Bashar al-Assad

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Bashar al-Assad
19. President of Syria (en) Fassara

17 ga Yuli, 2000 -
Abdul Halim Khaddam (en) Fassara
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Damascus, 11 Satumba 1965 (58 shekaru)
ƙasa Siriya
Harshen uwa Larabci
Ƴan uwa
Mahaifi Hafez al-Assad
Mahaifiya Anisa Makhlouf
Abokiyar zama Asmau al-Assad  (Disamba 2000 -
Yara
Ahali Bassel al-Assad (en) Fassara, Maher al-Assad (en) Fassara, Majd al-Asad (en) Fassara da Bushra al Assad (en) Fassara
Ƴan uwa
Yare al-Ásad family (en) Fassara
Karatu
Makaranta Homs Military Academy (en) Fassara
Damascus University (en) Fassara
(1982 - 1988) Digiri : medicine (en) Fassara
Harsuna Larabci
Turanci
Irish (en) Fassara
Sana'a
Sana'a statesperson (en) Fassara, ophthalmologist (en) Fassara, Shugaban soji, ɗan siyasa da military physician (en) Fassara
Employers Western Eye Hospital (en) Fassara
Kyaututtuka
Aikin soja
Fannin soja Syrian Arab Armed Forces (en) Fassara
Syrian Arab Army (en) Fassara
Republican Guard (en) Fassara
Digiri marshal (en) Fassara
Ya faɗaci Syrian Civil War (en) Fassara
Imani
Addini Alawites
Jam'iyar siyasa Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Syria Region (en) Fassara
IMDb nm1519747

Bashar al-Assad Haifaffen sha daya ga watan satumban 1965, Dan siyasa ne a syriakuma shugaban kasar na yanzu 19.. tun17 ga watan july 2000.An haife shi kuma ya girma a Damascus, Bashar ya kammala karatun likitanci na jami'ar Damascus a shekara ta 1988 kuma ya fara aiki a matsayin likita a sojojin Siriya . Shekaru hudu bayan haka, ya halarci karatun digiri na biyu a Asibitin Ido na Western da ke Landan, wanda ya kware a fannin ilimin ido . A cikin 1994, bayan da ɗan'uwansa Bassel ya mutu a wani hatsarin mota, an sake kiran Bashar zuwa Siriya don ya karɓi aikin Bassel a matsayin magaji . Ya shiga makarantar horas da sojoji, inda ya jagoranci mamayar da Siriya ta yi wa Lebanon a shekarar 1998. A ranar 17 ga Yuli, 2000, Bashar al-Assad ya zama shugaban kasa, ya gaji mahaifinsa Hafiz, wanda ya rasu a ranar 10 ga Yuni 2000 . Wani jerin hare-hare a cikin 2001–02 ya kawo karshen bazarar Damascus, lokacin fafutukar al'adu da siyasa da ke nuna kira ga gaskiya da dimokuradiyya. Ko da yake Bashar ya gaji tsarin mulki da dabi'un dabi'un da Hafiz al-Assad ya reno, amma bai da aminci da mahaifinsa ya samu, wanda ya haifar da rashin jin daɗi ga mulkinsa. A sakamakon haka, da yawa daga cikin tsofaffin Guard sun yi murabus ko kuma an wanke su; Aka maye gurbin da'irar ta cikin da ƙwararrun masu aminci daga dangin Alawite.

Shirye-shiryen 'yantar da tattalin arziki na farko na Bashar al-Assad sun kara dagula rashin daidaito da kuma daidaita karfin zamantakewa da siyasa na manyan 'yan Damascene masu aminci na dangin Assad; kawar da al'ummar karkarar Siriya, azuzuwan ma'aikata na birni, 'yan kasuwa, masana'antu da kuma mutane daga tungar Ba'ath ta al'ada sau ɗaya. Juyin Juya Halin Cedar a Labanon a watan Fabrairun 2005, wanda ya haifar da kisan gillar da aka yi wa Firaministan Labanon Rafic Hariri, ya tilasta Bashar al-Assad kawo karshen mamayar da Siriya ta yi wa Lebanon.

