Dashen Bishiyoyi

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Wani aikin dazuzzuka a Rand Wood, Lincolnshire, Ingila

Dasa bishiyoyi shine kafa gandun daji ko tsayayyun bishiyoyi ( daji ) a yankin da babu wani itace da ya gabata. Yawancin kungiyoyi da kungiyoyi masu zaman kansu kai tsaye suna shiga shirye-shiryen dazuzzuka don ƙirƙirar gandun daji da ƙara kamawar carbon . kaunar dazuzzuka wata hanya ce da ake nema don yaƙi da damuwar yanayi, kamar yadda aka sani don haɓaka ƙimar ƙasa da matakan carbon a cikin ƙasa, guje wa kwararowar hamada.

Adadin asarar gandun daji ya ragu sosai a tsakanin shekarun 1990-2020 saboda raguwar sare dazuzzuka a wasu ƙasashe, da ƙari a yankin gandun daji a wasu ta hanyar noman dazuzzuka da kuma faɗaɗa dazuzzuka na halitta. A shekarar alib na 2019, binciken da duniya mayar da itacen da aka sare ya nuna cewa akwai sarari ga akalla miliyan 9km 2 na sabon gandun daji a duniya, wanda yake shine kashi 25% da ke karuwa daga yanayin yanzu. Wannan yankin dazuzzuka zai iya adana har zuwa gigatons 205 na sinadarin carbon ko kaso 25% na tafkin carbon na yanayi ta rage CO</br> CO a cikin yanayi da kuma gabatar da ƙarin O 2.

Tsarin aiki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tsarin dasa bishiyoyi yana farawa tare da zaɓin gurin aikin ne. Yawancin abubuwan muhalli na gurin da aka zaba dole ne a bincikar su, gami da yanayi, ƙasa, ciyayi, da ayyukan ɗan adam. Wadannan abubuwan ne zasu tabbatar da ingancin gurin, wadanne irin bishiyoyi ne yakamata a dasa, da kuma wacce hanyar shuka. [1]

Bayan an kimanta gurin dajin, dole ne a shirya yankin don shuka. Shiri na iya ƙunsar nau'ikan hanyoyin inji ko na sinadarai, kamar sara, mounding, shimfida, magungunan kashe ciyawa, da kone-kone da aka tsara. Da zarar an shirya gurin aikin, ana iya dasa shukokin. Wata hanyar shuka ita ce shuka kai tsaye, wanda ya haɗa da shuka iri kai tsaye zuwa cikin dajin. Wani kuma shine dasa shukar, wanda yayi kama da shuka kai tsaye sai dai cewa seedlings (iri) sun riga sunada tsarin tushe. Bushewar bishiyoyi ta yankan wani zaɓi ne ga nau'in bishiyoyi waɗanda zasu iya haifa ba tare da wata matsala ba, inda za'a iya dasa wani ɗan itace, reshe, tushe, ko ganye a saman dajin kuma yayi tsiro cikin nasara. Wasu lokuta ana amfani da kayan aiki na musamman, kamar sandar dasa bishiya, don sa dashen bishiyoyi cikin sauƙi da sauri.

Babban fa'ida ga dasa bishiyoyi: gandun daji na jawo ruwan sama[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gandun dazuzzuka yana alfahari da fa'idodi masu alaƙa da yanayi. Sabbin bincike da yawa sun nuna cewa gandun daji na jan ruwa sosai , wanda zai iya bayyana dalilin da yasa fari watau rashin abinci da ke yawan faruwa a wasu sassan duniya kamar yammacin Afirka, inda bishiyoyi basu da yawa.[ana buƙatar hujja] Wani sabon binciken da Carol Rasmussen,[ana buƙatar hujja] Laboratory Nata na Jet Propulsion Laboratory ta ba da shaidar farko ta lura cewa gandun dajin kudancin Amazon yana haifar da nasa lokacin damina ta amfani da tururin ruwa daga ganyen shuke-shuke, wanda daga nan ya samar da gajimare a samansa. Wadannan binciken sun taimaka wajan bayyana dalilin da yasa ake alakanta sare dazuzzuka a wannan yankin da rage ruwan sama. Nazarin Douglas Sheil da Daniel Murdiyarso[ana buƙatar hujja] yana nuna cewa murfin gandun daji yana taka rawa sosai wajen tantance ruwan sama sama da yadda aka sani a baya. Tana bayanin yadda yankuna dazuzzuka ke samar da kwararar ruwa mai yawa a cikin tururin ruwa mai iska kuma hakan yana kara fa'idar amfanin dazuzzuka a yankuna na duniya.

