Ƙungiyar Tattalin Arzikin Ƙasashen Afirka ta Yamma

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Group half.svgƘungiyar Tattalin Arzikin Ƙasashen Afirka ta Yamma
Bayanai
Suna a hukumance
Economic Community of West African States, Communauté économique des États de l’Afrique de l’Ouest da Comunidade Económica dos Estados da África Ocidental
Gajeren suna ECOWAS, CEDEAO da CEDEAO
Iri Regional Economic Communities (en) Fassara da intergovernmental organization (en) Fassara
Mulki
Shugaba Gnassingbé Eyadema, Olusegun Obasanjo, Léopold Sédar Senghor (en) Fassara, Gnassingbé Eyadema, Siaka Probyn Stevens (en) Fassara, Mathieu Kérékou (en) Fassara, Ahmed Sékou Touré (en) Fassara, Lansana Conté (en) Fassara, Muhammadu Buhari, Ibrahim Babangida, Dawda Kairaba Jawara (en) Fassara, Blaise Compaoré (en) Fassara, Dawda Kairaba Jawara (en) Fassara, Abdou Diouf (en) Fassara, Nicéphore Soglo (en) Fassara, Jerry Rawlings, Sani Abacha, Abdulsalami Abubakar, Gnassingbé Eyadema, Alpha Oumar Konaré, Abdoulaye Wade (en) Fassara, John Kufuor, Mamadou Tandja, Blaise Compaoré (en) Fassara, Umaru Musa Yar'Adua, Goodluck Jonathan, Alassane Ouattara, John Mahama, Macky Sall (en) Fassara, Ellen Johnson Sirleaf (en) Fassara, Faure Gnassingbé, Muhammadu Buhari, Mahamadou Issoufou, Nana Akufo-Addo da Yakubu Gowon
General secretary (en) Fassara Aboubakar Diaby Ouattara (en) Fassara, Momodu Munu (en) Fassara, Abass Bundu, Édouard Benjamin (en) Fassara, Lansana Kouyaté (en) Fassara, Mohammed Ibn Chambas (en) Fassara, James Victor Gbeho (en) Fassara, Kadré Désiré Ouedraogo (en) Fassara da Marcel Alain de Souza (en) Fassara
Hedkwata Abuja
Subdivisions
ECOWAS members.svg
Tarihi
Ƙirƙira 28 Mayu 1975

ecowas.int


Facebook icon 192.pngTwitter Logo.pngYoutube-variation.png

Ƙungiyar Tattalin Arzikin Ƙasashen Afirka ta Yamma (da Turanci ECOWAS, da Faransanci CEDEAO), wanda aka fi sani da (CEDEAO a Faransanci), ƙungiyar siyasa da tattalin arziƙin yanki ce ta ƙasashe goma sha biyar da ke Yammacin Afirka. Gaba ɗaya, waɗannan ƙasashe sun ƙunshi yanki na 5,114,162 km2 (1,974,589 sq mi), kuma a cikin 2015 suna da kimanin mutane sama da miliyan 349. An kafa ƙungiyar ne a ranar 28 ga Mayu, 1975, tare da sanya hannu kan Yarjejeniyar ta Legas, tare da ayyukanta da aka bayyana don inganta haɗin tattalin arziki a duk yankin. An amince da sake fasalin yarjejeniyar da sanya hannu a ranar 24 ga Yulin 1993 a Cotonou. Wanda aka yi la'akari da daya daga cikin ginshikan yanki na kungiyar bunkasa tattalin arzikin Afirka baki daya (AEC), babban burin kungiyar ECOWAS shine a cimma "wadatar wadatar zuci" ga mambobinta ta hanyar kirkirar babbar kungiyar kasuwanci ta hanyar gina cikakken tattalin arziki da kungiyar kwadago. ECOWAS din ma tana aiki a matsayin rundunar wanzar da zaman lafiya a yankin, inda a wasu lokuta kasashe mambobin kungiyar ke tura dakaru na hadin gwiwa domin shiga tsakani a cikin mambobin kungiyar a wasu lokuta na rashin zaman lafiyar siyasa da tashin hankali. A cikin 'yan shekarun nan waɗannan sun haɗa da tsoma baki a cikin Ivory Coast a 2003, Laberiya a 2003, Guinea-Bissau a 2012, Mali a 2013, da Gambiya a 2017. ECOWAS ta haɗa da ƙananan ƙungiyoyi biyu: Economicungiyar Tattalin Arziƙin Afirka da Kuɗin Kuɗi ta Yammacin Afirka (wanda kuma aka sani da sunan Faransanci UEMOA) ƙungiya ce ta takwas, galibi masu jin Faransanci, jihohi a cikin ECOWAS waɗanda ke raba ƙungiyar kwastam da ƙungiyar hada hadar kuɗi [faɗar da ake bukata]. An kafa shi a cikin 1994 kuma an yi niyya ne don daidaita ikon tattalin arzikin masu magana da Ingilishi a cikin ƙungiyar (kamar Nijeriya da Ghana), mambobin UEMOA galibi tsoffin yankuna ne na Afirka ta Yamma ta Faransa. Kudin da duk suke amfani da shi shine CFA franc, wanda ke manne da euro. Yankin Kuɗi na Yammacin Afirka (WAMZ), wanda aka kafa a 2000, ya ƙunshi ƙasashe shida mafi yawan masu magana da Ingilishi a cikin ECOWAS waɗanda ke shirin yin aiki don karɓar kuɗinsu na bai ɗaya, eco.

