Abeokuta

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Globe icon.svgAbeokuta
Abeokutafromolumorock.jpg

Wuri
 7°09′N 3°21′E / 7.15°N 3.35°E / 7.15; 3.35
Ƴantacciyar ƙasaNajeriya
Jerin jihohi a NijeriyaOgun
Babban birnin
Yawan mutane
Faɗi 888,924 (2012)
• Yawan mutane 1,011.29 mazaunan/km²
Labarin ƙasa
Yawan fili 879 km²
Altitude (en) Fassara 66 m
Bayanan tarihi
Ƙirƙira 1825
Bayanan Tuntuɓa
Kasancewa a yanki na lokaci

Abeokuta Birni ne, da ke a jihar Ogun, a ƙasar Najeriya. Shi ne babban birnin jihar Ogun. Birnin na nan a kudancin rafin Ogun, a wani yanki dake da duwatsu da manyan itace na Savanna.[1] Birnin na da nisan kilomitoci 77 (48 mi) daga arewacin Legas ta titin jirgin kasa, ko kuma nisa 130km (81 mi) ta ruwa. Bisa ga ƙidayar jama'a a shekarar 2006, jimillar mutane 451,607 ne.

Labarin kasa da Tattalin arziki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Birnin Abeokuta na yanki mai dauke da duwatsu da manyan itace na Savanna, da duwatsun kwaru a saman kasar. Ta wanzu a yankin da zagaye da katanga mai nisan mil 18.[2] Birnin tayi fice kasuwanci man-ja, shinkafa, doya, roba, rogo, masara da sauransu. Haka zalika birnin tayi fice a harkokin fitar da kayan masarufi kamar cocoa, man-kadenya, goro da dai sauransu.[1] Mishenari suka kawo shinkafa da auduga zuwa birnin a cikin shekarun 1850s, kuma sun zama daya daga cikin muhimman kayan kasuwancin garin.

Abeokuta na nan a kusa da dutsen Olumo, inda akwai koguna da wuraren bautan gargajiya da dama.[3] Birnin ya dogara ne da rafin "Oyan River Dam" dangane da ruwan amfanin yau da kullum, wanda kuma ba kasafai yake isar su ba.[4] Dam din na nan a yankin karamar hukumar Abeokuta ta kudu na jihar Ogun da ke yammacin Najeriya. Dam din ya rasa ta Rafin Oyan, wani datsi ne daga Rafin Ogun.

Abeokuta itace cibiyar tarayyar gudanar da rafukan Oshun da Ogun, wanda ke da alhakin bunkasa ruwa da kasa na jihohin Lagos, Ogun da Oyo. Wannan sun hada da noman rani, sarrafa kayan abinci da kuma samar da wutar lantarki.[1]

Kamfanoni a birnin sun hada da kamfanonin sarrafa kayan marmari na gongoni, kamfunan robobi, kamfunan sarrafa barasa, kamfunan sarrafa katakai da kuma na kwanukan rufin gida (alluminium zinc). A kudancin birnin akwai wuraren fasa duwatsu na Aro granite quarries.

Zirga-zirga[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Abeokuta na hade da garin Lagos ta titin jirgin kasa wanda aka kera a shekarar 1899, wanda ke da tsawon kimanin kilomita 77 (48 mi). Tun a shekarar 2021 aka samar da tsayayyen sufuri ta hanyar jirqin kasa tsakanin Lagos zuwa Ibadan wacce ta tsaya a birnin Abeokuta.[5] A dalilin haka, an gina sabon tasahar jirgin kasa a Abeokuta.A duk rana jiragen kasa na tashi zuwa Ibadan da misalin karfe 8:30 na safe da kuma 16:30 na yamma. Za'a iya siyan tikita da wuri kafin lokacin tashi.[6]

Sannan tituna sun hada birni da wasu garuruwa kamar Ibadan, Ilaro, Shagamu, Iseyin, Sango Ota, da kuma Ketou.[1]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Chief Sodeke ya fara zama a Abeokuta a shekara ta 1830 don buya daga kaidin mafarautan bayi daga Dahomey da kuma Ibadan (ma'anar Abeokuta na nufin, "karkashin dutse" watau "the underneath of the rock" ko kuma "wajen buya a karakashin dutse" watau "refuge among rocks").[7] Mutanen karkaran sun watsu a yankunan da ke da duwatsu da koguna don nema mafaka da kariya. A dalilin haka suka samar da wani kungiya na mutane iri daban-daban, masu kulawa da al'adunsu na gargajiya, hakkunan addininsu, da kuma ainihin sunayen kauyukansu.[2]