Kasashe da yankuna[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ostiraliya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A Adelaide, Kudancin Ostiraliya (birni ne da ya kai miliyan 1.3 har zuwa Yunin 2016), Firayim Minista Mike Rann (2002 zuwa 2011) ya ƙaddamar da shirin gandun daji na birane a 2003 don dasa bishiyoyi da bishiyoyi miliyan 3 na shekara na 2014 a kan wuraren aikin 300 a ƙetaren metro. . Dubunnan 'yan asalin Adelaide sun halarci ranakun dasa al'umma a wuraren da suka hada da wuraren shakatawa, wuraren ajiye kaya, kofofin safara, makarantu, kwasa-kwasan ruwa da bakin teku. Itatuwa ce kawai aka dasa don tabbatar da ingancin kwayar halitta. Ya ce aikin an yi shi ne domin kawata garin da sanyaya shi da kuma sanya shi zama abin more rayuwa, inganta iska da ruwa, da rage hayakin Adelaide da ke fitar da hayaki mai dauke da tan 600,000 na CO</br> CO a shekara.

Kanada[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A shekarar alib na 2003, gwamnatin kasar Kanada ta kirkiro da wani shiri na tsawon shekaru hudu da ake kira Initiative Development and Assessment Initiative a turance, wanda ya hada da dasa shukoki 6000 na gandun daji masu saurin girma a kasashen da basu da gandun daji a duk fadin kasar. Anyi amfani da wadannan gonakin ne don yin nazarin yadda noman dazuzzuka zai iya taimakawa wajen kara yaduwar carbon da kuma rage fitar da hayaki mai gurbata muhalli (GHG) yayin da kuma yayi la’akari da kwarin gwiwar tattalin arziki da saka jari. Sakamakon wannan shirin ya nuna cewa duk da cewa babu wadataccen fili a cikin Kanada don daidaita abubuwan da GHG ke fitarwa na ƙasar gaba ɗaya, noman dazuzzuka na iya zama dabarun rage amfani da GHG don cimma burin fitar da GHG, musamman har sai dindin, fasahar ci gaba ta ajiyar carbon ta kasance.

A ranar 14 ga Disamba, 2020, Ministan Albarkatun Kasa na Kanada Seamus O'Regan ya ba da sanarwar zuba jarin gwamnatin tarayya na dala biliyan 3.16 don dasa bishiyoyi biliyan biyu nan da shekaru 10 masu zuwa. Wannan shirin yana nufin rage hayaki mai gurbata muhalli da kimanin megatonnes 12 nan da shekarar 2050.

China[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tube na gandun daji ana shuka tare daruruwan kilomita na Yangtze levees a Hubei lardin

Wata doka da aka fitar a 1981 ta buƙaci kowane ɗalibin makaranta da ya haura shekaru 11 da shuka akalla itace ɗaya a shekara. A sakamakon haka, kasar Sin tana da mafi girman yawan gandun daji na kowace kasa ko yanki a duniya, tare da fadin murabba'in kilomita 47,000 a shekarar alib na 2008. Duk da haka, yankin gandun daji a kowace ƙasa ya yi ƙasa da matsakaicin ƙasashen duniya. A cewar Carbon Brief, kasar Sin ta dasa mafi yawan sabbin gandun daji daga kowace kasa tsakanin 1990 zuwa 2015, wanda shirin Grain for Green na kasar ya fara a 1999, ta hanyar saka hannun jari sama da dala biliyan 100 a shirye -shiryen dazuka da dasa bishiyoyi sama da biliyan 35. a fadin larduna 12. Ya zuwa shekarar 2015, yawan gandun dajin da aka shuka a kasar Sin ya kai hekta miliyan 79.

