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Yaren Khwe

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Yaren Khwe
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-3 xuu
Glottolog kxoe1243[1]

Khwe //ˈkwEɪ/ / KWAY (wanda aka fassara Kxoe, Khoe //ˈkɔɪ/ / KOY) yare ne na reshen Khoe na dangin Kwadi-Khoe na Namibia, Angola, Botswana, Afirka ta Kudu, da sassa na Zambia, tare da wasu masu magana 8,000.

Rabewa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Khwe memba ne na reshen Khoe na babban dangin harshen Khoe-Kwadi.

A cikin 2000, taron Ƙungiyar Ƙwararrun Ƙwararrun Ƙwararru a Afirka ta Kudu (WIMSA) ta samar da Sanarwar Penduka game da Daidaita Harsunan Ju da Khoe, wanda ke ba da shawarar Khwe a matsayin wani ɓangare na dangin Khoe-San ta Tsakiya, Harshen tari wanda ya ƙunshi Khwe, ǁAni da Buga.

Khwe shine mafi kyawun rubutun kamar yadda sanarwar Penduka ta ba da shawarar, amma kuma ana kiran harshen da Kxoe, Khoe-dam da Khwedam . Barakwena, Barakwengo da Mbarakwena suna nufin masu magana da yaren kuma ana ɗaukarsu masu karan-tsaye.

Sauran sunaye da haruffan ǁAni sun haɗa da ǀAnda, Gǀanda, Handá, Gani da Tanne tare da haɗe-haɗe daban-daban na -kwe/khwe/khoe da -dam

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yawan mutanen Khwe sun zauna a kusa da "daji" a yankunan Afirka kudu da hamadar Sahara tsawon shekaru dubu da dama. [2] Shaidu daga masu magana da Khwe masu rai sun lura cewa kakanninsu sun fito ne daga tsaunin Tsodilo, a cikin Okavango Delta, inda suka fara amfani da dabarun mafarauta don rayuwa. [2] Waɗannan shaidu kuma sun nuna cewa masu magana da harshen Khwe suna jin kamar ba su da ƙasa, kuma suna jin kamar gwamnatocin Botswana da Namibiya sun ɗauki ƙasarsu da haƙƙinsu. [2]

Har zuwa 1970s, yawan masu magana da Khwe suna zaune a yankunan da yawancin mutanen yammacin duniya ba su isa ba a yankuna masu nisa na Namibiya, Angola, Zambia, Botswana, da Afirka ta Kudu. [2] Tun daga wannan lokacin, abubuwan more rayuwa sun ƙaura daga farko daga masu farauta zuwa wasu ayyukan Yammacin Turai. [3] Ilimin yaren Bantu na farko da masu jin Khwe suka samu shine a cikin 1970 a wani ƙauye a Mùtcʼiku, ƙauye kusa da Kogin Okavango. [3]

Wasu suna jayayya cewa hakan ya sa yaren cikin rugujewa, yayin da matasa suka koyi harsunan Bantu, kamar Tswana . Ana koyan Khwe a gida a matsayin yare na biyu a Namibiya, amma harshen yana ɓacewa a Botswana yayin da masu magana ke ƙaura zuwa Tswana. [3] Ana kuma jayayya cewa wannan ya haifar da fadada ma'anar kalmomi a cikin harshen Khwe. Misali, "don rubuta", ǁgàràá, an taɓa amfani da shi don kwatanta "aikin da membobin al'umma ke yi yayin bukukuwan waraka". [2] Fadada ma'anar kalma ta nazarce kuma ta mamaye wasu sassa na al'adun masu magana da Khwe, kamar abinci, dabbobi, da sauran nau'ikan suna wanda wasu ke jayayya sun haifar da rashin daidaituwa. Lura da wannan, ana fahimtar ainihin ma'anar waɗannan kalmomi kuma ana amfani da su yayin ayyukan al'adun Khwe. [3]

