Tsohon Carthage

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Globe icon.svgTsohon Carthage
Carthage standard.svg
Tanit Symbol.svg

Wuri
CarthageMapDe.png Map
 36°50′38″N 10°19′35″E / 36.8439°N 10.3264°E / 36.8439; 10.3264

Babban birni Carthage (en) Fassara
Yawan mutane
Faɗi 4,300,000 (221 "BCE")
Harshen gwamnati Punic (en) Fassara
Bayanan tarihi
Mabiyi Phoenicia (en) Fassara
Wanda ya samar Dido (en) Fassara
Ƙirƙira 814 "BCE"
Rushewa 146 "BCE"
Ta biyo baya Africa (en) Fassara, Sicila (en) Fassara, Hispania (en) Fassara da Mauretania (en) Fassara
Tsarin Siyasa
Tsarin gwamnati Sarauta da oligarchy (en) Fassara
Gangar majalisa Punic Senate (en) Fassara
Ikonomi
Kuɗi Carthaginian currency (en) Fassara
Globe icon.svgTsohon Carthage
Template:Script
Qart-ḥadašt
Carthage standard.svg
Tanit Symbol.svg

Wuri
CarthageMapDe.png Map
 36°50′38″N 10°19′35″E / 36.8439°N 10.3264°E / 36.8439; 10.3264

Babban birni Carthage (en) Fassara
Yawan mutane
Faɗi 4,300,000 (221 "BCE")
Harshen gwamnati Punic (en) Fassara
Bayanan tarihi
Mabiyi Phoenicia (en) Fassara
Wanda ya samar Dido (en) Fassara
Ƙirƙira 814 "BCE"
Rushewa 146 "BCE"
Ta biyo baya Africa (en) Fassara, Sicila (en) Fassara, Hispania (en) Fassara da Mauretania (en) Fassara
Tsarin Siyasa
Tsarin gwamnati Sarauta da oligarchy (en) Fassara
Gangar majalisa Punic Senate (en) Fassara
Ikonomi
Kuɗi Carthaginian currency (en) Fassara


 

Carthage ( / ˈkɑːr θ ɪ dʒ / ) ƙauye ne wanda da a yanzu aka fi sani da Tunisiya ta zamani wanda daga baya ta zama city-state sannan kuma daula. Phoenicians ne suka kafa ta a karni na tara BC, Carthage ya kai tsayinsa a karni na hudu BC a matsayin daya daga cikin manyan biranen duniya kuma tsakiyar daular Carthaginian, mai iko a tsohuwar duniyar da ta mamaye yammacin duniya. Bahar Rum. Bayan Yaƙin Punic, Romawa sun lalata Carthage a cikin 146 BC, waɗanda daga baya suka sake gina birnin ya mai kyau.[1]

An kafa Carthage a kusan shekara ta 814 BC ta hannun 'yan mulkin mallaka daga Tyre, babban birni na ƙasar Finisiya da ke cikin Lebanon ta yau. A karni na bakwai kafin haihuwar Annabi Isa, bayan cin nasarar Finikiya da Daular Neo-Assuriya ta yi, Carthage ta zama mai cin gashin kanta, a hankali ta fadada mulkinta na tattalin arziki da siyasa a yammacin Bahar Rum.[2] A shekara ta 300 BC, ta hanyar sarari na yankuna, vassals, da Satellite states, Carthage ta mallaki mafi girman yanki a yankin, gami da bakin tekun arewa maso yammacin Afirka, Kudancin Iberia (Spain, Portugal, da Gibraltar) da tsibiran Sicily, Sardinia., Corsica, Malta, da kuma tsibirin Balearic.[3]

Daga cikin tsoffin biranen duniya mafi girma da mafi arziki, wurin dabarun Carthage ta ba da damar samun ƙasa mai albarka da manyan hanyoyin kasuwancin teku. Babban hanyar sadarwar ta ta kai har zuwa yammacin Asiya, yammacin Afirka da arewacin Turai, tana samar da kayayyaki iri-iri daga ko'ina cikin duniyar da ta gabata, baya ga fitar da kayan amfanin gona da kayayyaki masu tarin yawa. Wannan daular kasuwanci ta sami tsaro ta daya daga cikin manyan jiragen ruwa mafi girma da karfi a cikin tsohuwar tekun Mediterrenean, da kuma sojojin da suka hada da sojojin haya da mataimaka na kasashen waje, musamman Iberian, Balearics, Gauls, Birtaniyya, Sicilians, Italiya, Helenawa, Numidians da Libyans.[4]

