Ƴancin yawo

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Wikidata.svgƳancin yawo
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na Haƙƙoƙi
Kinder Downfall, Derbyshire, Ingila. Kinder Scout shine wurin da aka keta doka a cikin shekara ta 1932.

'Yancin yawo, ko " ' yancin kowane mutum ", haƙƙin jama'a ne na jama'a don samun damar wasu filaye na jama'a ko na masu zaman kansu, tabkuna, da rafuka don nishaɗi da motsa jiki . Dama wani lokaci ana kiransa haƙƙin damar jama'a zuwa jeji ko " haƙƙin yawo ".

A cikin Scotland, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Estonia, Latvia, Austria, Czech Republic da Switzerland,ƴancin yawo na ɗaukar nauyin haƙƙin jama'a gaba ɗaya wanda a wasu lokuta doka ke tsara su. Samun damar dadadden abu ne a sassan Arewacin Turai kuma an ɗauke shi a matsayin mai wadataccen asali wanda ba a sanya shi cikin doka ba har zuwa zamani. Koyaya, haƙƙin galibi baya haɗawa da duk wani amfani na tattalin arziƙi, kamar farauta ko sare-sare, ko ayyukan ɓarna, kamar yin gobara da tuka motocin da ke kan hanya.

A cikin Ingila da Wales haƙƙin samun damar jama'a ya shafi wasu nau'ikan galibi ƙasar da ba a noma ta ba.

Turai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Nasashen Nordic[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Abubuwan tarihi na dā suna ba da shaidar ƴanci yawo a cikin ƙasashen Turai da yawa, suna nuna cewa irin wannan ƴanci ya kasance al'ada ta gama gari. A yau, haƙƙin yawo ya wanzu ta wataƙila mafi kyawun tsaransa a Estonia, Finland, Iceland, Norway da Sweden. Anan an sami dama ta hanyar aiki a cikin daruruwan shekaru kuma ba a san lokacin da ya canza daga kawai 'al'adar gama gari' ta zama 'yancin da aka sani ba.

Zango a wani daji a Femundsmarka National Park, Norway

A yau waɗannan haƙƙoƙin suna tallafawa damar yin nishaɗin waje a yawancin ƙasashen Nordic, suna ba da damar yin tafiya a ƙetaren ko zango a ƙasar wani (misali a Sweden na dare ɗaya ko biyu), yin kwalekwale a kan ruwan wani, da tsinkar furannin daji, namomin kaza da 'ya'yan itace . Koyaya, tare da waɗannan haƙƙoƙin akwai nauyi; ma'ana, wajibi ba cutarwa, ta da hankali, zubar da shara ba, ko lalata dabbobi ko albarkatun gona.

Hakkokin samun dama galibi don tafiya a kafa. Hakkokin kifi, farauta ko ɗaukar kowane samfuri galibi ana tilasta shi ta wasu al'adu ko dokoki. Ginin wuta galibi an hana shi (kodayake a Sweden da Norway ana barin wuta tare da kiyaye kariya ta dace). Yin amo yana da karfin gwiwa. A wasu ƙasashe, an tanadar sanya tanti a cikin daji na dare ɗaya, amma ba amfani da ayari ba . Samun damar bai kai ga gina ko bunƙasar ƙasa ba (kamar gidaje, lambuna ) kuma ba lallai ba ne ya haɗa da cinikin ƙasar da kasuwanci. Misali, masu aikin diban 'ya'yan itacen berry na iya halatta sai da izinin mai gida.

Akwai wasu manyan bambance-bambance a cikin dokokin ƙasashe daban-daban. A Denmark, akwai ƴancin yawo a cikin ƙasar mallakar keɓaɓɓu. Duk dunes da rairayin bakin teku da duk gandun daji mallakar jama'a suna buɗe don yawo. Wuraren da ba a horar da su ba, wuraren da ba a katange su a bude suke don yawo ba tare da la'akari da matsayin mallakar su ba. Keɓaɓɓen mallaki yana da damar ta hanyoyi da waƙoƙi kawai.

Kasar Finland[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

jokamiehenoikeus yawo da haƙƙoƙin da suka danganci "jokamiehenoikeus " cikin allemansrätten Finnish da " allemansrätten " a cikin Yaren mutanen Sweden (lit." hakkin kowane mutum "), kwatankwacin sauran ƙasashen Nordic. Kowane mutum na iya tafiya, ya hau kan kanshi, ya hau doki ko ya hau kansa ba tare da yardar kaina ba a cikin karkara inda wannan ba zai cutar da mahalli ko maigidan ba, sai dai a lambuna ko kusa da gidajen mutane (yadi) Filin gona da gonaki, waɗanda ƙila za a cutar da su, ƙila ba za a ƙetare su ba sai a lokacin hunturu. Zai yiwu kuma a kafa hanyoyin shakatawa ta waje a ƙasa mai zaman kanta, bisa yarjejeniya kan haƙƙin amfani ko ta hanyar aikace-aikacen hukuma bisa ga Dokar Nishaɗin Waje, misali.

Mutum na iya tsayawa ko kafa sansani na ɗan lokaci a ƙauye, tazara mai nisa daga gidaje, ɗauki samfuran ma'adinai, 'ya'yan itace na daji, namomin kaza da furanni (muddin ba su da kariya daga jinsunan). Mutum na iya kamun kifi da sanda da layi (kawai ruwa ne kawai), jere, tafiya ko amfani da kwale-kwale a kan hanyoyin ruwa (tare da wasu takurai), da iyo ko wanka a cikin ruwan da ke cikin teku da teku. Mutum na iya tafiya, yawo da kifin kankara a kan daskararren tabkuna, koguna da teku. Kuɗi daga sayar da tsince 'ya'yan itace ko namomin kaza ba shi da haraji. Beaukar girkin girgije na iya zama an taƙaita shi na ɗan lokaci ga mazauna yankin a cikin sassan Lapland . A lardin Åland mai cin gashin kansa an yi ta takaddama kan shigar da sansani a cikin haƙƙin yawo, amma tun daga 2013 wannan ba batun bane.