Daga 2011–2016, birnin Dongying a lardin Shandong ya gandun daji sama da hectare 13,800 na ƙasa mai gishiri ta hanyar Shandong Ecological Afforestation Project, wanda aka ƙaddamar tare da tallafi daga Bankin Duniya . A shekara ta 2017, Kungiyar Saihanba Afforestation Community ta lashe Gwarzon Majalisar Dinkin Duniya na Gwarzon Duniya a cikin Inspiration and Action category don "canza kasa mai lalacewa zuwa aljanna mai dadi".

Turai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Foreaddamar da bishiyoyi a kan tsohuwar gonar kwalliya kusa da Cwm-Hwnt, Wales

Turai ta lalata da yawa daga gandun daji na tarihi. Kungiyar Tarayyar Turai (EU) ta biya manoma kudaden da suka samu gandun daji tun daga shekarar 1990, inda suka ba da tallafi don mayar da gonar ta zama daji da kuma biyan kudaden gudanar da gandun daji. Wani shirin EU, wanda ke gudana tsakanin 2000 da 2006, ya killace fiye da kilomita murabba'in 1,000 (ƙididdigar lissafi da ba a riga ta samo ba). Wani irin wannan shirin ya fara a 2007. Dazukan Turai suna girma da murabba'in kilomita 8,000 a shekara saboda waɗannan shirye-shiryen.

Dangane da ƙididdigar Organizationungiyar Agricultureungiyar Abinci da Noma , Spain ta kasance ta uku cikin saurin ɓarkewar daji a Turai a cikin lokacin 1990-2005, bayan Iceland da Ireland. A cikin wadancan shekarun, gaba daya an fadada kilomita murabba'i 44,360, kuma gaba daya fadin daji ya tashi daga hekta miliyan 13.5 zuwa 17.9. A cikin 1990, gandun daji ya rufe 26.6% na yankin Sifen. Ya zuwa 2007, wannan adadi ya haura zuwa 36.6% . Spain a yau tana da yanki na biyar mafi girma a cikin Tarayyar Turai.

A watan Janairun 2013, gwamnatin Burtaniya ta sanya wani buri na 12% na katako a Ingila ta 2060, daga kashi 10% na wancan lokacin. A cikin Wales Majalisar kasa ta Wales ta sanya kashi 19% woodland cover, daga kaso 15% . Manufofin da gwamnati ke tallafawa kamar su Kundin Kayan Carbon Woodland ana da niyyar tallafawa wannan burin ta hanyar ƙarfafa hukumomi da masu mallakar ƙasa don ƙirƙirar sabon dazuzzuka don daidaita haɓakar hayaƙin. Kungiyoyin agaji kamar Trees for Life (Scotland) suma suna ba da gudummawa ga dasa itacen daji da kuma ƙoƙarin sake dasa bishiyoyi a cikin Burtaniya.

Indiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kashe bishiyoyi a Kudancin Indiya

Kaso 23% na Indiya an rufe shi da gandun daji[ana buƙatar hujja] . A 2018, jimlar daji da bishiyar Indiya sun karu zuwa 24.39% ko 8,020. 88 km 2 . An haɗu da gandun daji na Indiya zuwa manyan rukuni 5 da nau'ikan 16 bisa laákari da ƙa'idodin rayuwa . An rarraba 38% na gandun daji a zaman busasshiyar ƙasa kuma 30% a matsayin masu bushewar zafi na wurare masu zafi da sauran ƙananan ƙungiyoyi. Nau'in gida ne kawai aka dasa a wani yanki. An fifita bishiyoyi masu ɗauke da Mayan marmari itace duk inda zai yiwu saboda aikin su azaman tushen abinci.