A matsayinta na mai babban iko na yammacin Bahar Rum, babu makawa Carthage ta shiga rikici da makwabta da abokan hamayya da yawa, daga 'yan asalin Berbers na Arewacin Afirka zuwa Jamhuriyar Roman ta asali. Bayan ƙarni na rikici tare da Sicilian Helenawa, haɓakar kasarsa tare da Roma ta ƙare a cikin Yaƙin Punic (264-146 BC), wanda ta ga wasu manyan yaƙe-yaƙe mafi girma kuma mafi girma a zamanin da. Carthage da kyar ta guje wa halaka bayan Yaƙin Punic na Biyu, kuma Romawa sun lalata su a cikin 146 BC bayan Yaƙin Punic na uku da na ƙarshe. Daga baya Romawa sun kafa sabon birni a wurinsa. Duk ragowar wayewar Carthaginian sun zo ƙarƙashin mulkin Romawa a ƙarni na farko AD, kuma daga baya Roma ta zama mai babban iko a Rum, wanda ta share hanyar tashi a matsayin babbar daula.

Duk da yanayin daularsa, al'adar Carthage da asalinta sun kasance da tushe a cikin al'adunta na Phoenician-Kanana, kodayake nau'ikan da aka fi sani da Punic. Kamar sauran mutanen Phoenician, al'ummarta ta kasance birni, kasuwanci, kuma ta karkata zuwa teku da kasuwanci; Ana bayyana wannan a wani bangare ta hanyar sanannun sabbin abubuwan da suka shahara, gami da samar da serial, gilashin mara launi, allon masussuka, da tashar jirgin ruwan cothon. Carthaginians sun shahara saboda bajintar kasuwanci, bincike, da tsarin gwamnati na musamman wanda ya haɗa abubuwa na dimokuradiyya, oligarchy, da jamhuriya, gami da misalan zamani na tantancewa da ma'auni.

Duk da kasancewarta ɗaya daga cikin al'adun da suka fi tasiri a zamanin da, Carthage galibi ana tunawa da ita don dogon lokaci da rikici mai ɗaci da Roma, wanda ya yi barazanar haɓakar Jumhuriyar Roman kuma kusan canza yanayin wayewar Yammacin Turai. Saboda lalata kusan dukkanin rubutun Carthaginian bayan Yaƙin Punic na Uku, yawancin abin da aka sani game da wayewar sa ya fito ne daga tushen Roman da Girkanci, waɗanda da yawa daga cikinsu sun rubuta a lokacin ko bayan Yaƙin Punic, kuma zuwa digiri daban-daban an tsara su ta hanyar tashin hankali.[5] Shahararru da halayen masana game da Carthage a tarihi sun nuna ra'ayin Greco-Roman da ta mamaye, kodayake binciken archaeological tun daga ƙarshen karni na 19 ya taimaka wajen ba da ƙarin haske da haɓaka kan wayewar Carthagin.


Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. George Modelski, World Cities: –3000 to 2000, Washington DC: FAROS 2000, 2003. ISBN 0-9676230-1-4. Figures in main tables are preferentially cited. Part of former estimates can be read at Evolutionary World Politics Homepage Archived 2008-12-28 at the Wayback Machine
  2. Glenn Markoe (2000). Phoenicians. University of California Press. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-520-22614-2.
  3. Maria Eugenia Aubet (2008). "Political and Economic Implications of the New Phoenician Chronologies" (PDF). Universidad Pompeu Fabra. p. 179. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 December 2013. Retrieved 24 February 2013. The recent radiocarbon dates from the earliest levels in Carthage situate the founding of this Tyrian colony in the years 835–800 cal BC, which coincides with the dates handed down by Flavius Josephus and Timeus for the founding of the city.
  4. Sabatino Moscati (2001). "Colonization of the Mediterranean". In Sabatino Moscati (ed.). The Phoenicians. I.B.Tauris. p. 48. ISBN 978-1-85043-533-4.
  5. H.H. Scullard (1 September 2010). From the Gracchi to Nero: A History of Rome 133 BC to AD 68. Taylor & Francis. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-415-58488-3.