Ainihin mutanen da suka fara a Abeokuta sun kasance daga mutanen kabilar Egba, wanda suka samo asali daga sarakunan Eso Ikoyi, wanda suka bi babban sarki watau Alake of the Egba a yayinda yayi kaura daga Oyo kuma suka bishi samar da sabon masarautar Egba a yankin dajin Egba.[8] A yayinda wadannan kakannin nasu suka baro masarautar Oyo, sai suka fara yawo daga wuri zuwa wuri, haka suka cigaba har daga bisani suka gano Abeokuta. Haka dai daga bisani wasu daga cikin kabilar yarbawa suka zauna a wajen. Mishenaris na kiristoci turawa sun fara mulkin wurin a shekarun 1840s,[1][8]da kuma mutanen Serra Leone da kuma bayi da suka gudo da kuma wanda da suka dawo daga Brazil.

A dalilin cewa Abeokuta tana yanki mai muhimmanci na safarar man-ja kuma saboda itace babban birnin Egba na lokacin, Dahomey sun kara kaimi. A yakin Abeokuta na 1851, Egba sun ci sarki Gezo na Dohomey da yaki. Har wayau sun kara cin dakarun Dahomey da yaki a shekarar 1864.[1][8]

Har wayau a cikin shekarun 1860s, an samu matsala da ta taso tsakanin mutanen garin da kuma turawa, watau turawan Lagos, wanda ya jawo mutanen Egba suka fara rufe hanyoyin kasuwancin waje, daga bisani kuma korar mishenaris da 'yan kasuwa a 1867.[1] A tsakanin shakara ta 1877 da 1893, yakin basasan yarbawa ya auku, sannan Abeokuta ta hamaici Ibadan, a dalilin haka sarkin Egba ya rattaba hannu a wata yarjejeniya da gwamnan mulkin mallaka na lokacin "Sir Gilbert Carter". Hakan ya faru ne a 1893, wanda ya sama da gwamnatin Egba wanda turawa suka amince da wanzuwarsu.[1][8]

A 1914, an hade kasashen Egba da yakunan mulkin mallakar turawa na lokacin, da Abeokuta a matsayin babban birni. A cikin shekara ta 1918, rikici ya kece wanda ake kira da yakin Adubi, a dalilin sanya haraji da sauran ayyukan take hakki da shugaba Sir Frederick Lugard yayi, watau Gwamna-jenar na mulkin turawa.[1] Wannan shine kadai cikas d turawa suka samu a mulkinsu na mallakan Najeriya kafin yakin duniya na farko.[9]

Rikicin da kungiyar mata ta Abeokuuta watau "Abeokuta Women's Union (AWU)" ta hassasa watau Abeokuta Women's Revolt ya faru ne a 1940s. Shima wani gangami ne do nuna rashin amincewa da harajin da gwamnatin turawan mulkin mallaka suka sanya.[10]

A shekara ta 1976, Abeokuta ta zamo babban birnin sabon jihar da aka samar watau jihar Ogun.

Gine-Ginen Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Abeokuta na zagaya da katanga mai tsawon miloli 18mil,[9] sannan alamar ragowar katangan na nan har yau. Ake watau gidan sarautar Aleke da kuma Centenary Hall (1930) suna nan a yankin Egba Alake. Akwai makarantun firamare da kuma sakandare da sashinjami'ar Lagos da ke Abeokuta wacce aka bude ta a 1894.[11] Wannan jami'a ta shahara a fanni kimiyya, karatun noma, fasaha da sauransu. Daga bisani a canzata zuwa Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (FUNAAB) a 1988.

Har wayau akwai katafaren otel watau Green Legacy Resort wanda tsohom shugaban kasa Olusegun Obasanjo da wasu masu hannun jari suka gina ta.[12] Akwai labrare na "Olusegun Obasanjo Presidential Library (OOPL)" wanda ke nan a cikin otel din.

Ofishin gwamna na nan a cikin garin a yankin Oke-Mosan. Jami'ar garin watau Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (FUNAAB) na nan a titin Alabata a Abeokuta, kuma ya kasance mafi kyawun jami'oin gwamna na Najeriya.[13][14]

Sanannun Mutane[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hotuna[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 "Hoiberg, Dale H., ed. (2010). "Abeokuta". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. I: A-ak Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, IL: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. pp. 27. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8.
  2. 2.0 2.1 One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Abeokuta". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 42.
  3. "Kola Tubosun (16 April 2014). "Abeokuta's Living History". KTravula.com.
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  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 "Canby, Courtlandt. The Encyclopedia of Historic Places. (New York: Facts on File Publications, 1984), p. 2.
  9. 9.0 9.1 "Abeokuta". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Vol. 1 (14 ed.). 1930. p. 34.
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