Gwamnatin Assad wani mulkin kama-karya ne na son kai, wanda ke mulkin Siriya a matsayin ' yan sanda na kama-karya . [lower-alpha 1] Mulkin Bashar al-Assad ya kasance yana da alaƙa da take haƙƙin ɗan adam da yawa da kuma danniya mai yawa. Yayin da gwamnatin Assad ke bayyana kanta a matsayin wacce ba ruwanta da addini, masana kimiyya daban-daban da masu lura da harkokin siyasa na ganin cewa gwamnatinsa na amfani da rikicin addini a kasar. Shekaru goma na farko a kan mulki an yi fama da matsanancin kisa, kashe-kashe, bacewar tilas, nuna wariya ga tsirarun kabilu da kuma sa ido sosai daga ' yan sandan sirri na Ba'ath . Amurka da Tarayyar Turai da kuma mafi yawan kasashen Larabawa sun yi kira ga Assad ya yi murabus daga shugabancin kasar a shekara ta 2011 bayan da ya ba da umarnin murkushe masu zanga-zangar juyin juya halin Larabawa a lokacin juyin juya halin Siriya wanda ya kai ga yakin basasar Siriya

Rayuwar farko, iyali da ilimi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An haifi Bashar al-Assad a Damascus a ranar 11 ga Satumba 1965, ɗa na biyu kuma ɗa na uku ga Anisa Makhlouf da Hafiz al-Assad . [1] Al-Assad a Larabci yana nufin "Zaki". Kakan mahaifin Assad, Ali Sulayman al-Assad, ya yi nasarar canza matsayinsa daga ƙauye zuwa ƙanana kuma, don yin la'akari da wannan, a cikin 1927 ya canza sunan iyali daga Wahsh (ma'anar "Savage") zuwa Al-Assad. [2]

Mahaifin Assad, Hafiz, haifaffen ƙauye ne a ƙauye ƙauye na Alawiyyawa, kuma ya sami matsayi na jam'iyyar Ba'ath don karɓe ikon reshen jam'iyyar Siriya a cikin Harkar Gyara, wanda ya kai ga hawansa shugabancin Siriya . [3] Hafiz ya tallata magoya bayansa a cikin jam'iyyar Ba'ath, yawancinsu kuma 'yan asalin Alawite ne. [1] [4] Bayan juyin juya halin Musulunci, an nada jiga-jigan Alawite yayin da aka cire 'yan Sunna, Druze, da Isma'ila daga sojoji da jam'iyyar Ba'ath. [5] Tsawon shekaru 30 na mulkin sojan Hafiz al-Assad ya shaida yadda Siriya ta rikide zuwa mulkin kama-karya. Sabon tsarin siyasar dai ya kasance karkashin jagorancin jiga-jigan jam'iyyar Baath da 'yan Alawiyya suka mamaye, wadanda ke da cikakken biyayya ga iyalan Assad da kuma rike da sojoji da jami'an tsaro da 'yan sandan sirri. [6] [7]

Aikin likitanci da hawan mulki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

shekara ta 1988, Assad ya kammala karatun likitanci kuma ya fara aiki a matsayin likitan soji a asibitin sojoji na Tishrin da ke wajen birnin Damascus. [8] [9] Bayan shekaru hudu, ya zauna a Landan don fara horon digiri na biyu a fannin ilimin ido a Asibitin Ido na Yamma . [10] An bayyana shi a matsayin "mutumin IT" a lokacin da yake Landan. [11] Bashar yana da 'yan buri na siyasa, [12] kuma mahaifinsa ya kasance yana adon babban kanin Bashar Bassel a matsayin shugaban kasa na gaba. [13] Duk da haka, ya mutu a wani hatsarin mota a 1994 kuma an sake kiran Bashar zuwa rundunar sojojin Siriya jim kadan bayan haka. Ba da da ewa ba farfagandar gwamnati ta fara ɗaukaka hotunan Bashar a matsayin "fatan talakawa" don shirya shi a matsayin sarki na gaba mai kula da Siriya, don ci gaba da mulkin daular Assad . [14]