Yayin da masu magana da Khwe ke da ƙarancin hulɗa da na waje har zuwa 1970, akwai iyakataccen hulɗa tsakanin Khwe da masu mishan a farkon ƙarni na ashirin. [3] Masu wa’azi a ƙasashen waje, galibi, sun kasa juyar da al’ummar masu jin Khwe. [3] Gabatarwa ga masu mishan, duk da haka, ya gabatar da al'adu da harsunan Yamma, ban da harsunan Bantu. [3]

Duk da tasirin harsunan Bantu a cikin ilimin masu magana da Khwe, a tarihi, Khwe, da sauran harsunan Khoisan, sun sami tasirin harshe akan harsunan Bantu. [4] Masu magana da yaren Bantu na yankunan Okavango da Zambezi sun yi ƙaura zuwa yankin a lokacin Hijira na Bantu, kuma sun yi hulɗa da 'yan asalin Khoe a yankin. [4] Harsunan Bantu da yawa na wannan yanki sun daidaita danna maballin harsunan Khoe kuma sun haɗa su cikin salon sautinsu, a cikin ragi ta hanyar juzu'i. [4] Wasu malaman suna jayayya cewa sauye-sauyen "tuntuɓi" a cikin harsunan Bantu sun taimaka wajen kawar da harshe gaba ɗaya daga harsunan Khoe, irin su Khwe, zuwa harsunan Bantu saboda karuwar sanin harshe a cikin harshe. [4]

Rarrabawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Khoe ya fi mamaye yankin Okavango Delta na Botswana. Musamman, masu magana da Khwe da farko suna zaune ne a yankin Caprivi na yamma a Namibiya, duk da haka, daukacin al'ummar Khoe sun mamaye mafi girman yanayin kasa. Masu magana da Khwe a yammacin Caprivi sun ɗan ɗan yi nisa, a ƙamus, daga wasu harsunan Khoe iri ɗaya, kamar Damara . Dangane da wani binciken yare da Sashen Harsunan Afirka na Jami’ar Namibia ya nuna, ya nuna cewa mai yiwuwa proto-Damara ta yi ƙaura ta yankin Caprivi na yamma kafin Khwe ya zaunar da yankin, saboda ba a sami ɗan ruɗani ba. [5]

Rarraba masu magana da Khwe a babban yankin Kavango-Zambezi ya rinjayi danna maballin cikin harsunan Khoisan, wasu suna jayayya. [4] Khwe, da sauran al'ummomin Khoe masu magana, sun kasance a cikin mafi girma a Kudancin Afirka, kafin babban hijirar Bantu, wanda ya faru kimanin shekaru 5,000 da suka wuce. A cikin wannan ƙaura, al'ummar Bantu na yammacin Afirka ta Tsakiya da ke kewaye da iyakokin Najeriya da Kamaru, sun yi ƙaura zuwa Kudancin Afirka, kuma a cikin wannan tsari, sun ci karo da al'ummar Khwe. [4] Yayin da Khwe suka yi hijira zuwa cikin Caprivi da babban yankin Kavango-Zambezi bayan Damara, tabbas suna can shekaru 5,000 da suka wuce lokacin da masu magana da Bantu suka yi hijira zuwa yankin, kuma ta hanyar musayar harshe da al'adu, harsunan biyu sun canza asali. [4] Sassan ilimin halittar jiki, syntax, da phonology sassan wannan shafi sun kara yin magana game da canje-canjen da suka faru, da kuma yadda ya rinjayi Khwe na zamani.

A yau, kimanin masu magana da harshen Khwe 3,700 ne ke zaune a Namibiya, tare da mafi rinjayen mazauna yankin yammacin yankin Zambezi . Mafi yawan sanannun matsugunan Khwe sune Mutc'iku, dake kusa da Kogin Okavango, da Gudigoa a cikin Botswana.

