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Shirley Graham Du Bois

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Shirley Graham Du Bois
Rayuwa
Cikakken suna Lola Shirley Graham, Jr.
Haihuwa Indianapolis (en) Fassara, 11 Nuwamba, 1896
ƙasa Tarayyar Amurka
Ƙabila Afirkawan Amurka
Mutuwa Beijing, 27 ga Maris, 1977
Makwanci Accra
Yanayin mutuwa Sababi na ainihi (ciwon nono)
Ƴan uwa
Abokiyar zama W. E. B. Du Bois (en) Fassara  (1951 -
Yara
Karatu
Makaranta Lewis and Clark High School (en) Fassara 1915)
Oberlin College (en) Fassara 1935) master's degree (en) Fassara
Howard University (en) Fassara 1928)
Oberlin College (en) Fassara 1934) Bachelor of Arts (en) Fassara
University of Paris (en) Fassara 1930)
Juilliard School (en) Fassara 1929)
Sana'a
Sana'a mai rubuta kiɗa, marubucin wasannin kwaykwayo, biographer (en) Fassara, marubuci da orator (en) Fassara
Wurin aiki Chicago, Accra, Dar es Salaam da Kairo
Employers Federal Theatre Project (en) Fassara
Howard University (en) Fassara
Kyaututtuka
Mamba Sojourners for Truth and Justice (en) Fassara
Imani
Jam'iyar siyasa Communist Party USA (en) Fassara
Shirley Graham, 1946

Shirley Graham Du Bois (an haife shi Lola Shirley Graham Jr .; Nuwamba 11, 1896 - Maris 27, 1977) marubuciya ce Ba-Amurke-Ghanaiya, marubucin wasan kwaikwayo, mawaki, kuma mai fafutuka don dalilan Ba-Amurke, da sauransu. Ta lashe kyautar Messner da Anisfield-Wolf don ayyukanta.

Tarihin Rayuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An haife ta Lola Shirley Graham Jr. a Indianapolis, Indiana, a 1896, a matsayin 'yar daya tilo a cikin yara biyar. Mahaifinta ya kasance minista na Episcopal Methodist na Afirka kuma dangi suna tafiya akai-akai saboda aikin mahaifinta a cikin parsonages a duk faɗin ƙasar. A cikin Yuni 1915, Shirley ta sauke karatu daga Lewis da Clark High School a Spokane, Washington . [1][2]

Ta auri mijinta na farko, Shadrach T. McCants, a cikin 1921. An haifi ɗansu Robert a cikin 1923, sannan David Graham DuBois [3] ya biyo baya a 1925. A cikin 1926, Graham ya koma Paris, Faransa, don nazarin tsarin kiɗa a Sorbonne . Ta yi tunanin cewa wannan ilimin zai iya ba ta damar samun aiki mai kyau kuma ta sami damar tallafa wa 'ya'yanta. Haɗu da ƴan Afirka da ƴan Afirka-Caribbean a birnin Paris sun gabatar da ita ga sababbin kiɗa da al'adu. Graham da McCants sun sake aure a 1927.

Graham ya yi aiki a matsayin ma'aikacin laburare na kiɗa yayin da yake halartar Jami'ar Howard a matsayin ɗalibin da ba ya karatu a ƙarƙashin koyarwar Farfesa Roy W. Tibbs . Ya ba ta shawarar samun matsayin koyarwa a Kwalejin Morgan wanda ya kai ga matsayinta na shugabar sashen kiɗa daga 1929 zuwa 1931.

A cikin 1931, Graham ta shiga Kwalejin Oberlin a matsayin daliba mai ci gaba kuma, bayan ta sami BA a 1934, ta ci gaba da yin aikin karatun digiri a cikin kiɗa, ta kammala digiri na biyu a 1935. [4] A cikin 1936, Hallie Flanagan ta nada Graham darektan Chicago Negro Unit of the Federal Theatre Project, wani ɓangare na Shugaba Franklin D. Roosevelt 's Works Progress Administration . Ta rubuta maki na kiɗa, ba da umarni, kuma ta yi ƙarin aikin haɗin gwiwa.