Jim kadan bayan mutuwar Bassel, Hafiz al-Assad ya yanke shawarar sanya Bashar sabon magaji . [1] A cikin shekaru shida da rabi masu zuwa, har zuwa rasuwarsa a shekara ta 2000, Hafiz ya shirya Bashar don karbar mulki. Janar Bahjat Suleiman, jami'i a Kamfanonin Tsaro, an ba shi alhakin kula da shirye-shiryen mika mulki cikin sauki, [15] [16] wanda aka yi a matakai uku. Na farko, an gina wa Bashar tallafi a fannin soja da na tsaro. Na biyu, an kafa hoton Bashar tare da jama'a. A karshe dai Bashar ya san hanyoyin tafiyar da kasar. [10]

Don tabbatar da shaidarsa a aikin soja, Bashar ya shiga makarantar soja a Homs a cikin 1994 kuma an tura shi cikin matsayi ya zama kanar kanal na jiga-jigan 'yan Republican Guard na Siriya a cikin Janairu 1999. [17] [1] [18] Don kafa sansanin Bashar a cikin sojoji, an tura tsofaffin kwamandojin runduna zuwa ritaya, kuma sababbin, matasa, Hafsoshin Alawiyya masu aminci a gare shi sun maye gurbinsu. [19]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Sources describing Syria as a totalitarian state:
    • Khamis, B. Gold, Vaughn, Sahar, Paul, Katherine (2013). "22. Propaganda in Egypt and Syria's "Cyberwars": Contexts, Actors, Tools, and Tactics". In Auerbach, Castronovo, Jonathan, Russ (ed.). The Oxford Handbook of Propaganda Studies. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 422. ISBN 978-0-19-976441-9.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
    • Wieland, Carsten (2018). "6: De-neutralizing Aid: All Roads Lead to Damascus". Syria and the Neutrality Trap: The Dilemmas of Delivering Humanitarian Aid Through Violent Regimes. London: I. B. Tauris. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-7556-4138-3.
    • Ahmed, Saladdin (2019). Totalitarian Space and the Destruction of Aura. State University of New York Press, Albany: Suny Press. pp. 144, 149. ISBN 9781438472911.
    • Hensman, Rohini (2018). "7: The Syrian Uprising". Indefensible: Democracy, Counterrevolution, and the Rhetoric of Anti-Imperialism. Chicago: Haymarket Books. ISBN 978-1-60846-912-3.
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Zisser 2007.
  2. Seale & McConville 1992.
  3. Mikaberidze 2013.
  4. Seale, Patrick (15 June 2000). "Hafez al-Assad". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
  5. Moosa 1987.
  6. Empty citation (help)
  7. Empty citation (help)
  8. "LADNO.ru" Асад Башар : биография [Bashar Assad: A Biography]. Ladno (in Rashanci). Retrieved 23 September 2011.
  9. Beeston, Richard; Blanford, Nick (22 October 2005). "We are going to send him on a trip. Bye, bye Hariri. Rot in hell". The Times. London. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Leverett 2005.
  11. "How Syria's 'Geeky' President Went From Doctor to Dictator". NBC News. Archived from the original on 22 December 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
  12. Minahan 2002.
  13. Tucker & Roberts 2008.
  14. "Iran Report: June 19, 2000". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (in Turanci). 11 November 2008. Retrieved 2022-05-15.
  15. Gresh, Alain (July 2020). "Syria: the rise and rise of Doctor Bashar". Le Monde diplomatique.
  16. Khalaf, Roula (2012-06-15). "Bashar al-Assad: behind the mask". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 10 December 2022. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  17. "LADNO.ru" Асад Башар : биография [Bashar Assad: A Biography]. Ladno (in Rashanci). Retrieved 23 September 2011.
  18. "CNN Transcript – Breaking News: President Hafez Al-Assad Assad of Syria Confirmed Dead". CNN. 10 June 2000. Archived from the original on 5 October 2018. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
  19. Ma'oz, Ginat & Winckler 1999.