Bugu da kari, ECOWAS ta hada da cibiyoyi masu zuwa: Hukumar ECOWAS, Kotun Al’umma ta Shari’a, [8] Majalisar Dokokin Al’umma, Bankin ECOWAS na Zuba Jari da Ci Gaban (EBID), [9] Kungiyar Kiwon Lafiya ta Afirka ta Yamma (WAHO), da kuma Rukunin Majalisar Dinkin Duniya da ke yaki da safarar kudade da kuma bayar da Ta'addanci a Afirka ta Yamma (GIABA).

ECOWAS tana aiki cikin yarukan hadin gwiwa guda uku-Faransanci, Ingilishi, da Fotigal, kuma ta ƙunshi cibiyoyi biyu don aiwatar da manufofi: Hukumar ECOWAS da Bankin ECOWAS na saka hannun jari da ci gaba (EBID), wanda a da ake kira Asusun Hadin Kai har sai ta an sake masa suna a 2001. A 1976, Cape Verde ta shiga cikin ECOWAS, yayin da Mauritania ta janye a Disambar 2000, bayan da ta bayyana aniyarta na yin hakan a watan Disambar 1999.

A cikin 2011, ECOWAS ta zartar da tsarin ci gabanta na shekaru goma masu zuwa, Ganin 2020, kuma, tare da ita, Manufofin Kimiyya da Fasaha (ECOPOST).

Contents[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

·         1Member states

·         2Structure

o    2.1Executive Secretaries and Presidents of the Commissions

o    2.2Chairpersons

o    2.3Regional security co-operation

o    2.4Community Parliament

o    2.5Expanded ECOWAS Commission

o    2.6Community Court of Justice

o    2.7Sporting and cultural exchange

·         3Economic integration

o    3.1West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA)

§  3.1.1Membership

o    3.2West African Monetary Zone

§  3.2.1Membership

·         4Transport

·         5Tourism

·         6See also

·         7References

·         8External links

Kasashen mambobi

Ya zuwa watan Fabrairun 2017, ECOWAS tana da membobin kasashe 15; takwas daga cikinsu masu jin Faransanci ne, biyar kuma masu magana da Ingilishi ne, biyu kuma masu magana da yaren Fotigal. Duk mambobi na yanzu sun shiga cikin al'umma a matsayin membobin kafa a cikin Mayu 1975, banda Cape Verde wacce ta shiga cikin 1977. Tsohon memba na ECOWAS kawai shine mai magana da larabci Mauritania, wanda kuma yana daya daga cikin membobin da suka kafa kungiyar a shekarar 1975 kuma ta yanke shawarar ficewa a watan Disambar 2000. Kwanan nan Mauritania ta rattaba hannu kan sabuwar yarjejeniyar zama memba a watan Agusta na 2017. A hukumance an nemi Morocco ta shiga ECOWAS a cikin watan Fabrairun 2017. An amince da aikace-aikacen ne bisa ka'ida a taron shugabannin kasashe a watan Yunin 2017, amma yunkurin Morocco na zama memba ya ci tura. Statididdiga don yawan jama'a, GDP maras ƙarfi da ikon GDP na ikon siye da aka jera a ƙasa an ɗauke su daga ƙididdigar Bankin Duniya na 2015, wanda aka buga a watan Disamba na 2016. An ciro bayanan yanki daga rahoton 2012 wanda sashin kididdiga na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ya tattara.

