baya idan ana buƙatar allurar rigakafin shekara -shekara kuma yayin da ƙasashe ke gina jari don buƙatun gaba.

Rahoton CEPI na watan Afrilu shekarar 2020 ya ce: "Za a buƙaci haɗin kai da haɗin gwiwa tsakanin ƙasashen duniya tsakanin masu haɓaka allurar rigakafi, masu tsara doka, masu tsara manufofi, masu ba da gudummawa, hukumomin kiwon lafiyar jama'a, da gwamnatoci don tabbatar da cewa za a iya ƙera 'yan takarar allurar rigakafin cutar a cikin isasshen adadi da wadatar da su daidai. ga dukkan yankunan da abin ya shafa, musamman yankuna masu ƙarancin albarkatu. " WHO da CEPI suna haɓaka albarkatun kuɗi da jagororin don jigilar duniya da yawa, ingantattun allurar COVID -19, gane buƙatar ta bambanta a cikin ƙasashe da sassan jama'a. ga ma'aikatan kiwon lafiya da yawan jama'a waɗanda ke cikin haɗarin mafi girma na rashin lafiya mai tsanani da mutuwa daga kamuwa da cutar COVID-19, kamar tsofaffi ko talakawa masu yawan jama'a.

Samun dama[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kasashe sun yi alkawarin siyan allurar rigakafin COVID -19 kafin a samu allurar. Kodayake ƙasashe masu samun kuɗi masu girma suna wakiltar kashi 14% na yawan mutanen duniya, har zuwa ranar 15 ga watan Nuwamba shekarar 2020, sun yi kwangilar siyan kashi 51% na duk allurar da aka riga aka sayar. Wasu ƙasashe masu samun kuɗin shiga sun sayi allurai fiye da yadda ya zama dole don allurar yawan alummar su.[164]

A ranar 18 ga watan Janairun shekarar 2021, Darakta Janar na WHO Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus ya yi gargadin matsaloli tare da rarraba daidai: “Fiye da allurai miliyan 39 yanzu an yi allurar rigakafin a cikin ƙasashe akalla 49 masu samun kuɗi. An ba da allurai 25 kawai a cikin ƙasa mafi ƙarancin kuɗi. Ba miliyan 25 ba; ba dubu 25 ba; kawai 25. "[165]

A watan Maris, an bayyana cewa Amurka ta yi kokarin shawo kan Brazil da kar ta sayi maganin Sputnik V COVID-19, saboda tsoron "tasirin Rasha" a Latin Amurka. [166] Wasu ƙasashe da ke da hannu a rikicin yankin da aka daɗe ana ba da rahoton samun damar yin allurar rigakafi daga ƙasashe masu fafatawa; Falasdinu ta zargi Isra’ila da hana isar da allurar rigakafi zuwa Gaza, yayin da Taiwan ta ba da shawarar cewa China ta kawo cikas ga kokarinta na siyan allurar rigakafi.[167][168][169]

Guda guda na allurar COVID -19 ta AstraZeneca zai ci fam 47 na Masar (EGP) kuma hukumomi suna siyar da shi tsakanin 100 zuwa 200 EGP. Rahoton da Carnegie Endowment for Peace International ya yi nuni da ƙimar talauci a Masar kusan kashi 29.7 cikin ɗari, wanda ya ƙunshi kusan mutane miliyan 30.5, kuma ya yi iƙirarin cewa kusan miliyan 15 na Masarawa ba za su iya samun damar yin allurar rigakafi ba. Lauyan kare hakkin dan adam, Khaled Ali, ya kaddamar da karar gwamnati, inda ta tilasta musu bayar da allurar rigakafi kyauta ga dukkan jama'a.[170]

A cewar likitan rigakafi Dr. Anthony Fauci, ire -iren kwayoyin cutar da iyakancewar rarraba allurar rigakafin suna haifar da hadari kuma ya ce: "Dole ne mu yiwa duniya allurar rigakafi, ba kasar mu kadai ba."[171] Edward Bergmark da Arick Wierson suna kira da a yi ƙoƙarin yin allurar rigakafin cutar a duniya kuma sun rubuta cewa ƙasashe masu wadatar '' ni-farko '' tunanin na iya haifar da koma baya, saboda yaduwar cutar a ƙasashe masu talauci zai haifar da ƙarin bambance-bambancen, wanda alluran rigakafin na iya zama kasa tasiri.[172]