Mutum ba zai damu wasu ko lalata dukiya, damun tsuntsaye masu kiwo (ko sheƙarsu ko samari), ko damun mai ba da horo ko dabbobin farauta. Mutum ba zai iya sare ko lalata itacen da ke raye ba, ko tara itace, gansakuka ko lasisin akan dukiyar wasu mutane, kuma ba zai iya kunna wuta ba tare da izinin maigidan ba (sai dai a cikin gaggawa). Abin karɓa ne, kodayake, don amfani da abin ƙona barasa, murhun katako ko irin wannan na'urar da ba ta da 7 zafi da ke taɓa ƙasa. Mutum ba zai iya dagula sirrin gidajen mutane ba ta hanyar yin sansani kusa da su ko yin surutu da yawa, ko yawan shara, ko tuka motocin a kan hanya ba tare da izinin mai gida ba, ko kifi (ban da angling) ko farauta ba tare da izinin da ya dace ba. Idan hawan dawakai ya haifar da ƙananan matsala ko damuwa, dole ne a yi yarjejeniya don amfani da hanya ta dogon lokaci tare da mai ƙasa. Hakanan za'a iya ɗaukar doki don yin iyo a jikin ruwa ba tare da izinin mai yankin ba (ban da rairayin bakin teku na jama'a).

Hakki tabbatacce hakki ne a game da cewa gwamnati ce kawai aka yarda ta takaita shi kamar yadda yake a yanayin tsauraran yanayi . Koyaya, ainihin ma'anar ya kasance galibi ba a tantance shi ba kuma ya dogara da ƙa'idar nulla poena sine lege (abin da ba doka ba ba za a hukunta shi ba).

Norway[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kowa a ƙasar Norway yana da ƴancin samun, da wucewa ta ƙasar da ba ta noma ba a ƙauyuka. The dama ne da wani tsohon consuetudinary dokar da ake kira allemannsrett (lit. da everyman ta dama), cewa aka codified a shekarar 1957 tare da aiwatar da waje hutu dokar. Ya dogara ne da girmamawa ga ƙauyuka, kuma ana tsammanin duk baƙi za su nuna kulawa ga manoma da masu mallakar ƙasa, sauran masu amfani da muhalli. A kasar Norway sharuddan utmark da innmark raba yankuna inda hakkin yawo yake da inganci ( utmark, a zahiri wani abu kamar "ƙasa a waje da iyakoki" "" (Filin Fita) ") da kuma inda ba shi da inganci ko ƙuntatawa ( innmark ," ƙasar a ciki [kan iyakoki] "/" [A cikin filin] ""). Doka ta fayyace alamar alamar sosai, kuma duk wuraren da wannan ma'anar ba ta bayyana su a matsayin masu amfani da su ba, galibi suna magana ne kan wuraren da ba za a zauna da su ba. Asa mai nome kawai za a ƙetare shi lokacin daskarewa da rufe dusar ƙanƙara.

Akwai wasu ka'idoji na yau da kullun waɗanda dole ne a bi yayin yin zango a ƙasar Norway:

  • An yarda mutane su yi zango a ƙalla mita 150 daga gidan da ke kusa ko kuma gida.
  • Campfires Ba a yarda a cikin gandun daji yankunan tsakanin 15 Afrilu zuwa 15 Satumba, sai dai shi a fili ba zai iya kai wa ga wata wuta.
  • An ba masu yawon bude ido damar zama a wuri ɗaya don kwana ɗaya kawai. Bayan wannan, ya zama dole musamman don neman izini daga maigidan. Wannan dokar ta keɓe duwatsu da wuraren shakatawa na ƙasa.

A shekarun baya dama ya shiga matsi musamman a kusa da Oslo Fjord da kuma cikin sanannun yankuna na Kudancin Norway. Waɗannan yankuna shahararrun shafuka ne don gidajen hutu kuma yawancin masu mallakar yankin bakin teku suna son hana jama'a damar mallakar kadarorinsu. A matsayinka na ƙa'ida, an hana ginawa da raba dukiya a yanki mai mita 100 mafi kusa da teku, amma ƙananan hukumomi a yankuna da yawa sun yi amfani da libeancinsu don ba da izini daga wannan dokar. Koyaya, koda an ba mai ƙasa izinin yin gini kusa da gabar, ƙila ba zai hana mutane yin tafiya a gefen gabar ba. Ba a ba da izinin shinge da sauran shingayen don hana jama'a damar shiga ba (amma duk da haka wasu lokuta ana kafa su, wanda ke haifar da tara mai yawa).

An yarda da jirgin ruwa, kayak, kwale-kwale da tafiya cikin koguna, tabkuna, da kuma teku. Ana ba da izinin ba da izinin jirgi a cikin ruwan gishiri kawai.

.

Hakkokin farauta na mai ƙasa ne, don haka ba a haɗa farauta a cikin haƙƙin samun dama ba. A cikin yankuna masu ruwa irin su koguna da tafkuna, haƙƙin kamun kifi na mai mallakar ƙasa. Ba za a iya gudanar da kamun kifin a cikin ruwa ba sai da izinin maigidan da kuma waɗanda ke da lasisin kamun kifi. Dokoki daban-daban sun shafi yara 'yan ƙasa da shekaru 16. Yaran da ba su kai shekara 16 ba suna da 'yancin yin kamun kifi ba tare da lasisi ba, haƙƙin da aka tsara a 1992. An gwada wannan haƙƙin kuma an tabbatar da shi a cikin hukuncin da Kotun Supremeoli ta ƙasar Norway ta yanke a shekara ta 2004.[ana buƙatar hujja]

A cikin yankunan ruwan gishiri akwai damar samun kifin wasanni ta hanyar amfani da jiragen ruwa ko daga bakin gabar teku. Duk masunta na karkashin doka ne, tare da sauran abubuwa, kare bambancin halittu, kuma wannan dokar ta tanadi dokoki game da amfani da kaya, yanayi, jaka ko girman iyawa da sauransu.