A shekarar 2019, Indiyawa sun dasa bishiyoyi Miliyan 220 a rana guda a jihar Uttar Pradesh ta Indiya .[ana buƙatar hujja]

A ranar Alhamis, 29 Agusta 2019, firayin ministan kasar India Mr. Narendra Modi saki ₹ 47, 436 crores (a kan biliyan 6.6 USD ) zuwa daban-daban jihohin wajibi ne ayyukan dasa bishiyoyi. Ana iya amfani da kudaden don maganin wuraren kamun kifi, taimakawa tsari na halitta, kula da gandun daji, kare namun daji da kuma kula da su, sauya kauyuka daga yankunan da aka kiyaye, gudanar da rikice-rikicen mutane da namun daji, horo da samar da wayar da kai, samar da na’urorin adana itace da ayyukan hadin gwiwa. Karuwaritace zai taimaka wajen ƙirƙirar ƙarin bututun carbon don saduwa da manufofin ƙasar (INDC) na tan biliyan 2.5 zuwa 3 na carbon dioxide kwatankwacin ƙarin gandun daji da kariyar bishiyoyi a shekara ta 2030 - ɓangare na ƙoƙarin Indiya na yaƙi da yanayin canza Gwamnatin Maharashtra ta shuka kusan iri dubu 20,000 a duk fadin jihar, kuma za ta yi alkawarin dasa wasu 30,000,000 a shekara mai zuwa. A cewar The Telegraph, gwamnatin Indiya ta danganta dala biliyan 6.2 don dashen bishiyoyi domin kara “gandun daji daidai da yarjejeniyoyin da aka yi a taron kolin canjin yanayi na Paris a 2015.” Gwamnatin Indiya ta kuma zartar da dokar CAMPA ( Hukumar Kula da Asusun Tallafawa da Ba da Tallafi), wanda zai ba da damar rupees dubu 40 (kusan Dala Biliyan 6) za su je jihohin Indiya don dashen itatuwa .

Iran[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Shekaru na huɗu na gandun dajin da aka canzawa dabi'a a cikin Iran, wanda kamfanin Aras GED ya dasa ta ta hanyar dasa itacen kasuwanci

Iran ana ɗaukarta a matsayin yanki mai ƙarancin gandun daji na duniya tare da kariya yanzu yana kimanin kusan kashi bakwai na yankin ƙasar. Wannan ƙimar da aka rage zuwa kimanin kadada miliyan shida na gandun dajin budurwa, wanda ya haɗa da itacen oak, almond da pistachio . Saboda haka, yana da wuya a sami noman dazuzzuka a wani babban sikeli idan aka kwatanta da sauran yankuna masu yanayin yanayi waɗanda aka basu yanayin ƙasa mai dausayi da ƙarancin dutse da kuma busasshiyar ƙasa. Dangane da takamaiman kididdigar dazuzzuka, Yankin Gudun Hijira da Hukumar Gudanar da Ruwa na Iran, a kowace shekara, ta yin amfani da hanyoyin da suka dace da nau'ikan itatuwa na asali a kowane yanki, an yi dazuzzuka da yawa, wanda ya haifar da kwanciyar hankali na halitta.

Isra'ila[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bishiyoyin JNF a cikin Jejin Negev . Dunes da aka yi da mutum (a nan liman ) suna taimakawa kiyayewa a cikin ruwan sama, yana haifar da dausayi .