A ranar 10 ga watan Maris shekarar 2021, Amurka, Burtaniya, kasashen Tarayyar Turai da sauran membobin WTO sun toshe wani yunkuri da kasashe sama da tamanin masu tasowa suka yi na watsi da hakkokin patent na COVID -19 a kokarin bunkasa samar da alluran rigakafin ga kasashe matalauta.[173] A ranar 5 ga watan Mayu shekarar 2021, gwamnatin Biden ta ba da sanarwar cewa tana goyon bayan yin watsi da kariyar kadarorin ilimi don allurar COVID-19.[174] Membobin Majalisar Tarayyar Turai sun goyi bayan wani yunƙuri na buƙatar ɗaukar haƙƙin mallakar ilimi na ɗan lokaci don allurar COVID -19.[175] Mataimakin shugaban hukumar Valdis Dombrovskis, ya jaddada cewa yayin da Tarayyar Turai ta shirya tattaunawa kan batun yin watsi da dokar mallakar fasaha, shawarwarin da ta bayar sun hada da takaita takunkumin fitar da kaya, warware matsalolin samar da kayayyaki, duba lasisin tilas, saka hannun jari a karfin masana'antu a kasashe masu tasowa da kara ba da gudummawa ga tsarin COVAX.[176]

Jerin allurar rigakafin COVID-19 a Finland, Yuni 2021.
Cibiyar rigakafin COVID-19 a Iran, Agusta 2021.

A cikin wani taro a watan Afrilu na shekarar 2021, kwamitin gaggawa na Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya ya yi magana game da damuwar rashin adalci a cikin rarraba allurar rigakafi ta duniya.[177] Kodayake kashi 9 cikin ɗari na yawan mutanen duniya suna zaune a cikin ƙasashe 29 mafi talauci, waɗannan ƙasashe sun sami kashi 0.3% na duk alluran rigakafin da aka yi tun daga watan Mayu shekarar 2021.[178] A ranar 15 ga Maris, kamfanin dillancin labarai na Brazil Agência Pública ya ba da rahoton cewa ƙasar ta yi allurar kusan mutane biyu da ke bayyana kansu fari fiye da baƙi kuma sun lura cewa mace-mace daga COVID-19 ya fi yawa a cikin baƙar fata.[179]

A watan Mayun shekarar 2021, UNICEF ta yi kira da gaggawa ga ƙasashe masu ci gaban masana’antu da su tattara yawan allurar rigakafin COVID-19 don cike gibin kashi miliyan 125 a cikin shirin COVAX. Shirin galibi ya dogara ne da allurar Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 da Cibiyar Serum ta Indiya ta samar, wanda ya fuskanci manyan matsalolin samar da abinci saboda karuwar buƙatun rigakafin cikin gida a Indiya daga watan Maris zuwa watan Yuni shekarar 2021. Iyakar adadin alluran rigakafi ne kawai za a iya rarrabawa yadda yakamata, kuma karancin alluran rigakafin a Kudancin Amurka da wasu sassan Asiya ya faru ne saboda ƙarancin gudummawar da ƙasashe masu arziki suka bayar. Kungiyoyin agaji na kasa da kasa sun yi nuni ga Nepal, Sri Lanka, da Maldives da Argentina da Brazil, da wasu sassan yankin Caribbean a matsayin wuraren da ake fama da matsaloli, inda alluran rigakafin suka yi karanci. A tsakiyar watan Mayun shekarar 2021, UNICEF kuma ta soki gaskiyar cewa yawancin gudummawar da aka bayar na allurar rigakafin cutar Moderna da Pfizer ba a yi niyyar bayarwa ba har zuwa rabin rabin shekarar 2021, ko farkon shekarar 2022.[180]