Sweden[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A Sweden allemansrätten (lit. '' hakkin kowane mutum '') shine 'yanci wanda Tsarin Mulkin Sweden ya bashi. Tun 1994 kayan aikin Gwamnati suka ce ba tare da haƙƙin mallakan dukiya ba "kowa zai sami damar mallakar yanayi daidai da £allemansrätten ". [1] Abin da wannan ke nufi ba a kara bayyanarsa a cikin kundin tsarin mulki ba, kuma ba shi da yawa a wasu dokokin. A aikace, an bayyana allemansrätten a matsayin ayyuka waɗanda ba laifi ba ne, ba zai sa mutum ya biya diyya ba, kuma wata hukuma ba za ta iya hana shi ba. Kamar yadda yake a cikin wasu ƙasashe na Arewacin Turai, Swedishancin Yaren mutanen Sweden na yawo ya zo tare da girmamawa daidai wa daida da aka ɗora wa alhakin kula da ƙauye; mahimmin shine "kar a dame shi, kar a halakar". Yawancin mutanen Sweden suna ɗaukar wannan a matsayin wani nau'i na gado ko haƙƙin ɗan adam.

Allemansrätten ya ba mutum haƙƙin shiga, tafiya, kewaya, hawa, hawa, da kuma yin sansani a kowace ƙasa-ban da lambunan lambuna masu zaman kansu, kusancin gidan zama da filayen da ake nomawa. Ana amfani da ƙuntatawa don ajiyar yanayi da sauran wuraren kariya. Hakanan yana ba da haƙƙin karɓar furannin daji, namomin kaza da 'ya'yan itace (muddin ba su da kariya ta doka), amma ba farauta ta kowace hanya ba. An ba da izinin yin iyo a kowane tafki da ɗora jirgin ruwa a kan kowane ruwa sai dai a bayyane an hana shi. An ba da izinin ziyartar rairayin bakin teku da tafiya ta gabar teku, tare da bayar da shi ba wani yanki na lambu ba ko kuma kusancin wurin zama (wanda doka ta bayyana a matsayin hemfridszon ). Girman hemfridszon ya dogara da yanayi amma yana iya zama girman mita 70 daga gidan zama na yau da kullun. Don kare kariya ga ruwa da haƙƙin tafiya tare da rairayin bakin teku, tun 1975 ba'a yarda a gina sabon gida kusa (gaba ɗaya mita 100) daga rairayin bakin teku da / ko bakin teku ba.

Kamun kifi ya kasance mai zaman kansa ne sosai - baya ga kan manyan tafkuna biyar da bakin Tekun Baltic, da Sauti, da Kattegat da kuma Skagerrak . An ba shi izinin tuki mota a kan keɓaɓɓen hanya sai dai in an fito da bayyane sabanin haka. Kananan gobara an yarda da su gabaɗaya, amma a wasu lokutan ƙananan hukumomi sun hana su saboda haɗarin gobara. An ba da izinin sanya alfarwa a kan duk ƙasar da ba a shuka ba kwana ɗaya ko biyu. An sami wani rikici game da amfani da kasuwanci na haƙƙin karɓar Berry, lokacin da kamfanoni bisa doka suka ba mutane kwangilar karɓar 'ya'yan itace a cikin dazuzzuka.

Ginin wuta galibi an yarda dashi banda fuskoki mara dutse inda zai haifar da fatattaka. Ƙananan hukumomi na iya fitar da takunkumin wuta a lokacin bushewa.

Yin amfani da haƙƙoƙin yana ƙarƙashin kulawar Hukumomin Gudanarwa na Gundumar -waɗanda a misali, za su iya tilasta cire shinge idan hakan ya toshe hanyoyin shiga yankunan da ke da mahimmanci ga allemansrätt .

Iceland[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kamar sauran ƙasashen Nordic dokar Icelandic ta ƙunshi nau'ikan 'yanci na yawo, haƙƙin samun damar ƙasar da ba a noma ba, zango a can, tsince' ya'yan itace, kuma a wasu watanni ma a kunna wuta. "Ya halatta a tsallaka keɓaɓɓun abubuwa ba tare da neman izini na musamman ba, amma masu mallakar filaye na iya iyakance hanyoyi da alamomi ko wasu alamomi. Landasar mallakar ƙasa kamar wuraren kiyayewa da yankunan gandun daji a buɗe suke ga kowa tare da 'yan kaɗan. Wadannan ware hada da - amma ba su iyakance zuwa - damar a lokacin da kiwon waddan yanayi ko a lokacin m girma lokaci ".

Ya kamata masu yawon bude ido, "su guji daukar gajerun hanyoyi a wuraren masu shinge, wuraren kiwo da filaye masu zaman kansu", kuma su bi dokoki a wuraren kiyayewa. Hakanan ya kamata a bi hanyoyin ƙafa, idan sun wanzu, don taimakawa kare yanayin ƙasa. Bugu da ƙari, "masu mallakar ƙasa ba za su iya hana wucewar masu tafiya a gefen koguna, tabkuna da teku, ko kan hanyoyi da hanyoyi ba '. [2] Ana iya ƙuntata keke akan wasu hanyoyi. Dole ne dawakan dawakai su ci gaba da bin hanyoyin inda suke kuma a wasu wurare suna nuna "la'akari da ƙasar".

Kamun kifi na buƙatar lasisi amma tattara "'ya'yan itace, namomin kaza, tsiren ruwan teku da sauran tsire-tsire don amfanin kai tsaye" an ba da izinin a "filayen jama'a da wuraren kiwo mai hawa". [2]

Estonia[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A Estonia, an ba shi izinin isa ga shimfidar wurare na al'ada da na al'ada a ƙafa, ta keke, kankara, jirgin ruwa, ko a kan dawakai.