A cikin 1932 ta tsara opera Tom-Tom: An Epic of Music and the Negro wanda aka fara a Cleveland, Ohio, wanda Kamfanin Opera na Filin Wasa ya ba da izini. Tom Tom ya fito da dukkan simintin gyare-gyare na Baƙar fata da ƙungiyar makaɗa, wanda aka tsara a cikin ayyuka uku; Aiki na ɗaya da ke faruwa a cikin ƙabilar Afirka ta asali, aiki na biyu yana nuna shukar bayi na Amurka, kuma aikin ƙarshe da ya faru a cikin 1920s Harlem . Waƙar tana da abubuwa na blues da ruhi, da kuma jazz tare da abubuwan opera. An yi la'akari da maki na wannan opera a ɓace kuma ba a yi shi ba tun farkon farko har sai an sake gano shi a cikin 2001 a Jami'ar Harvard.

Graham ya ɗan yi aiki a Gidan wasan kwaikwayo na Tarayya kafin a rufe shi a 1939 ta ƙungiyar masu adawa da kwaminisanci. Elizabeth Dilling ne adam wata – farar fata mai kishin kwaminisanci mai tsaurin ra'ayi - da kuma Sanata Robert Rice Reynolds, mai goyon bayan Nazi da kuma anti-Semite, ya nemi ya kare aikin Gidan wasan kwaikwayo na Tarayya. A ƙarshe dai an soke aikin ginin gidan wasan kwaikwayo na Tarayya sakamakon wannan kalaman kyamar gurguzu da wariyar launin fata. Daga 1940 zuwa 1942 Graham ta yi aiki a Phillis Wheatley Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA) a Indianapolis, Indiana, inda ta mai da hankali kan kafa shirin wasan kwaikwayo sannan ta zama darektan kungiyar YMCA-USO a Fort Huachuca, Arizona . YWCA ta goyi bayan Dokar Anti-Lynching ta Tarayya. Duk da haka, Elizabeth Dilling da kungiyoyin masu adawa da kwaminisanci da masu tsattsauran ra'ayi sun yi iƙirarin cewa YWCA "ƙungiyoyin gurguzu ne da Yahudawa ke iko da su" kuma sun kai hari kan goyon bayan kungiyar don daidaita hakki ga mutanen Black. Buga Dilling na " Red Channels " a ƙarshe ya ƙaddamar da adawa da gurguzu a kan Graham Du Bois, wanda ya sa aka ciro aikinta daga ɗakunan karatu tare da tantancewa.

A cikin 1951, ta auri W. E.B. Du Bois, aure na biyu ga duka biyun. Tana da shekaru 54; ya kasance 83. A shekarar 1958, Graham Du Bois da mijinta sun ziyarci Ghana, inda ta yi jawabi a taron jama'ar Afirka (AAPC), taron da kungiyoyi 62 na 'yantar da 'yanci na Afirka suka gudanar, inda ta gabatar da jawabi mai taken "Makomar dukkan Afirka ta ta'allaka ne." a cikin Socialism "inda ta bayyana "Afirka, tsohuwar Afirka, duniya ta kira ta kuma ta ɗaga hannunta! Afirka ba ta da zabi tsakanin tsarin jari-hujja mai zaman kansa da zamantakewa. Duk duniya, ciki har da kasashen jari-hujja, suna tafiya zuwa gurguzu, babu makawa. Za ku iya zaɓar tsakanin ƙungiyoyin kawancen soja, kuna iya zaɓar tsakanin ƙungiyoyin ƙungiyoyin siyasa, ba za ku iya zaɓar tsakanin gurguzanci da jari-hujja ba, saboda tsarin jari-hujja mai zaman kansa ya lalace." A shekarar 1960 Du Boises sun halarci bikin karrama Kwame Nkrumah a Jamhuriyar Ghana a matsayin shugaban sabuwar kasar da ta samu 'yantar da su. Graham Du Bois da W. E. Daga baya B. Du Bois ya zama dan kasar Ghana a shekarar 1961.