A ranar 1 ga watan Yuli shekara ta 2021, shugabannin Bankin Duniya, Asusun Ba da Lamuni na Duniya, Kungiyar Lafiya ta Duniya da Kungiyar Ciniki ta Duniya sun ce a cikin wata sanarwa ta hadin gwiwa: “Kamar yadda kasashe da yawa ke gwagwarmaya da sabbin bambance-bambancen ra'ayi da guguwar COVID-19 ta uku, suna hanzarta. samun alluran rigakafi ya zama mafi mahimmanci don kawo ƙarshen cutar a ko'ina kuma samun ci gaba mai ɗorewa. Mun damu matuka game da iyakance alluran rigakafi, warkewa, bincike, da tallafi don isar da wadatattun ƙasashe masu tasowa. ”[181][182] A watan Yuli na 2021, BMJ ta ba da rahoton cewa ƙasashe sun fitar da alluran rigakafi sama da 250,000 yayin da samarwa ya wuce buƙata kuma tsauraran dokoki sun hana raba alluran.[183] Wani binciken da The New York Times ta gudanar ya gano cewa sama da allurai miliyan ɗaya aka jefar a cikin jihohi goma na Amurka saboda dokokin tarayya sun hana tunawa da su, tare da hana sake rarraba su a ƙasashen waje.[184] Bugu da ƙari, allurai da aka bayar kusa da ƙarewa galibi ƙasashe masu karɓa ba za su iya sarrafa su cikin sauri ba kuma ƙarshe ya zama dole a jefar da su.[185]

Amnesty International da Oxfam International sun soki tallafin tallafin alluran rigakafin da gwamnatocin kasashe ke samarwa, lura da cewa wannan yana kara hauhawar farashin kashi sau 5 kuma galibi da yawa, yana haifar da shingen tattalin arziki don isa ga ƙasashe matalauta.[186][187] Médecins Sans Frontières (Likitoci ba tare da Iyakoki ba) sun kuma soki lamirin allurar rigakafin cutar kuma ta yi kira akai -akai daga dakatarwar su, tare da tallafawa TRIPS Waiver . An fara ba da izini a watan Oktoba shekarar 2020, kuma yana da goyan baya daga yawancin ƙasashe, amma ƙungiyar EU (musamman Jamus), Burtaniya, Norway da Switzerland sun jinkirta. MSF ta yi kira da Ranar Aiki a watan Satumba na shekarar 2021 don matsa lamba kan taron Ministan WTO a watan Nuwamba, wanda ake sa ran zai tattauna batun kawar da IP na TRIPS.[188][189][190]

A ranar 4 ga watan Agustan shekarar 2021, don rage rarrabuwar kawuna tsakanin ƙasashe masu arziki da matalauta, WHO ta yi kira da a dakatar da amfani da maganin aƙalla aƙalla har zuwa ƙarshen Satumba. Koyaya, a ranar 18 ga watan Agusta, gwamnatin Amurka ta ba da sanarwar shirin bayar da allurai masu ƙaruwa watanni 8 bayan fara karatun farko ga yawancin jama'a, farawa daga ƙungiyoyin fifiko. Kafin sanarwar, WHO ta yi tir da irin wannan shawarar, inda ta nuna karancin shaidu na bukatar masu haɓakawa, ban da marasa lafiya da ke da takamaiman yanayi. A wannan lokacin, ɗaukar allurar rigakafin aƙalla kashi ɗaya ya kasance 58% a cikin ƙasashe masu samun kuɗi mai girma kuma kashi 1.3% kawai a cikin ƙasashe masu ƙarancin kuɗi, kuma Amurkawa miliyan 1.14 sun riga sun karɓi kashi mai ƙarfi mara izini. Jami'an Amurka sun yi jayayya cewa raguwar inganci a kan cutar mai sauƙi da matsakaici na iya nuna raguwar kariya daga kamuwa da cuta a cikin watanni masu zuwa. Isra’ila, Faransa, Jamus da Burtaniya suma sun fara shirye -shiryen ƙarfafawa ga takamaiman ƙungiyoyi.[191][192][193] A ranar 14 ga watan Satumban shekarar 2021, fiye da tsoffin shugabannin duniya 140, da masu ba da kyautar Nobel, ciki har da tsohon Shugaban Faransa François Hollande, tsohon Firayim Ministan Burtaniya Gordon Brown, tsohon Firayim Ministan New Zealand Helen Clark, da Farfesa Joseph Stiglitz, sun yi kira 'yan takarar da za su zama shugabar gwamnatin Jamus ta gaba don ayyana kansu a cikin yarda da yin watsi da dokokin mallakar ilimi don alluran COVID-19 da canja fasahar fasahohi.[194]