Lura da wannan, an sami manyan ƙaura na tilastawa daga matsin lamba na gwamnati waɗanda suka yi tasiri a kan rarraba masu magana da Khwe na zamani. [6] A cikin 1990, mutane 4,000 Xhu- da Khwe, ciki har da tsofaffin mambobi na Bataliya ta 31 (SWATF) waɗanda suka yi yaƙi a ƙarƙashin Rundunar Tsaro ta Afirka ta Kudu a Yaƙin Namibiya, an zauna a wani gari na tanti a Schmidtsdrift, Afirka ta Kudu. A cikin 2003, yawancin wannan al'ummar sun ƙaura zuwa Platfontein, wajen Kimberley, bin Schmidtsdrift Community Land Claim.

Fassarar sauti[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Khwe yana da baƙaƙen sauti guda 70, gami da dannawa 36, da kuma wasula 25, gami da diphthongs da wasulan nasalised. An yi nazarin tsarin sautin Khwe kamar yadda ya ƙunshi sautunan silabi 9 ( rijistar 3 da kwane-kwane 6), [7] kodayake ƙarin binciken da aka gabatar kwanan nan ya gano sautunan ƙamus guda 3 kawai, babba, tsakiya da ƙasa, tare da mora a matsayin ainihin sashin tsarin sauti. Sautin sandhi tafiyar matakai na kowa a Khwe da harsuna masu alaƙa.

Wasula[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Khwe wasali
Gaba Tsakiya Baya
Kusa i u
Kusa-tsakiyar e o
Bude-tsakiyar ɛ
Bude a
Diphthongs
Kusa ui ue ku uwa
Kusa-tsakiyar ei eu
ku oe oa
Bude ae ao
  • /o/ ana gane kamar [o] idan aka tsawaita, amma ana gane shi kamar [ɔ] idan an fade shi gajere.
  • Ana gane wasulan hanci guda uku da /ã ĩ ũ/. Hakanan akwai /õ/ hanci, amma a cikin diphthongs kawai kamar /õã/.
  • Diphthongs na hanci sun haɗa da /ãĩ, ũĩ, ãũ, õã/.
  • /oɛ/ da /uɛ/ kyauta ne a cikin saɓani tare da /oe/ da /ue/, amma sun dogara ga masu magana kawai.

Consonants[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kwe pulmonants
Labial Alveolar Bayan-<br id="mw_g"><br><br><br></br> alveolar Palatal Velar Uvula Glottal
a fili dan uwa
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
M mara murya p t k q ʔ
m kʰʲ
m
murya b d ɡ ɡʲ
prenasal ᵐb ⁿd ᵑɡ
Haɗin kai mara murya t͡ʃ
murya d͡ʒ
maras kyau tx t͡ʃx
m t͡ʃʼ kxʼ
Ƙarfafawa mara murya f ( s ) ʃ ( ç ) x h
murya v
Trill r
Kusanci ( l ) j w
  • /ʃ/ an gane shi azaman [ç] kawai a cikin Buma-Khwe, amma kamar [s] a cikin ǁXo-Khwe da Buga-Khwe, kuma kamar [ʃ] a cikin ǁXom-Khwe
  • /l/ ana samunsa ne kawai a cikin aro.

Khoe click inventories gabaɗaya suna haɗa nau'ikan ƙunƙunwar gaba guda huɗu tare da maƙarƙashiya na gaba tara zuwa goma sha ɗaya. Ba a san ainihin girman kayan dannawa a Khwe ba. Köhler ya kafa ƙididdiga na wayoyin hannu guda 36, daga haɗakar ruwa guda huɗu / ǀ ǂ ǃ ǁ/, da ƙwanƙwasa tara (biyar kawai akan alveolar), da kuma latsa muryar alveolar da aka aro, /ǃᶢ/. Khwe shine kadai yare da ake samun danna murya da aka riga an shigar da hanci.