ECOWAS Shiyyar Kasashe membobin kungiyar

ECOWAS Zone A member statesCountryArea

(km2)Population

(thousands)GDP (nominal)

(millions USD)GDP (PPP)

(millions intl.$)CurrencyOfficial

language Cabo Verde4,0335211,6033,413escudoPortuguese Gambia11,2951,9919393,344dalasiEnglish Guinea245,85712,6096,69915,244francFrench Guinea-Bissau36,1251,8441,0572,685CFA francPortuguese Liberia111,3694,5032,0533,762dollarEnglish Mali1,240,19217,60012,74735,695CFA francFrench Senegal196,71215,12913,61036,625CFA francFrench Sierra Leone72,3006,4534,21510,127leoneEnglishECOWAS Zone A total1,917,88360,55042,923110,895——

Asashe membobin ECOWAS Zone B

Country Area

(km2)

Population

(thousands)

GDP (nominal)

(millions USD)

GDP (PPP)

(millions intl.$)

Currency Official

language

Benin 114,763 10,880 8,291 22,377 CFA franc French
Burkina Faso 272,967 18,106 10,678 30,708 CFA franc French
Ghana 238,533 27,410 37,543 115,409 cedi English
Côte d'Ivoire 322,463 22,702 31,759 79,766 CFA franc French
Niger 1,267,000 19,899 7,143 19,013 CFA franc French
Nigeria 923,768 182,202 481,066 1,093,921 Naira English
Togo 56,785 7,305 4,088 10,667 CFA franc French
ECOWAS Zone B total 3,196,279 277,502 580,568 1,371,861

Sakatarorin Zartarwa da Shugabannin kwamitocin

Executive Secretary Country In office
Inaugural holder Aboubakar Diaby Ouattara Ivory Coast January 1977 – 1985
Momodu Munu Sierra Leone 1985–1989
Abass Bundu Sierra Leone 1989–1993
Édouard Benjamin Guinea 1993–1997
Lansana Kouyaté Guinea September 1997 – 31 January 2002
Mohamed Ibn Chambas Ghana 1 February 2002 – 31 December 2007
Mohamed Ibn Chambas Ghana 1 January 2007 – 18 February 2010
James Victor Gbeho Ghana 18 February 2010 – 1 March 2012
Kadré Désiré Ouedraogo Burkina Faso 1 March 2012 – 4 June 2016
Marcel Alain de Souza Benin 4 June 2016 – 1 March 2018
Jean-Claude Brou Ivory Coast 1 March 2018 – present

Shugabanni

hairperson Country In office
Yakubu Gowon Nigeria 28 May 1975 – 29 July 1975
Gnassingbé Eyadéma Togo 29 July 1975 – 13 September 1977
Olusegun Obasanjo Nigeria 13 September 1977 – 30 September 1979
Léopold Sédar Senghor Senegal 30 September 1979 – 31 December 1980
Gnassingbé Eyadéma Togo 1980–1981
Siaka Stevens Sierra Leone 1981–1982
Mathieu Kérékou Benin 1982–1983
Ahmed Sékou Touré Guinea 1983–1984
Lansana Conté Guinea 1984–1985
Muhammadu Buhari Nigeria 1985 – 27 August 1985
Ibrahim Babangida Nigeria 27 August 1985 – 1989
Dawda Jawara Gambia 1989–1990
Blaise Compaoré Burkina Faso 1990–1991
Dawda Jawara Gambia 1991–1992
Abdou Diouf Senegal 1992–1993
Nicéphore Soglo Benin 1993–1994
Jerry Rawlings Ghana 1994 – 27 July 1996
Sani Abacha Nigeria 27 July 1996 – 8 June 1998
Abdulsalami Abubakar Nigeria 9 June 1998 – 1999
Gnassingbé Eyadéma Togo 1999 – 1999
Alpha Oumar Konaré Mali 1999 – 21 December 2001
Abdoulaye Wade Senegal 21 December 2001 – 31 January 2003
John Kufuor Ghana 31 January 2003 – 19 January 2005
Mamadou Tandja Niger 19 January 2005 – 19 January 2007
Blaise Compaoré Burkina Faso 19 January 2007 – 19 December 2008
Umaru Musa Yar'Adua Nigeria 19 December 2008 – 18 February 2010
Goodluck Jonathan Nigeria 18 February 2010 – 17 February 2012
Alassane Ouattara Ivory Coast 17 February 2012 – 17 February 2013
John Mahama Ghana 17 February 2013 – 19 May 2015
Macky Sall Senegal 19 May 2015 – 4 June 2016
Ellen Johnson Sirleaf Liberia 4 June 2016 – 4 June 2017