A lokacin balaguron sa na farko na kasa da kasa, Shugaban kasar Peru Pedro Castillo ya yi jawabi a zaman saba'in da shida na Babban zauren Majalisar Dinkin Duniya a ranar 21 ga watan Satumba shekara ta 2021, inda ya ba da shawarar samar da wata yarjejeniya ta kasa da kasa da shugabannin duniya da kamfanonin harhada magunguna suka sanya wa hannu don tabbatar da samun allurar rigakafi ta duniya baki daya, yana mai jayayya. "Yaki da cutar ya nuna mana gazawar al'ummomin kasa da kasa na yin hadin gwiwa a karkashin ka'idar hadin kai".[195][196]

A cikin cibiyar rigakafin cutar a Brussels, Belgium, Fabrairu 2021.

Asusun bada lamuni na duniya yana ganin allurar rigakafin ta raba tsakanin kasashe masu arziki da matalauta a matsayin babban cikas ga farfado da tattalin arzikin duniya.[197]

Inganta fa'idar allurar rigakafin jama'a na iya amfana daga dabarun da ya dace da yanayin barkewar cutar, ƙididdigar ƙasa, shekarun masu karɓa, samun alluran rigakafi, da haɗarin mutum ɗaya don mummunan cuta: A cikin Burtaniya, an tsawaita tsakanin firamare da ƙaruwa don yin allurar mutane da yawa da wuri -wuri,[198] ƙasashe da yawa sun fara ba da ƙarin harbi mai ƙarfi ga masu rigakafi[199][200] da tsofaffi,[201] da bincike yayi hasashen ƙarin fa'ida na keɓance allurar rigakafin cutar a cikin saitin iyakancewar samun allurar rigakafin yayin da guguwar ƙwayar cuta ta Variants of Concern ta mamaye ƙasa.[202]

Yayin da alluran rigakafin ke rage yiwuwar kamuwa da cuta, har yanzu yana yiwuwa ga cikakken allurar rigakafi don yin kwangila da yada COVID-19.[203] Hukumomin kiwon lafiyar jama'a sun ba da shawarar mutanen da aka yiwa allurar rigakafin su ci gaba da amfani da matakan kariya (sanya abin rufe fuska, nisantar zamantakewa, wanke hannu) don gujewa kamuwa da wasu, musamman masu rauni, musamman a yankunan da ke da yawan jama'a. Gwamnatoci sun nuna cewa za a rage irin waɗannan shawarwarin yayin da yawan allurar rigakafi ke ƙaruwa kuma yaduwar al'umma ke raguwa.[204]

Alhaki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gwamnatoci da yawa sun amince su kare kamfanonin magunguna kamar Pfizer da Moderna daga iƙirarin sakaci da ke da alaƙa da alluran COVID-19 (da jiyya), kamar yadda a cikin annobar da ta gabata, lokacin da gwamnatoci suma suka ɗauki alhakin irin wannan ikirarin.

A cikin Amurka, waɗannan garkuwar alhaki sun fara aiki a ranar 4 ga Fabrairu 2020, lokacin da Sakataren Lafiya na Amurka da Ayyukan Jama'a Alex Azar ya buga sanarwar sanarwa a ƙarƙashin Dokar Shirye -shiryen Jama'a da Dokar Ba da Agajin Gaggawa (Dokar PREP) don matakan rigakafin cutar kan COVID -19, rufe "kowane allurar rigakafi, da ake amfani da ita don magancewa, tantancewa, warkewa, hanawa, ko rage COVID-19, ko watsa SARS-CoV-2 ko kwayar cutar da ke canzawa daga ciki". Sanarwar ta hana "da'awar alhaki da ke zargin sakaci daga masana'anta wajen ƙirƙirar allurar rigakafi, ko sakaci daga mai ba da sabis na kiwon lafiya wajen rubuta allurar da ba daidai ba, rashin halarta da gangan". A takaice dai, ba a nan "rashin da'a" da gangan, waɗannan kamfanonin ba za a iya tuhumar su da diyyar kuɗi ba saboda duk wani raunin da ya faru tsakanin 2020 da 2024 daga gudanar da alluran rigakafi da jiyya da suka shafi COVID-19.[205] Sanarwar tana da tasiri a cikin Amurka ta hanyar 1 2024.[206]