Ana iya samun damar mallakar dukiyar mutane a kowane lokaci. Idan kadarorin masu zaman kansu sun kasance masu shinge ko sanya su akan wuce gona da iri, ana buƙatar izinin mai shi don ci gaba. Ana kuma buƙatar mai mallakar keɓaɓɓen ya sanya alamun da ke nuna mallakar ƙasar, da lambobin tuntuɓar, don guje wa batutuwan doka. Masu mallakar ƙasa ba za su iya toshe hanyar zuwa ƙasa, hanyoyi ko kuma ruwayen da suke na jama'a ko waɗanda aka keɓe don amfanin jama'a ba, gami da kankara da hanyoyin mota.

Dukkanin ruwan da ke cikin jama'a ko kuma aka keɓe don amfanin jama'a suna da hanyoyin gabar teku waɗanda suka kai 4 m. Hanyar gabar teku tare da ruwa mai kewayawa na iya fadada zuwa tazarar 10 m na layin ruwa. Maigidan ba zai iya rufe wannan hanyar ba koda kuwa an sanya alamomi masu zaman kansu ko kuma sanya musu alama ba tare da keta doka ba. Yankunan kiwo da sauran wuraren da aka keɓe tare da hanyoyin gabar teku dole ne su kasance tsaka-tsalle. Ba a amfani da tafkunan da ba shi da wata hanya da ta keɓe gaba ɗaya a ƙasar mai ƙasa guda ɗaya da kuma tabkunan da ba su kai kadada biyar da ke filayen mallakar mai mallakar ƙasa fiye da ɗaya ba. Ana buƙatar izini daga mai ƙasa don samun damar shiga irin waɗannan ruwan.

Hakanan jikin ruwa baya karewa azaman hanyoyin samun ruwan sha ko wanda kifin ke amfani dashi ko kuma ke cikin wani amfani na musamman yana da hanyar zuwa gaɓar teku. Dukkan hakkoki da nauyi game da hulɗar ɗan adam da ɗabi'a ana kiranta haƙƙin kowane mutum. Hakkin kowane mutum bai shafi shirya abubuwan wasanni ba ko wasu al'amuran jama'a a cikin bude kasa ba. Don tsara waɗannan, dole ne a nemi izinin masu ƙasa ko wasu masu mallakar ƙasa, kuma idan ya cancanta, na ƙaramar hukuma.

An halatta mai zuwa a yanayi:

  • samun dama ga yankuna da kafa, a kan keke, a skis, jirgin ruwa ko na doki a duk wuraren da ba a hana su bisa dokan doka ba;
  • kasancewa a kowane yanki inda aka ba da izinin shiga;
  • tattara 'ya'yan itacen daji, namomin kaza, furanni, shuke-shuke masu magani, ƙanƙara da sauran kayan ƙirar ƙasa ba ƙarƙashin yanayin kariya ba;
  • Ruwan kamun kifi na jama'a waɗanda aka sanya su don jama'a ta amfani da layin hannu mai sauƙi.

An haramta masu zuwa:

  • samun damar kusancin farfajiyar mutum, gonakin gona, apiaries, shukar da aka shuka, gonar hatsi da sauran wuraren shuka inda mai shi ya jawo lalacewa;
  • kunna wuta da yada zango ba tare da izini daga mai filin ba ko mai shi;
  • farauta da kamun kifi ba tare da lasisi mai dacewa ba, sai dai layin hannu mai sauƙi;
  • cutar da bishiyoyi da daji;
  • hargitsa zaman lafiyar mazaunan yankin;
  • lalata lamuran gida da gidajen dabbobi da tsuntsayen daji, tarawa ko cire ƙwai, ko kuma cutar da su;
  • lalata abubuwa masu kariya na yanayi da nau'ikan kariya;
  • amfani da motocin hawa inda aka hana;
  • gurɓatar yanayi.

Belarus[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mataki na 13 na Sashe na 1 na Tsarin Mulki na Belarus ya ba da tabbacin cewa duk gandun daji da gonar mallakar jama'a. Kashi arba'in na yankin ƙasar yana da dazuzzuka, kuma kusan adadin da aka keɓe ga aikin gona.

Dangane da Dokar Daji (Mataki na 13)

Austria[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Haƙƙin yawo a cikin Austriya, musamman a cikin dazuzzuka da yankunan duwatsu, ana kiransa Wegefreiheit . Tun daga 1975 haƙƙin yawo a cikin dazuzzuka ya tabbata da dokar Tarayya. Musamman, ana ba da izinin tafiya, gudu, yawo, da hutawa ta atomatik ga jama'a a yawancin yankuna daji. Koyaya, hawa doki, hawa keke, da kuma zango ba haka bane, kuma ana iya aiwatar dashi kawai tare da izinin mai ƙasa. Babban yanki na yankin gandun daji a Austriya mallakar hukumomin gwamnati ne kamar Hukumar Gandun daji ta Austrian State Forestry Commission [de], amma har yanzu ana amfani da takunkumi iri ɗaya. A wasu yanayi ana iya rufe gandun daji ga jama'a saboda dalilan muhalli. Halin da ake ciki a yankunan tsaunuka ba shi da bayyananne, kuma ya bambanta daga jihar zuwa jiha. Wasu jihohi, irin su Carinthia, Styria, da Salzburg sun ba da tabbacin haƙƙin yawo a yankunan tsaunuka (galibi ana bayyana su sama da layin itace), don duk ayyukan nishaɗi. A wasu jihohin, kamar su Tyrol, Lower Austria, da Burgenland, babu bayyanannen haƙƙin yawo kuma masu mallakar ƙasa suna da haƙƙin hana izinin. A aikace, duk da haka, ba a cika aiwatar da waɗannan ƙuntatawa, tunda yawon buɗe ido tsaunuka muhimmin masana'antu ne a Ostiriya.