Hadin gwiwar tsaro na yanki

Duba kuma: Communityungiyar Kula da Economicungiyar Tattalin Arzikin Yammacin Afirka ECasashen ECOWAS sun ba da wata yarjejeniya ba ta zalunci ba a 1990 tare da yarjejeniyoyi biyu da aka yi a baya a 1978 da 1981. Sun kuma sanya hannu kan Yarjejeniyar kan Taimaka wa Kare Tsaron Juna a Freetown, Saliyo, a ranar 29 ga Mayu 1981, wanda ya tanadi kafa anungiyar Sojojin Kawance Ofarfin Al'umma.

Majalisar Al'umma

Majalisar Al'umma ta kunshi membobi 115, wadanda aka rarraba dangane da yawan kowace jiha. Wannan kwamitin yana karkashin Shugaban Majalisar ne, wanda ke sama da Sakatare Janar.

Country Parliament Seats
Benin 5
Burkina Faso 6
Cape Verde 5
Ivory Coast 7
Gambia 5
Ghana 8
Guinea 6
Guinea-Bissau 5
Liberia 5
Mali 6
Niger 6
Nigeria 35
Senegal 6
Sierra Leone 5
Togo 5

An faɗaɗa Hukumar ECOWAS

Karo na uku tun bayan kafuwar ta a shekarar 1975, kungiyar ECOWAS na cikin sauye-sauyen hukumomi. Na farko shi ne lokacin da ta sake yarjejeniyarta a ranar 24 ga Yulin 1993; na biyu shi ne a 2007 lokacin da Sakatariyar ta rikide zuwa Hukumar. Ya zuwa watan Yulin 2013, yanzu ECOWAS tana da sabbin sassa guda shida (Gudanar da Albarkatun Jama'a; Ilimi, Kimiyya da Al'adu; Makamashi da Ma'adanai; Sadarwa da IT; Ci gaban Masana'antu da Kamfanoni Masu Zaman Kansu. Kwamishinan Ghana sabon kundin tsarin mulki da Taro)

Kotun Al'umma ta Shari'a Babban labarin:

Kotun ECOWAS Kotun Al’umma ta ECOWAS an kirkireshi ne ta hanyar yarjejeniya da aka sanya hannu a 1991 sannan daga baya aka sanya ta a cikin Mataki na 6 na Yarjejeniyar da aka Gyara na Communityungiyar a 1993. Koyaya, Kotun ba ta fara aiki a hukumance ba har sai yarjejeniyar 1991 ta fara aiki a ranar 5 ga Nuwamba 1996. An bayyana ikon kotun a cikin Mataki na 9 da Mataki na 76 na Yarjejeniyar da aka Gyara kuma tana ba da damar yanke hukunci a kan rikice-rikice tsakanin jihohi game da fassarar Revised Yarjejeniya. Hakanan tana ba Majalisar ECOWAS shawarwari na nasiha game da lamuran doka (Mataki na 10). Kamar kotunan abokanta, Kotun Turai na 'Yancin Dan-Adam da Kotun Afirka ta Gabas ta Afirka, tana da ikon yanke hukunci kan muhimman abubuwan da suka shafi take hakkin dan adam.