Tare da bishiyoyin da aka shuka sama da miliyan 240, Isra'ila na ɗaya daga cikin ƙasashe biyu kacal da suka shiga karni na 21 tare da samun riba mai yawa a cikin adadin bishiyoyin, saboda manyan ayyukan da ake yi na sare itatuwa. Yawancin dazuzzukan Isra’ila sun samo asali ne daga babban yaƙin da ake yi da Asusun Ƙasar Yahudawa (JNF). [ abin da ake buƙata ]

Arewacin Afirka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yawancin kasashen Afirka da ke kan iyaka da hamadar Sahara suna aiki tare da aikin Babbar Ganye . Aikin dala biliyan 8 na niyyar dawo da hekta miliyan 100 na kaskantaccen kasa nan da shekarar 2030. Hakanan a Arewacin Afirka, an gabatar da Aikin Gandun Sahara tare da Ruwan Teku na Ruwa . An kuma ƙaddamar da wasu ayyukan a ƙasashe kamar Senegal don sake mayar da hamada. Ya zuwa shekara ta 2010, shugabannin Afirka suna tattaunawa game da haɗa albarkatun ƙasa don haɓaka tasiri. Bugu da kari, sauran ayyukan kamar aikin Keita a Neja an fara su a baya, kuma sun sami damar dawo da barnar da kwararowar hamada ta yi a cikin gida.

Amurka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kasar Amurka tana da kusan kashi ɗaya bisa uku wanda aka rufe a cikin gandun daji da daji. [ ana bukatar ] Duk da haka, yankuna a Amurka sun kasance suna da muhimmancin dasa bishiyoyi. A cikin 1800s mutane suna matsawa yamma sun haɗu da Manyan filayen - ƙasa mai ƙasa mai kyau, yawan mutane da buƙatar katako amma tare da dashen bishiyoyi don samar da shi. Don haka an karfafa dasa bishiyoyi tare da gidaje. An kafa ranar Arbor a cikin 1872 ta Julius Sterling Morton a Nebraska City, Nebraska. Ta hanyar 1930s bala'in muhalli na Dust Bowl ya nuna dalili don muhimmin sabon kariyar itace. Shirye-shiryen ayyukan jama'a a karkashin Sabuwar Yarjejeniyar sun ga dasa mil 18,000 na iska mai fadada daga North Dakota zuwa Texas don yaƙi da zaizayar ƙasa (duba Great Plains Shelterbelt ).

Fa'idodi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dasa bishiyoyi na taimaka wajan rage dumamar yanayi ta hanyar rage CO</br> CO a cikin yanayi da gabatar da ƙarin O <sub id="mwxA">2</sub> . Bishiyoyi sune rarar carbon da ke cire CO</br> CO daga yanayin ta hanyar hotynthesis kuma jujjuya shi zuwa biomass .

Gandun dazuzzuka yana ba da wasu fa'idodin muhalli, gami da haɓaka ƙimar ƙasa da matakan ƙirar carbon a cikin ƙasa, guje wa zaizayar ƙasa da hamada . Dasa bishiyoyi a cikin birane kuma na iya rage gurɓatar iska ta hanyar shan bishiyoyi da kuma tace abubuwa masu gurɓatawa, gami da carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, da ozone, ban da CO</br> CO .

Suka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dashen ciyawar daji[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ana sukar kamfen din dasa bishiyoyi saboda wani lokaci ana niyya ga yankunan da dazuka ba zai faru ba, kamar su ciyawar ciyawa da tsiron savanna

Tasiri kan halittu masu yawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dashen bishiyoyi na iya shafar yawancin halittu ta hanyar ƙara yawan rarrabuwa da kuma tasirin tasiri ga mazaunin da ya rage a wajen yankin da aka shuka. Sabon gandun daji plantations iya gabatar da generalist da yara da zai in ba haka ba ba za a samu a bude mazauninsu cikin rufe yanki, wanda zai iya gurbatarwa kara predation rates a kan 'yan qasar jinsunan yankin.

Surface albedo[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hakanan an gabatar da tambayoyi a cikin masana kimiyya game da yadda gandun daji na duniya zai iya shafar albedo na Duniya. Murfin rufin bishiyar bishiyoyi na iya sa albedo ya zama duhu, wanda ke sa ƙarin zafin wuta ya kamu, da yiwuwar ƙara zafin duniyar.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Majiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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Bayani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayanan kula[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 

Bibliography[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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  • Wilson, EO (2002) Rayuwar Rayuwa, Vintage 

Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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