Jamhuriyar Czech[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tsarin Tsarin Hiking na Alamar Czech don saurin tafiya yana cikin Turai ta Tsakiya da sauran wurare


Dokar kiyayewa ta Yanayi da Karkara, ta ba da izinin doka ta yawo a cikin kasa ("veřejná přístupnost krajiny", samun damar jama'a na karkara ko jeji - ban da jakunkunan da mutum na halitta ya mallaka). Wasu nau'ikan filaye an keɓance daga damar jama'a ta tilas: zama da filayen gini, farfajiyoyi, lambuna, gonaki, gonakin inabi, lambunan hop, filayen da aka tsara don kiwon dabbobi. Ba a ware filaye da filayen noma a lokutan da ciyayi ko ƙasa za su lalace, ba a ware filayen makiyaya yayin kiwo. A cikin abubuwan kiyayewa na ƙasa, abubuwan tarihi na ƙasa, wuraren shakatawa na ƙasa da kuma a cikin yankuna na farko na yankunan da ke da kariya, sararin samaniya na iya ƙuntata damar jama'a (bisa ƙa'idodi kawai ga hanyoyi ko kuma kawai hanyoyin da aka yi alama). Ayyuka na musamman na iya ware wasu yankuna (misali yankunan soja, hanyoyin jirgin ƙasa da sauransu. ).

Dangane da dokar gandun daji, ana iya samun gandun daji a bainar jama'a ("obecné užívání lesa", yawan amfani da dazuzzuka - gami da masu zaman kansu) kuma 'yan ƙasa suna da haƙƙin doka na shiga dazuzzuka. Hakkin tattara dryan busassun sandunan da ke kwance a ƙasa da 'ya'yan itacen berry don wata manufa ta mutum kuma an ba shi tabbaci. Koyaya, ba da izinin hawa keke, hawa, shinge, hawan kankara da doki a kan hanyoyin daji kawai. An hana hawa abin hawa na jama'a (manyan hanyoyin da ke bi ta cikin daji ba a dauke su a matsayin sassan dajin - saboda ba a dauke su a matsayin "kasar daji" a cikin ragistar kasa). Mai shi na iyakance amfani da gandun daji na yau da kullun a cikin gandun daji na soja, yankuna masu kariya, gandun daji na gandun daji, gonaki na gandun daji, wuraren shakatawa na dawa, kayan abinci da dai sauransu.

Dokar Hanya ta bayyana obecné užívání pozemních komunikací (amfani da hanyoyi na yau da kullun - ana iya cire wasu hanyoyi), Dokar Ruwa ta bayyana "obecné užívání povrchových vod" (amfani da ruwan saman ƙasa).

Switzerland[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

'Yancin yawo an tabbatar da shi a Switzerland ta Dokar Civilasa ta Switzerland . Koyaya, wasu yankuna suna da cikakkun ƙa'idodin ƙa'idodi game da haƙƙin isa ga in ba haka ba ba mutane masu izini ba.

Dokar ƙasar ta Switzerland ta tanadi cewa gandun daji da makiyaya suna da sauƙi don kowa, idan dai ba a yi amfani da shi da yawa ba. Sai dai a cikin lamura na musamman kamar kariyar ƙananan gandun daji ko biotopes ba a ba shi izinin shinge a yankunan daji. Wannan kuma ya shafi kadarori masu zaman kansu. Wasu ayyukan da suka danganci amfani da yawa da kuma yiwuwar haifar da lalacewa, kamar abubuwan da suka faru a cikin dazuzzuka, ko samun dama tare da motoci, na iya dogaro da izini na musamman. Ana amfani da irin waɗannan ƙa'idodin don ƙasar da ba za a iya amfani da ita ba (misali shimfidar ruwa, dutse, dusar ƙanƙara da kankara), ba tare da la'akari da ƙasar da ba ta mallaki ba (watau kasancewa ƙarƙashin ikon yankin kuma ba za a iya yin iƙirarin mallakarsa ba) mallakar sirri. Hakanan yankin na iya zaɓar don taƙaita freedomancin yawo don kare yanayi (misali tara naman kaza, 'ya'yan itace, itace, da dai sauransu a cikin dazuzzuka).

Jamus[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin Jamus iyakance haƙƙin yawo, wanda ake kira Betretungsrecht, ana tabbatar da dokokin ƙasa da yawa. Dokar Kare Lafiyar Yanayi ta Tarayya, Dokar Gandun Dajin Tarayya da Dokar Gudanar da Ruwa ta Tarayya sun ba wa kowa damar bude shimfidar wuri, filayen da ba a noma su ba, dazuzzuka da sassan ruwa, gami da hawan keke da hawan doki a kan hanyoyi da hanyoyi. Za'a iya ƙara haɓaka haƙƙin ta hanyar dokar ƙasa.

Bavaria[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kundin tsarin mulkin Bavaria ya tabbatar wa kowa "jin dadin kyawawan dabi'u da nishadi a waje, musamman damar isa gandun daji da ciyawar tsaunuka, da amfani da magudanan ruwa da tafkuna da kuma ware 'ya'yan itatuwa". Dama ana yi masa laƙabi da Schwammerlparagraph (sashin naman kaza). Har ila yau labarin ya wajabta "kowane mutum ya bi da yanayi da shimfidar wuri da hankali". "Jiha da kananan hukumomi za su kasance suna da haƙƙi da haƙƙin kiyaye damar zuwa tsaunuka, tabkuna, koguna da sauran kyawawan wurare masu kyau da kuma samar da damar kyauta ta hanyar taƙaita haƙƙin mallaka da kuma ƙirƙirar hanyoyin yawo da wuraren shakatawa".

Ƙasar Ingila[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin Burtaniya, a wajen Scotland, an taƙaita damar yin amfani da filayen da ba a bayyana ba sosai da kuma ba a bayyana su ba kafin kafa dokar ƙauye da haƙƙin Way 2000 . Samun damar zuwa ƙasa a Ingila da Wales har yanzu yana da iyakance fiye da yawancin Yammacin Turai, da wasu ƙasashen Turai, yayin da samun dama ke da iyaka a Arewacin Ireland. An riga an kare dukiya a Ingila da Wales galibi don adana maigidan mai farauta ko haƙƙin kamun kifi. Ramungiyar Ramblers, wacce ke aiki don haɓaka haƙƙin masu tafiya a Unitedasar Burtaniya, ita ce tushen motsa wannan doka.