A cikin Tarayyar Turai, alluran COVID ‑ 19 suna da lasisi a ƙarƙashin Izinin Tallafi na Yanayi wanda baya keɓe masu ƙira daga iƙirarin alhakin farar hula da gudanarwa.[207] Yayin da kwangilolin siye tare da masu kera allurar rigakafin suka kasance a asirce, ba su ƙunshi keɓancewar alhaki har ma da illolin da ba a sani ba a lokacin lasisi. [208]

Ofishin Bincike na Jarida, wata ƙungiyar labarai mai zaman kanta, ta ba da rahoto a cikin binciken da jami'ai da ba a ambaci sunan su ba a wasu ƙasashe, kamar su Argentina da Brazil, suka ce Pfizer ya buƙaci garanti kan ƙarar shari'o'in shari'a sakamakon illa a cikin hanyar yin watsi da abin da ya dace. kadarori kamar ajiyar bankin tarayya, gine -ginen ofisoshin jakadanci ko sansanonin soji, suna wuce abin da ake tsammani daga wasu ƙasashe kamar Amurka.[209] Yayin binciken majalisar na barkewar cutar a Brazil, wakilin Pfizer ya ce sharuddansa na Brazil iri daya ne da sauran kasashen da ta kulla yarjejeniya da su.[210]

Wani dattijo yana karbar allurar rigakafin CoronaVac na biyu a Brazil, Afrilu 2021.
Samar da allurar Sputnik V a Brazil, Janairu 2021.

Misinformation da jinkirin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Zanga-zangar adawa da rigakafin COVID-19 a London, United Kingdom

Masu fafutukar hana allurar rigakafi da sauran mutane a cikin ƙasashe da yawa sun bazu dabaru iri-iri na maƙarƙashiya marasa tushe dangane da rashin fahimtar kimiyya, addini, da sauran abubuwa. Ka'idojin da suka haɗa da ikirarin wuce gona da iri game da illolin da ke tattare da su, labari game da COVID-19 da 5G ke watsawa, ɓarna game da yadda tsarin garkuwar jiki ke aiki, da kuma lokacin da yadda ake yin allurar COVID-19 sun bazu a tsakanin talakawa da ke hana su yin rigakafi.[211] Wannan ya haifar da gwamnatoci da ƙungiyoyi masu zaman kansu a duk duniya suna gabatar da matakai don ƙarfafa alurar riga kafi kamar caca,[212] umarni[213] da shiga kyauta zuwa abubuwan da suka faru, [214] wanda hakan ya haifar da ƙarin ɓarna game da halacci da tasirin wadannan matakan da kansu. [215]

Dangane da labarin New York Times na shekarar 2021, kashi 28 ne kawai na Baƙi New Yorkers masu shekaru 18 zuwa 44 ke yin cikakkiyar rigakafin, idan aka kwatanta da kashi 48 na mazaunan Latino da kashi 52 na mazaunan fararen fata a wannan rukunin. An ambaci rashin amana a cikin Gwamnati a matsayin ɗayan dalilan da kuma labarin kai tsaye yana cewa "yawancin rashin aminta da allurar rigakafin cutar coronavirus ya samo asali ne daga gogewar da suka samu tare da nuna wariya ko asalin su a matsayin Baƙin Amurkawa."[216]

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Binciken asibiti na allurar COVID-19
  • 2009 allurar rigakafin cutar murar aladu
  • Fasfo na rigakafin COVID-19
  • Katin rigakafin COVID-19
  • Ci gaban magunguna COVID-19
  • COVID-19 binciken sake dawo da magani

Bayanan kula[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 Teburin da wannan bayanin ya shafi ana sabunta shi yau da kullun ta hanyar bot. Don ƙarin bayani duba Samfura: bayanan COVID-19/Cite.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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