Khwe ya danna
Dental Alveolar Palatal Na gefe
Mara murya ǀᵏ ǃᵏ ǂᵏ ǁᵏ
Glottalized ǀˀ ǃˀ ǂˀ ǁˀ
Murya ǀᶢ ǃᶢ ǂᶢ ǁᶢ
Mai sha'awa ǀᵏʰ ǃᵏʰ ǂᵏʰ ǁᵏʰ
Nasal ᵑǀ ᵑǃ ᵑǂ ᵑǁ
Muryar hanci ᵑǀᶢ ᵑǃᶢ ᵑǂᶢ ᵑǁᶢ
Uvula tasha ǀq ǃq ǂq ǁq
Ƙarfafawa ǀᵏˣ ǃᵏˣ ǂᵏˣ ǁᵏˣ
Ƙaddamar da fitarwa ǀᵏˣʼ ǃᵏˣʼ ǂᵏˣʼ ǁᵏˣʼ

Sautuna[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Akwai sautuna uku a Khwe: babba /V́/, tsakiyar /V̄/, ƙananan /V̀/. Dogayen wasulan da diphthongs suna da sautuna takwas (bacewar *tsaki-ƙaƙaƙaƙaƙaƙƙe a matsayin haɗin gwiwa).

Ilimin Halitta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Khwe yare ne mai ratsawa, don haka yana da ɗimbin ɗimbin ɗimbin ƙididdiga na alamar kai akan sunaye da fi'ili. Verbs suna ɗaukar ƙayyadaddun yanayin yanayi (TAMs), yin alama don haddasawa, aikace-aikace, kwamiti, wuri, m, mai jujjuyawa da maimaituwa . Sunaye suna da alamar mutum-jinsi-lambar kari (PGNs). Rarraba jinsi a Khwe ya dogara ne akan jima'i, kuma PGNs ne ke bayyana shi, tare da yiwa jinsin alama koda a cikin mutum na farko da na jam'i.

Negation a cikin Khwe ana nuna shi tare da juzu'i-ƙarshe mara kyau vé, wanda za a iya amfani da shi don nuna rashin faruwar wani lamari, rashin daidaituwa tsakanin ƙungiyoyi, da rashin mallakar wani mahaluƙi. Hakanan za'a iya amfani da barbashi na bayan-verbal , kodayake aikace-aikacen sa yana iyakance ga ayyuka masu hanawa, kamar munanan abubuwan da ba su dace ba da mummunan gini da madaidaici, wanda kuma za a iya amfani da . [8]

Daidaitawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Gabaɗaya, harsunan Khoisan suna da tsari na SV. Harsunan Khoisan na tsakiya suna da babban tsari na AOV, gami da Khwe, kodayake ana amfani da odar OAV akai-akai a cikin zance na yau da kullun da ba da labari.

Khwe ba shi da wani nau'in sifa daban-daban . Ana iya amfani da karin magana , suna da fi'ili, musamman ma'anar fi'ili. Khwe yana da gyaggyarawa – tsarin kai, ta yadda lafuzza ke gaba da fi’ili, kuma sifofi da sifofi suna gaba da suna.

A cikin Khwe, batutuwa na fi'ilai masu canzawa, batutuwa da abubuwa kai tsaye na fi'ili masu canzawa, da ɗaya daga cikin abubuwan fi'ilai masu canzawa galibi ana barin su yayin da masu magana suka san mahalarta ta hanyar mahallin ciki- ko ƙarin harshe.

Khwe yana da gine-gine iri-iri guda biyu waɗanda za su iya nuna jerin abubuwan da suka haɗa da juna: serial verb constructions (SVC) da kuma gine-gine. SVC yana bayyana wani hadadden al'amari wanda ya ƙunshi abubuwa biyu ko fiye waɗanda ke faruwa a lokaci guda, kuma ginin juzu'i yana nuna gajeriyar abubuwan biyu ko fiye.

SVCs a cikin Khwe sun ƙunshi kalmomi biyu ko fiye waɗanda ke samar da raka'a guda ɗaya, tare da fi'ili na ƙarshe kawai da aka yiwa alama ga TAM. Kalmomin da suka gabata sun zama dole su ɗauki ƙaramar murya mai aiki. Gine-ginen juzu'i na iya ƙunshi kalmomi biyu ko fiye, ɗaya kawai daga cikinsu yana ɗaukar alamar TAM.