Ingila da Wales[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin Ingila da Wales, bayan mahawara ta rashin jituwa game da cancanta, haƙƙoƙi da fa'idodin masu mallakar filaye masu zaman kansu da hutu na jama'a, a cikin 2000 Gwamnati ta tsara doka don gabatar da iyakance haƙƙin yawo, ba tare da biyan diyya ga masu ƙasa ba. An aiwatar da dokar karkara da haƙƙin hanya ta 2000 (CROW) a hankali daga shekara ta 2000 zuwa gaba don ba wa jama'a haƙƙin yin tafiya a wasu yankuna na yankin Ingilishi da yankin Welsh: musamman a ƙasan, moorland, heathland da kuma yankin bakin teku. Ba a keɓe dazuzzuka da dazuzzuka, ban da gandun dajin mallakar jama'a, waɗanda ke da irin wannan haƙƙin samun dama ta hanyar sadaukar da kai da Hukumar Kula da Daji ta yi . Landasasshen ƙasa, lambuna da wasu yankuna an keɓance su musamman daga damar samun dama. Ana iya samun damar ƙasar noma idan ta faɗi cikin ɗayan rukunin da aka bayyana a sama. Mutanen da ke amfani da damar samun dama suna da wasu ayyuka na girmama haƙƙin sauran mutane na kula da ƙasar, da kuma kiyaye yanayi.

Sabbin 'yancin an gabatar da yanki ta yanki ta hanyar Ingila da Wales, tare da kammalawa a 2005. An samar da taswira da ke nuna yankuna masu yuwuwa. Wannan ya kara wa halattacciyar doka ta amfani da takun sawun jama'a da hanyoyin gadoji, wasu filaye gama gari da samun damar zuwa gabar teku . Masu mallakar ƙasa na iya hana samun damar zuwa wasu yankuna (ko ɗora kuɗaɗe don isa).

Angling moriyar nasarar lobbied ga wariya na gudãna a Ingila da kuma Wales daga hankaka, da barin sauran kogin masu amfani kamar swimmers da canoeists tare da samun damar takaitawa kasa da 2% na navigable ruwa. Cungiyar Canoe ta Biritaniya tana gudanar da Kamfen Gangamin Samun Kogin, don nuna irin matakan ƙuntatawa da jama'a ke fuskanta wajen samun damar zuwa hanyoyin ruwa na cikin ruwa a Ingila da Wales.

Mafi yawan Dartmoor National Park an sanya shi a matsayin 'Landasar Samun', duk da cewa ya kasance mallakar masu zaman kansa ne, tun daga Dokar Dartmoor Commons ta 1985, ba tare da taƙaita inda masu tafiya za su yi yawo ba. [3] Saboda Dokar 1985, Dartmoor bai cika shafar Yankin karkara da haƙƙin Way Way 2000 ba, wanda ya kafa irin wannan haƙƙin a wasu yankunan karkarar ƙasar, amma a 2006, wannan Dokar ta buɗe yawancin ragowar filayen da aka rage wa masu tafiya.

Dokar Samun Ruwa ta Yankin Ruwa da Ruwa ta 2009 sun fadada haƙƙin samun damar zuwa ƙasa kusa da gabar Ingila.

Scotland[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin Scotland dokar sake fasalin ƙasa (Scotland) ta 2003 cikakke cikakke a cikin dokar Scots tsohuwar al'adar 'yancin samun damar mallakar ƙasa a cikin Scotland. Dokar ta tanadi haƙƙin kasancewa a ƙasa don nishaɗi, ilimantarwa da wasu wasu dalilai da haƙƙin ƙetare ƙasa. Hakkokin suna wanzuwa ne kawai idan ana aiki da su yadda ya kamata, kamar yadda aka ayyana a cikin Dokar Shiga doorasashen waje na Scottish .

Hakkokin samun dama sun shafi duk wasu ayyukan da ba matuka mota ba, gami da yin tafiya, keke, hawa doki da kuma zango na daji. Hakanan suna ba da damar isa ga ruwa mai nisa don jirgin ruwa, kwale-kwale, jirgin ruwa da iyo. Hakkokin da aka tabbatar a cikin dokokin Scottish sun fi taƙaitattun haƙƙoƙin samun damar da aka kirkira a Ingila da Wales ta theasar da Rightsancin Hanyar Way 2000 (CRoW).

Arewacin Ireland[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An bayyana haƙƙoƙin samun dama a Arewacin Ireland a matsayin "mafi ƙazantar da dokar samun damar shiga a Turai. Yawancin hanyoyin da ake amfani dasu don isa … tsaunuka, tsaunuka, bakin teku, koguna da abubuwan tunawa na ƙasa sun ƙetare ƙasar masu zaman kansu. A kusan a kowane yanayi, mai tafiya ba shi da ikon kasancewa a wurin. ” Samun dama ga Karkara (Arewacin Ireland) Umarni na 1983 ya ba da wasu haƙƙoƙi, amma galibi ana yin samin dama a kan dokar ta Ingilishi / Welsh ta 1949 mai ƙuntatawa. Rashin al'adar samun dama, tasirin siyasa na masu mallakar filaye da matsalolin shugabanci an ɗora alhakin rashin 'yanci na yawo.