Wasanni da musayar al'adu

ECasashen ECOWAS suna shirya abubuwa da yawa na al'adu da wasanni a ƙarƙashin kulawar jiki, ciki har da Kofin CEDEAO a ƙwallon ƙafa, Wasannin ECOWAS na 2012 da kuma Miss CEDEAO kyakkyawar sarauta.

Hadin kan tattalin arziki

Economicungiyar Tattalin Arziƙi da Kuɗi ta Afirka ta Yamma (UEMOA) Duba kuma: CFA franc da Tattalin Arziƙi da ƙungiyar kuɗi UEMOA WAMZ ECOWAS kawai (Cape Verde) Economicungiyar Tattalin Arziƙin Afirka da Kuɗin Kuɗi ta Yammacin Afirka (WAEMU, wanda aka fi sani da UEMOA daga sunanta a Faransanci, Union économique et monétaire ouest-africaine) ƙungiya ce ta mutane takwas, galibi ƙasashen yammacin Afirka masu amfani da harshen Faransanci a cikin ECOWAS, waɗanda aka mamaye ba haka ba. ta manyan masu nauyi kamar Najeriya da Ghana. An kafa ta ne don inganta haɗin tattalin arziki tsakanin ƙasashen da ke raba CFA franc a matsayin kuɗaɗen waje. UEMOA an kirkireshi ne ta wata yarjejeniya da aka sanya hannu a Dakar, Senegal, a ranar 10 ga Janairun 1994, daga shugabannin kasashe da gwamnatocin Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, Senegal, da Togo. A ranar 2 ga Mayu 1997, Guinea-Bissau, tsohuwar mulkin mallaka na Fotigal, ta zama memba na takwas (kuma kawai ba mara amfani da yaren Faransanci) UEMOA ƙungiya ce ta kwastan da haɗin kuɗin tsakanin mambobin ECOWAS. Manufofin ta sun hada da: Gasar tattalin arziki mafi girma, ta hanyar buɗe kasuwanni, ban da fa'ida da daidaita yanayin shari'a Haɗin manufofin tattalin arziƙi da alamomi Kirkirar kasuwa daya Daidaita manufofin bangarori Daidaita manufofin kasafin kudi Daga cikin nasarorin da ta samu, UEMOA ta sami nasarar aiwatar da ƙa'idodin haɗakar tattalin arziki da ingantacciyar hanyar sa ido. Ta karɓi ƙungiyar kwastan da jadawalin kuɗin fito na waje kuma ta haɗu da ƙa'idodin haraji kai tsaye, ban da ƙaddamar da manufofin yanki da ɓangarori. Wani bincike na IMF a watan Satumbar 2002 ya ambaci UEMOA a matsayin "mafi nisa a kan hanyar hadewa" na dukkan kungiyoyin yankin a Afirka. ECOWAS da UEMOA sun samar da tsari na bai daya game da sassaucin kasuwanci da hada-hadar manufofin tattalin arziki. Kungiyoyin sun kuma amince da ka'idoji iri daya na asali don bunkasa kasuwanci, sannan ECOWAS ta amince da daukar UEMOA tsarin kwastam da hanyoyin biyan diyya.

Membobinsu

  • Benin (Founding Member)
  • Burkina Faso (Founding Member)
  • Côte d'Ivoire (Founding Member)
  • Guinea-Bissau (Joined on 2 May 1997)
  • Mali (Founding Member)
  • Niger (Founding Member)
  • Senegal (Founding Member)
  • Togo (Founding Member)
  • Yankin Kuɗi na Yammacin Afirka
  • Duba kuma: Eco (kudin) An kafa shi a 2000, Yankin Kuɗi na Yammacin Afirka (WAMZ) ƙungiya ce ta ƙasashe shida a cikin ECOWAS waɗanda ke shirin gabatar da kuɗaɗen kuɗaɗe da ake kira Eco. Kasashe shida mambobi na WAMZ sune Gambiya, Ghana, Guinea, Najeriya da Saliyo wadanda suka kafa kungiyar tare a shekarar 2000 da kuma Laberiya da ta shiga a ranar 16 ga Fabrairu 2010. Baya ga Guinea, wacce ita ce faransanci, dukkansu kasashe ne masu magana da Ingilishi. Tare da Mauritania, Guinea sun fita daga cikin kuɗin CFA na franc wanda duk sauran tsoffin mulkin mallaka na Faransa suka raba a Yammaci da Tsakiyar Afirka. WAMZ tayi ƙoƙari don kafa tsayayyen kuɗaɗe don yin takara da CFA franc, wanda kuɗin musayarsa yana da alaƙa da na euro kuma baitul malin Faransa ya tabbatar da hakan. Burin karshe shine don CFA franc da eco su haɗu, suna bawa dukkan Yammaci da Afirka ta Tsakiya kuɗi guda, tsayayye. Cibiyar ba da Lamuni ta Afirka ta Yamma ce da ke Accra, Ghana ke shirya bullo da sabon kudin.