Kalmomi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A adawa da postulated harshe na duniya game da firamare na gani yankin a cikin matsayi na fi'ili na hasashe, Khwe fi'ili da aka fi amfani da shi na hasashe shine ǁám̀, 'dandano, wari, taɓa'. Khwe yana da fi'ili uku na hasashe, sauran biyun kuma mṹũ 'duba', kuma kóḿ 'ji', amma ǁám̀, wanda ke da tushe a ma'ana ta fahimtar baka, ana amfani da shi don isar da cikakkun hanyoyin fahimta. [9]

Kalmar Khwe xǀóa tana aiki duka azaman fi'ili 'zama kaɗan, kaɗan, wasu' kuma azaman madadin hanyar bayyana adadin 'uku'. Wannan kalma ta bambanta a cikin shubuharsa a tsakanin kalmomin lambobi da al'ummomin mafarauta-mafarauta ke amfani da su.

Khwe yana da adadi mai yawa na kalmomin lamuni daga Afrikaans .

Rubutun Rubutu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin 1957, Oswin Köhler, wanda ya kafa Institut für Afrikanistik a Jami'ar Cologne, ya tsara rubutun Khwe, inda ya buga littattafai guda uku da zane-zane na nahawu, bisa lura da harshe da al'adun da aka yi sama da shekaru 30 na ziyara a Namibiya. . [10] Kamar yadda aka tsara rubutun Köhler don dalilai na ilimi, an buga kundinsa a cikin Jamusanci da Faransanci, don haka Khwe da kansu ba su isa ba. Köhler bai taɓa yin yunƙurin koyar da karatu ga membobin al'umma ba.

Ƙoƙarin koyar da rubutun Khwe ga masu jin yaren farko ba a yi shi ba sai a shekara ta 1996, daga malaman cibiyar da suka ɗauki aikin Köhler. A buƙatun kuma tare da tuntuɓar Khwe, Matthias Brenzinger da Mathias Schladt sun sake duba rubutun kuma sun sauƙaƙa a tsakanin 1996 da 1997.

An buga tarin tatsuniyoyi na Khwe a cikin 1999 ta Christa Kilian-Hatz da David Naude, ta yin amfani da rubutun da aka sabunta tare da fassarar tsaka-tsaki da kyauta. Kilian-Hatz kuma ya buga ƙamus na Khwe, ko da yake an rubuta wannan a cikin ƙamus na harshe wanda ke amfani da alamomi daga Haruffa na Harafi na Ƙasashen Duniya a maimakon rubutun Latin da aka yi amfani da shi don aikin rubutun.

Ba a ba da izinin rubutun rubutun da aka sake fasalin ba a hukumance a Namibiya. Ba a koyar da yaren Khwe a matsayin darasi ko kuma amfani da shi azaman yaren koyarwa a cikin ilimin boko, kuma ƴan kayan karatu sun wanzu. [10]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Yaren Khwe". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Brenzinger, M (No Date). The Vanishing of Nonconformist Concepts.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Chumbo, Sefako, and Kotsi Mmabo. Xom Kyakyare Khwe: Am Kuri Kx'ûî = The Khwe of the Okavango Panhandle: The past Life. Shakawe: Teemacane Trust, 2002.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 Gunnink, H., Sands, B., Pakendorf, B., & Bostoen, K. (2015). Prehistoric language contact in the Kavango-Zambezi transfrontier area: Khoisan influence on southwestern Bantu languages. Journal of African Languages and Linguistics, 36(2). doi:10.1515/jall-2015-0009 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name ":9" defined multiple times with different content
  5. Haacke, W. (2008, December). Linguistic hypotheses on the origin of Namibian Khoekhoe speakers.Southern African Humanities, 20, 163-177.
  6. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named :10
  7. . JSTOR Hurford. Cite journal requires |journal= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
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  10. 10.0 10.1 Empty citation (help) Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name ":6" defined multiple times with different content

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]