Jamhuriyar Ireland[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kiyaye Ireland Bude kungiya ce ta yakin neman zabe da nufin inganta hanyoyin shigowa karkara. Journalan jaridar Fintan O'Toole ya kira dokar Irish "wataƙila mafi munin ra'ayi da ma'anar masu tafiya a Turai". An bayyana haƙƙoƙin samun dama a cikin Ireland a matsayin "mafi ƙaƙƙarfar doka da dokar samun damar shiga a Turai. Yawancin hanyoyin da ake amfani da su don zuwa tsaunukanmu, tuddai, bakin teku, koguna da abubuwan tunawa na ƙasa sun ƙetare ƙasar masu zaman kansu. A kusan dukkanin lamura, mai tafiya ba shi da damar kasancewa a wurin. ” Wuraren shakatawa na kasar sun bayyana ta "Open Ireland Open" a matsayin "wurare ne kawai a cikin Ireland inda freedomancin yawo suke ciki", amma kawai suna rufe 0.9% na ƙasar. Comamirle na Tuaithe ya kafa Éamon Ó Cuív, Ministan Al'umma, Karkara da Harkokin Gaeltacht a 2004 don sasantawa tsakanin masu mallakar ƙasa, hukumomin jihohi da masu amfani da wasanni na karkara.

Amirka ta Arewa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Amurka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hakkokin mallaka a cikin Amurka sun haɗa da haƙƙin keɓe wasu. Amma a karkashin wasu yanayi, dogon lokacin da amfani da wata hanya a fadin zaman kansa dukiya iya bin doka kafa prescriptive easement ga jama'a. Game da mallakar mallakar gwamnatin tarayya, sashin mallakar kundin tsarin mulki ya ba Majalisar Tarayyar Amurka ikon tsara kayan tarayya "ba tare da iyakancewa ba".

A cikin Amurka hukumomin gwamnati da suka hada da birane, kananan hukumomi, jihohi, da gwamnatin tarayya duk suna kula da filaye wadanda ake kira da filayen jama'a ko yankin jama'a. Yawancin filayen jama'a a cikin Amurka ana riƙe su ne don amintar da jama'ar Amurka ta hannun gwamnatin tarayya kuma sun haɗa da kusan kadada miliyan 640, kusan 28% na jimlar ƙasar da ke da kadada biliyan 2.27. [4] [5] Kowane mutum, gami da waɗanda ba 'yan ƙasa ba, na iya yin izini da sake yin doka a waɗannan ƙasashe bisa doka. Wannan galibi ana kiransa da samfurin Arewacin Amurka na kiyaye ƙasa. Ga wasu takamaiman manufofin jihar:

  • Dokar Gaɓar California ta California ta ba da irin wannan haƙƙin don rairayin bakin teku, kuma Gidauniyar Surfrider ta yi nasarar kai ƙara ga masu mallakar kadarorin da ke ƙoƙarin yin amfani da dokokin ƙeta doka don ƙuntata hanyoyin jama'a zuwa ga yankunan rairayin bakin teku.
  • Tsarin mulkin jihar Florida ya kafa amincewar jama'a game da "yankuna masu ikon mallaka", gami da rairayin bakin teku masu "kasan ma'ana layukan ruwa ne babba - ga dukkan mutane," mutunta 'yanci yawo a wurin, ba tare da la'akari da wata gabar teku da ke makwabtaka da ita ba. Dokokin cikin gida galibi suna iyakance wannan ƴancin sosai don yawo a ƙafa, kuma suna hana tuka motocin hawa ko jiragen ruwa.
  • Dokar bakin teku ta Oregon wani yanki ne na babbar doka a cikin jihar Oregon ta Amurka, wanda aka zartar ta zaman 1967 na majalisar Oregon. Ya kafa mallakar mallakar jama'a ta gaɓar tekun Oregon daga ruwa har zuwa ƙafa goma sha shida a tsaye sama da ƙananan alamar igiyar ruwa.
  • A Pennsylvania, Dokar Amfani da Nishaɗi ta Land da Ruwa ta 1966 (RULWA) ta taƙaita wa masu mallakar ƙasa alhakin rauni na kansu da ɓarnar dukiya idan suka ba da filayensu ga jama'a don shakatawa. Dokar ta ƙarfafa masu mallakar ƙasa su buɗe ƙasar da ba ta ci gaba ba don amfanin wasanni.
  • Tsarin mulkin Vermont ya ba wa jama'a 'yancin farauta, kifi da tarko a cikin keɓaɓɓun sarari. Maigidan da ba ya son ba da izinin wannan damar yana da damar doka ta sanya alamun da ke ƙuntata wannan haƙƙin.
  • Maine yana ba da damar isa ga kowane kayan waje sai dai idan an sanya su. Posting yana buƙatar yin alama a sarari tare da alamun cikawa ko fenti. Dole ne alamu su nuna cewa an hana shiga, an hana izinin ba tare da izinin maigidan ko wakilin mai mallakar ba, ko kuma cewa an hana shiga don wata manufa.

Kanada[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mafi yawan Kanada ƙasar Masarauta ce da larduna ke mallaka. Wasu ana yin hayar su don ayyukan kasuwanci, kamar su gandun daji ko hakar ma'adanai, amma a kan yawancin su akwai damar kyauta don ayyukan nishaɗi kamar yin yawo, hawan keke, kwale-kwale, wasan ƙetare ƙasa, hawa doki, da farauta mai lasisi da kamun kifi, da sauransu. A lokaci guda ana iya taƙaitawa ko iyakance saboda dalilai daban-daban (misali, don kare lafiyar jama'a ko albarkatu, gami da kariya ga shuke-shuke da dabbobi). [6] A cikin sashen Kanada mallakar Gwamnatin Tarayya ta Kanada . An kirkiro wuraren shakatawa na ƙasar Kanada daga ƙasar Gwamnatin Tarayya tana gudanar dasu. Hakanan akwai wuraren shakatawa na lardi da wuraren ajiyar yanayi waɗanda aka halicce su kamar haka. Orasashen asali na Kanada na iya samun takamaiman haƙƙoƙi a kan Croasar Masarautar da aka kafa a ƙarƙashin yarjejeniyoyin da aka sanya wa hannu a lokacin da Kanada ta kasance masarautar Birtaniyya, kuma sun yi iƙirarin mallakar wasu Croasar Masarautar.