MEMBOBINSU[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Benin (Founding Member)
  • Burkina Faso (Founding Member)
  • Côte d'Ivoire (Founding Member)
  • Guinea-Bissau (Joined on 2 May 1997)
  • Mali (Founding Member)
  • Niger (Founding Member)
  • Senegal (Founding Member)
  • Togo (Founding Member)

Yankin Kuɗi na Yammacin Afirka

Duba kuma: Eco (kudin) An kafa shi a 2000, Yankin Kuɗi na Yammacin Afirka (WAMZ) ƙungiya ce ta ƙasashe shida a cikin ECOWAS waɗanda ke shirin gabatar da kuɗaɗen kuɗaɗe da ake kira Eco.Kasashe shida mambobi na WAMZ sune Gambiya, Ghana, Guinea, Najeriya da Saliyo wadanda suka kafa kungiyar tare a shekarar 2000 da kuma Laberiya da ta shiga a ranar 16 ga Fabrairu 2010. Baya ga Guinea, wacce ita ce faransanci, dukkansu kasashe ne masu magana da Ingilishi. Tare da Mauritania, Guinea sun fita daga cikin kuɗin CFA na franc wanda duk sauran tsoffin mulkin mallaka na Faransa suka raba a Yammaci da Tsakiyar Afirka. WAMZ tayi ƙoƙari don kafa tsayayyen kuɗaɗe don yin takara da CFA franc, wanda kuɗin musayarsa yana da alaƙa da na euro kuma baitul malin Faransa ya tabbatar da hakan. Burin karshe shine don CFA franc da eco su haɗu, suna bawa dukkan Yammaci da Afirka ta Tsakiya kuɗi guda, tsayayye. Cibiyar ba da Lamuni ta Afirka ta Yamma ce da ke Accra, Ghana ke shirya bullo da sabon kudin.

Sufuri

Babban labarin: Jirgin ECOWAS Wani aikin Trans-ECOWAS, wanda aka kafa a 2007, yana shirin haɓaka hanyoyin jirgin ƙasa a wannan yankin.

Yawon shakatawa

A cikin 2019, ECOWAS ta bayyana Ecotour Action Plan 2019 - 2029. Yana mai da hankali ne kan kariya da bunƙasa al'adun yawon buɗe ido, da haɓaka ci gaban ƙa'idodi, ƙa'idodi da tsarin sarrafawa. Tsarin ya hada da shirye-shirye guda biyar don aiwatarwa, da kuma cikakkun hanyoyin hanyoyin sanya idanu da kimantawa. Ba a bunƙasa keɓaɓɓiyar fata ta musamman ba, amma duk da haka an ambata cewa shirin yana da damar ƙirƙirar alaƙa tsakanin cibiyoyi da haɗin gwiwar masu ruwa da tsaki, don dacewa da ayyukan ecotourism waɗanda ke ba da fifiko ga al'umma, bambancin halittu, da zamantakewar tattalin arziki.

Duba kuma Tsarin katin launin ruwan kasa - tsarin inshorar mota na ECOWAS Africanungiyar Gabashin Afirka Tattalin Arzikin Afirka Hukumomin Gwamnati kan Cigaba Developmentungiyar Developmentasashen Afirka ta Kudu (SADC) Kasuwar Kasuwanci ta Gabas da Kudancin Afirka (COMESA) Economicungiyar Tattalin Arziƙin Kasashen Afirka ta Tsakiya (ECCAS)