Graham Du Bois ya halarci taron koli na biyu na kungiyar hadin kan kasashen Afirka (OAU) da aka yi a birnin Alkahira a shekarar 1964 kuma ya tuntubi Malcolm X kan kokarin kungiyar hadin kan kasashen Afirka ta OAAU na samun goyon baya kan batutuwan da ke cikin Amurka a tsakanin shugabannin. na jihohi, Majalisar Dinkin Duniya da ƙungiyoyin 'yanci na ƙasa. Graham ya sanar da fara wani kwas a kan rubutun talabijin a Accra don ƙirƙirar rukunin marubuta ga Gidan Talabijin na Ghana.

A ziyararta ta farko a kasar Sin a shekarar 1959, Graham Du Bois, tare da mijinta W. E. B. Du Bois, an yi bikin tunawa da shi ne a kasar Sin saboda himma da himma wajen 'yantar da bakaken fata, da kuma 'yantar da dukkan masu launin fata a fadin duniya. Jam'iyyar Kwaminisanci ta kasar Sin a shekarar 1959 ta yi bikin tunawa da W. E. B. Du Bois ta hanyar buga littafinsa The Soul of Black Folk a cikin harsunan Sinanci. Graham Du Bois ta sadaukar da lokacinta a kasar Sin wajen gwagwarmayar mata, kuma ta nemi dinke alaka tsakanin gwagwarmayar 'yan mulkin mallaka a kasar Sin da gwagwarmayar bakaken fata Amurkawa. Jaridar People's Daily ta amince da ita a matsayin memba na Majalisar Zaman Lafiya ta Duniya da kuma kwamitin kasa na Ƙungiyar Abokan Hulɗar Amirka da Tarayyar Soviet.

A shekarar 1967, an tilasta mata barin Ghana jim kadan bayan juyin mulkin da sojoji suka yi a shekarar 1966, sannan ta koma birnin Alkahira na kasar Masar, inda danta David ke aiki a matsayin dan jarida. A nan ta ci gaba da rubuce-rubuce, ta yi karatun Larabci kuma ta zama mai goyon bayan Afrocentrism . Daga baya ta sake komawa kasar Sin a tsakiyar juyin juya halin al'adu . A wannan lokaci, Graham Du Bois ya goyi bayan 'yan gurguzu na kasar Sin a cikin rarrabuwar kawuna tsakanin Sin da Tarayyar Soviet . Ta yaba wa shirye-shiryen kade-kade na kasar Sin a birnin Shanghai, kuma ta shiga ofishin marubutan Afirka da Asiya . Graham Du Bois ya shafe lokaci a cikin hanyoyin sadarwar mutane da kuma tare da Red Guards.

Ta ba da shawarwari a Yale da UCLA a cikin 1970, inda ta iya yin magana kan mulkin mallaka, jari-hujja da mulkin mallaka da kuma abubuwan da ta samu a kasashen da ake gina tsarin gurguzu, kamar Sin da Vietnam. Ta kuma ba W. E. Rubuce-rubucen B. Du Bois zuwa Jami'ar Massachusetts, Amherst.

Ta shirya wani fim a kasar Sin mai suna Women of the New China a shekarar 1974. Shirley Graham Du Bois ta rasu a birnin Beijing na kasar Sin a shekarar 1977, inda aka binne ta a makabartar juyin juya halin Babaoshan . Jana'izar ta ya samu halartar manyan jami'an siyasa da dama a kasar Sin, ciki har da Cheng Yonggui, Deng Yingchao, da Huo Guofeng, inda suka karrama ta a matsayin jaruma saboda nuna kishin kasa da kasa. Shugaban Jam'iyyar Kwaminisanci ya ajiye furen tunawa da Graham Du Bois, haka kuma ofisoshin jakadanci na Tanzania, Ghana, da Zambia.

Mutuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Shirley Graham Du Bois ta mutu sakamakon cutar kansar nono a ranar 27 ga Maris, 1977, tana da shekaru 80, a birnin Beijing na kasar Sin . [5] Ta mutu a matsayin 'yar kasar Tanzaniya, Ghana, da kuma Amurka. Ta yi ƙaura daga Ghana zuwa Tanzaniya bayan da aka hambarar da shugaban Ghana Kwame Nkrumah a ranar 24 ga Fabrairun 1966, kuma ta kasance kusa da shugaban Tanzaniya, Julius Nyerere, kuma ta sami takardar zama ɗan ƙasar Tanzaniya.

Girmamawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Almaran ta Oberlin Conservatory of Music kwanan nan ta karrama DuBois tana ba da kwasa-kwasan tari da taron da aka sadaukar don farfado da kyakkyawar gadonta a matsayin mawaƙiya, mai fafutuka da kuma jarumar watsa labarai. An kira taron Intersections: Farfado da Genius na Shirley Graham Du Bois 2020 Taro a ranar Alhamis da Juma'a, Fabrairu 27 da 28, 2020, wanda ya haɗa da cikakken lacca na farfesa na Columbia kuma marubuci Farah Jasmine Griffin . [6] Cibiyar koyarwa ta Gertrude B. Lemle ta dauki nauyin taron, StudiOC, kyauta daga Gidauniyar Andrew W. Mellon, Dean na kwalejin, Dean na Conservatory, Sashen Tarihi, Dakunan karatu na Kwalejin Oberlin, Sashen Nazarin Afirka, da kuma Sashen wasan kwaikwayo.

Ana ajiye takardunta a;

  • WEB Du Bois Tarin Rubutun a Jami'ar Massachusetts a Amherst, Massachusetts
  • Tarin ayyukan wasan kwaikwayo na tarayya a Jami'ar George Mason a Fairfax, Virginia
  • Kundin Tsarin Kiɗa na Washington a cikin Laburaren Bincike na Moorland-Spingarn a Jami'ar Howard a Washington, DC
  • Makarantar Schlesinger akan Tarihin Mata a Amurka, Cibiyar Harvard Radcliffe, Cambridge, MA

Ayyuka[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bayan ganawa da 'yan Afirka a birnin Paris yayin da yake karatu a Sorbonne a 1926, Graham ya tsara ma'aunin kida da libertto na Tom Tom: An Epic of Music and the Negro (1932), wasan opera. Ta yi amfani da kade-kade da raye-raye da kuma littafin wajen bayyana tarihin tafiyar da 'yan Afirka suka yi zuwa yankunan Arewacin Amurka, ta hanyar bauta da kuma samun 'yanci. An fara shi a Cleveland, Ohio . [7] Wasan opera ta ja hankalin mutane 10,000 zuwa farkonta a filin wasa na Cleveland da 15,000 zuwa wasan kwaikwayo na biyu. [4] [8]

cewar Oxford Companion to African-American Literature, ayyukanta na wasan kwaikwayo sun haɗa da Deep Rivers (1939), kiɗa; It's Morning (1940), bala'i guda ɗaya game da mahaifiyar bawa da ke tunanin kisan jariri; I Gotta Home (1940), wasan kwaikwayo guda ɗaya; Track Thirteen (1940), fim ɗin rediyo da kuma wasan kwaikwayon da ta buga kawai; Elijah's Raven (1941), wasan kwaikwayo na mataki uku; da Dust to Earth (1941), bala'in mataki uku.

Graham ya yi amfani da gidan wasan kwaikwayo don ba da labarin baƙar fata da hangen nesa, yana fuskantar fararen nau'ikan tarihi. Duk da yunƙurin da ta yi na samar da Broadway ba ta yi nasara ba kamar yadda mata 'yan Afirka da yawa a gabanta da bayanta, har yanzu Karamu Theatre a Cleveland da sauran manyan kamfanoni na Baƙar fata ne suka shirya wasanninta. Hakanan ana ganin aikinta a cikin kwalejoji da yawa kuma duka Track goma sha uku (1940) da Tom-Tom an watsa su akan rediyo.