Ostiraliya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kodayake a baya mulkin mallaka na Burtaniya, Australiya kawai suna da iyakance damar zuwa ƙasar, a cewar Sydney Morning Herald . [7] Koyaya, yawancin yankin Ostiraliya shine wnasar Masarauta, wanda jihohin Australiya ke gudanarwa, kuma yayin da yawancin wannan ya ƙunshi hayar makiyaya, da filaye mallakar mutanen Aboriginal (misali APY ƙasashe ), ana ba da izinin dama don dalilai na nishaɗi zuwa “alasar da ba a raba” landasar Masarauta ba; kodayake ana buƙatar motocin hawa su bi hanyoyi.

New Zealand[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Akwai hanyoyin shiga jama'a da yawa a cikin New Zealand, gami da hanyoyin ruwa da bakin teku, amma "galibi ana rarrabashi kuma yana da wahalar ganowa".

"Sarkar Sarauniya" ra'ayi ne a cikin dokar mallakar mallakar New Zealand. Yankin fili ne na jama'a, yawanci mita 20 (ko sarkar ɗaya a ma'aunin awo) mai faɗi tare da rafuka, tabkuna da layin bakin teku. An tsara shi don hana ɓarkewar ƙasa ko kuma gefen ƙetaren da ba zai yiwu ga duk masu son siye shi ba. Theididdigar ba su cika ba kuma ainihin matsayinsu na zamani na iya zama mai rikitarwa don ƙayyadewa. Wadannan rarar suna nan ta hanyoyi daban-daban (gami da ajiyar hanya, rarar esplanade, esplanade tube, gefe gefe da kuma wasu nau'ikan tanadi daban daban) amma ba yawa ba kuma kamar yadda ake zato.

A shekara ta 2007 gwamnatin New Zealand ta sake duba haƙƙin damar jama'a don nishaɗin waje. Koyaya, ba kamar Kingdomasar Burtaniya ba, "Binciken na New Zealand ya ba da shawarar kada a ƙaru da haƙƙin jama'a don samun damar keɓaɓɓun abubuwa". [8]

Sukar[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin 'yan shekarun nan haɓaka motsi da wadata ya sa yankunan da ba su da nisa a baya sun fi sauƙi kuma duk da cewa mawuyacin lahani ko lalacewa ba sabon abu ba ne, wasu nau'ikan da ke cikin haɗari suna ta da damuwa, kuma wasu masu amfani da nishaɗi suna lalata tarkacensu.

Helena Jonsson, Shugabar kungiyar Manoma ta Sweden, ta yi jayayya a cikin 2011 cewa hanyar da aka yi amfani da ƙasa ta canza kuma dokar ba ta daɗe kuma tana bukatar a sake duba ta, ta yadda za a “hana sha’awar kasuwanci yin amfani da dokar kamar uzuri don cin riba yayin da suke kan kadarorin wasu mutane ".

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

5

  1. Henry Campbell Black, "Right-of-way", Black's Law Dictionary (West Publishing Co., 1910), p. 1040.
  2. ^ New Oxford American Dictionary
  3. ^
  4. ^ a b
  5. ^ The constitution guarantees the "life, person, good name and property rights of every citizen" (Article 40.3)
  6. ^ Lissadell owners' case, reported Jan 2010; and a group opposed to the current laws.
  7. ^
  8. ^ a b Inner London Ramblers
  9. ^
  10. ^ City of London Public Access MapArchived 2014-08-14 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^
  12. ^ a b Rights of way in ScotlandScottish Natural Heritage
  13. ^ [1] archive copy of SNH document
  14. ^ [2] Scotways: The Scottish Rights of Way & Access Society.
  15. ^
  16. ^
  17. ^
  18. ^
  19. ^ a b
  20. ^
  21. ^ A Guide to Public Rights of Way and Access to the Countryside: [3].
  22. ^
  23. ^ Right to roam in Norway: [4].
  24. ^ [5]; › DNR › Crown Land
  25. ^ [6]
  26. ^
  27. ^
  28. ^

Bayanan kula[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 

  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^ Regeringsformen. 2 kap, Grundläggande fri- och rättigheter § 18, Regeringen (in Swedish) "Alla skall ha tillgång till naturen enligt allemansrätten oberoende av vad som föreskrivits ovan."
  11. ^ a b c
  12. ^ Ebbesson, Jonas (2003):Miljörätt.ISBN 91-7678-526-2
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^
  17. ^ a b c The Environment Agency of Iceland
  18. ^ a b c d
  19. ^
  20. ^
  21. ^
  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^
  25. ^
  26. ^
  27. ^
  28. ^
  29. ^
  30. ^ Dartmoor Commons Act 1985 on the OPSI website
  31. ^
  32. ^ a b
  33. ^
  34. ^
  35. ^
  36. ^ [permanent dead link]
  37. ^ Lipton, Eric, and Clifford Krauss, Giving Reins to the States Over Drilling, New York Times, August 24, 2012.
  38. ^ Carol Hardy Vincent, Carla N. Argueta, & Laura A. Hanson

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Regeringsformen. 2 kap, Grundläggande fri- och rättigheter § 18, Regeringen (in Swedish) "Alla skall ha tillgång till naturen enligt allemansrätten oberoende av vad som föreskrivits ovan."
  2. 2.0 2.1 The Environment Agency of Iceland
  3. Dartmoor Commons Act 1985 on the OPSI website
  4. Lipton, Eric, and Clifford Krauss, Giving Reins to the States Over Drilling, New York Times, August 24, 2012.
  5. Carol Hardy Vincent, Carla N. Argueta, & Laura A. Hanson, Federal Land Ownership: Overview and Data, Congress Research Service (March 3, 2017).
  6. [1]; › DNR › Crown Land
  7. Peter Hancock, "How did we lose Britain's freedoms?" The Sydney Morning Herald, July 8, 2013 (http://www.smh.com.au/comment/how-did-we-lose-britains-freedoms-20130704-2pdus.html)
  8. Campion, R., & Stephenson, J. (2010). "The ‘right to roam’: Lessons for New Zealand from Sweden’s allemansrätt". Australasian Journal of Environmental Management, 17(1), 18–26. doi:10.1080/14486563.2010.9725245

Hanyoyin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]