Saboda wahalar samun kida ko wasan kwaikwayo da aka shirya da bugawa, Graham ya juya ga adabi. Ta yi rubutu a nau'ikan ta kware daga shekarun 1950 a cikin tarihin rayuwar manyan Ba-Amurke da masu karatu na duniya. Ta so ta ƙara yawan littattafan da suka yi magana da fitattun ƴan Afirka a cikin ɗakunan karatu na makarantar firamare. Saboda iliminta na sirri game da batutuwanta, littattafanta na Paul Robeson da Kwame Nkrumah suna da ban sha'awa musamman. Sauran batutuwa sun haɗa da Frederick Douglass, Phillis Wheatley, da Booker T. Washington ; da Gamal Abdul Nasser, da Julius Nyerere . Ɗaya daga cikin litattafanta na ƙarshe, Zulu Heart (1974), sun haɗa da nuna tausayi na fararen fata a Afirka ta Kudu duk da rikice-rikicen launin fata. [4]

Zaɓuɓɓuka daga wasiƙun ta tare da mijinta (duka kafin da kuma bayan dangantakar su ta fara) sun bayyana a cikin kundin uku na 1976 ta Herbert Aptheker (ed.), Daidaitawa na WEB Du Bois . Shirley Graham Du Bois shine batun macen Race: Rayuwar Shirley Graham Du Bois.

Ayyukan rayuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tarihin rayuwar matasa masu karatu: [4]

  • with George D. Lipscomb, Dr. George Washington Carver, Scientist, New York: Julian Messner, 1944, (Library binding has  )
  • Paul Robeson, Citizen of the World, Connecticut, 1946: Greenwood Press, reprint 1972
  • Your Most Humble Servant: Benjamin Banneker, New York: Julian Messner, 1949; winner of the Anisfield-Wolf Book Award in 1950[9]
  • The Story of Phillis Wheatley: Poetess of the Revolution, New York: Julian Messner, 1949
  • The Story of Pocahontas, New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1953
  • Jean Baptiste Pointe duSable: Founder of Chicago (1953)
  • Booker T. Washington: Educator of Head, Hand and Heart, New York: Julian Messner, 1955
  • His Day Is Marching On: A Memoir of W.E.B. Du Bois, New York: Lippincott, 1971
  • Julius K. Nyerere, Teacher of Africa, New York: Julian Messner, 1975
  • Du Bois: A Pictorial Biography, Johnsons, 1978

Nassoshi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Aptheker, Bettina. "Graham Du Bois, Shirley," in Susan Ware and Stacy Braukman (eds), Notable American Women: A Biographical Dictionary, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004, pp. 248–249.
  2. Harris, Trudier, ed. (1988), Afro-American Writers, 1940–1955, Dictionary of Literary Biography, 76, Detroit: Gale Research Co., p. 68, ISBN 0810345544
  3. Woo, Elaine (2005-02-10). "David Graham Du Bois, 79; Professor, Journalist and Stepson of Famed Scholar". Los Angeles Times (in Turanci). Retrieved 2020-10-22.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 "Shirley Graham", Oxford Companion to African-American Literature, 2001, accessed January 18, 2012.
  5. Yunxiang, Gao (Spring 2013). "W. E. B. And Shirley Graham du Bois in Maoist China". Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race. 10 (1): 59–85. doi:10.1017/S1742058X13000040.
  6. "Intersections: Recovering the Genius of Shirley Graham Du Bois 2020 Symposium | February 27, 2020". advance.oberlin.edu (in Turanci). Retrieved 2020-10-22.
  7. Schmalenberger, Sarah, "Debuting Her Political Voice: The Lost Opera of Shirley Graham", Black Music Research Journal, Vol. 26, No. 1 (Spring 2006), pp. 39–87.
  8. Empty citation (help)
  9. "Shirley Graham". The Anisfield-Wolf Book Awards.