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Uwargida

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Uwargida
form of address in the United Kingdom (en) Fassara, noble title (en) Fassara da honorific prefix (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Bangare na noble women (en) Fassara
Ƙasa Birtaniya da Tonga

Kalmar mace kalma ce ga yarinya ko mace, tare da ma'anoni daban-daban. Da zarar an yi amfani da su kawai don kwatanta mata masu matsayi ko matsayi, daidai da ubangiji, yanzu yana iya komawa ga kowace mace mai girma, kamar yadda za a iya amfani da namiji ga maza. Yin amfani da na yau da kullun wani lokaci yana jin kunya ("matar dare" don karuwa ) ko, a cikin ɓangarorin Amurka, ƙaddamar da adireshi kai tsaye (daidai da "maigida" ko "mutum").

"Lady" kuma babban take a cikin United Kingdom . Ana amfani da "Lady" a gaban sunan iyali ko peerage na mace da take da daraja ko daraja suo jure (a nata dama), ko matar ubangiji, baronet, Scotland feudal baron, Laird, ko jarumi ., da kuma kafin sunan farko na 'yar sarki, marques, ko kunne .

Etymology[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kalmar ta fito daga Tsohon Turanci hlǣfdige</link> ; kashi na farko na kalmar mutataccen nau'in hlāf ne</link> , "gurasa, burodi ", kuma ana gani a cikin hlāford mai dacewa</link> , "Ubangiji". Yawancin lokaci ana ɗaukar kashi na biyu daga tushen dig-, "don knead", ana gani kuma a cikin kullu ; haɓakar hankali daga mai yin burodi, ko mai yin burodi, ko mai yin burodi, zuwa ma’ana ta yau da kullun, ko da yake ba a bayyana a fili ta tarihi ba, ana iya misalta ta “Ubangiji”.

Amfani[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

John William Waterhouse 's Lady of Shalott, 1888 ( Tate Gallery, London, Ingila)

Ma'anar farko ta "farkar gida" yanzu yawanci ba ta ƙare ba, ajiye don kalmar " matar gida " da kuma a cikin jimlolin da aka saita kamar "matar gidan". Ana kiyaye wannan ma'anar a cikin jihohin kudancin Amurka . A wasu mahallin “mace” tana kama da tsohuwar kalmar “ mace ”, ma’ana wacce take da matsayi mai girma a cikin al’umma ta hanyar haihuwa da kuma girma, amma ba lallai ba ne a sanya mata suna. Hakanan ana amfani da kalmar a cikin laƙabi kamar uwargidan shugaban ƙasa da uwargidan magajin gari, matan zaɓaɓɓu ko naɗaɗɗen mukamai.

A cikin yawancin yarukan Turai madaidaicin kalmar yana aiki azaman babban nau'i na adireshin daidai da Misis Turanci ( Madame ta Faransa</link> , Sifen Señora</link> , Italiyanci Signora</link> , Jamus Frau</link> , Yaren mutanen Poland Pani</link> , da dai sauransu. ). A cikin waɗannan harsunan daidai ne a yi magana da wata mace da ba a san sunanta Madame ba</link> , Señora</link> , da sauransu, amma a cikin ladabi na Ingilishi "lady" ya kasance tsawon ƙarni kawai a matsayin kalma a cikin jam'i, [1] wanda kuma shine yanayin " mai mutumci ". Amfani da waƙa guda ɗaya (watau magana da wani kai tsaye) ya taɓa zama gama gari amma galibi ya keɓe ga waƙa. [1] A wasu yarukan har yanzu ana iya amfani da ita wajen yin magana da wata mace da ba a sani ba ta hanyar da ba a sani ba, sau da yawa a cikin yanayi na wajibi ko na tambayoyi, kwatankwacin " malam " ga namijin da ba a sani ba: misali, "Hey, uwargida, ba a ba ki izinin shiga nan ba. !" A cikin wannan amfani, kalmar "mace" ba ta cika yin girma ba idan aka rubuta. Kalmomin turanci da aka saba yiwa mace magana cikin ladabi shine madam ko gajarta ma'am .

A cikin Ingilishi, ƙananan lakabin aiki ba su da jinsi .[ana buƙatar hujja]</link> ayyuka ba su da alaƙa da jinsi, misali mai ɗaukar wasiku (ma'aikacin gidan waya), amma inda akwai kalmar gama gari tare da kari na -man, wani lokaci - mace za a iya amfani da ita a matsayin daidai, misali ma'aikacin gidan waya da (wani lokaci) postlady. Yin amfani da "mace" a cikin sunayen ƙwararrun ƙwararrun ƙwararrun ma'aikata waɗanda a baya sun kasance masu kiyaye maza sun faɗi cikin farin ciki tare da mata na biyu (likita mace, injiniyan mata, alƙali na mace), kodayake likitan mata a wasu lokuta ma'aikacin kiwon lafiya yana amfani da shi lokacin yin alƙawari a wurin zama. kungiyar kula da cibiyar kiwon lafiya ta yadda lamarin ya bayyana ga majiyyaci.[ana buƙatar hujja]</link> ana amfani da shi a wasu sana'o'i, don ba da daraja da nuna girmamawa ga ƙananan ƙwararrun ayyuka kamar matan shayi a ofisoshin da asibitoci, matan abincin rana (ko matan abincin dare) a cikin kantin sayar da makaranta, tsaftacewa mata a cikin gidaje masu zaman kansu da kuma a cikin gida. wuraren kasuwanci, da mata masu kula da lafiya don mataimakan kula da lafiyar mata.

Dukansu masu sharhi na Biritaniya da Amurka sun lura da canjin amfani da “mace” a tsakiyar karni na ashirin. Ba'amurke ɗan jarida William Allen White ya lura da ɗaya daga cikin wahalhalu a cikin tarihin rayuwarsa na 1946. Ya ce wata mata da ta biya tarar karuwanci ta zo jaridarsa don nuna rashin amincewarta, ba wai an ce an yanke mata hukuncin kisa ba, amma jaridar ta kira ta a matsayin “mace” maimakon “mace”. Bayan faruwar lamarin, White ya tabbatar wa masu karatunsa, takardunsa sun kira mata 'yan adam a matsayin "mata", ban da sunayen kotun 'yan sanda, wadanda dukkansu "mata ne". Masanin tarihin Birtaniya Nancy Mitford ta rubuta wani maƙala mai tasiri a cikin 1954, " U vs. non-U ", inda ta lura da bambance-bambancen ajin : ƙananan mata sun fi son a kira su "mata", yayin da waɗanda suka fito daga mafi girman zamantakewa sun gamsu da su. a gane a matsayin "mata". Da yake tsokaci game da kalmar a 1953, CS Lewis ya rubuta cewa "mai gadi a Holloway ya ce kurkukun mata ne!" Kalmar “mace jakar jaka” ( vagabond ) magana ce ga macen da ta fada cikin mawuyacin hali; "matar dare" kalma ce mai ladabi ga karuwa .

A cikin Ingilishi na Burtaniya, "mace" sau da yawa, amma ba koyaushe ba, kawai ma'anar ladabi ce ga "mace". Sau da yawa ana bambanta bankunan jama'a da alamun da ke nuna "Ladies" ko "Gentlemen". "Lady" na iya samun siffa ta mutunci da mutunci, ana amfani da ita wajen siffanta tsohuwa a matsayin "tsohuwar mace" ko kuma lokacin magana game da mace ga yaro (misali. "Bawa matar kudin." ) Ya kasance ana amfani da shi azaman takwaransa ga “mai daraja”, a cikin jimlar jimlar “ mata da maza ”, kuma galibi ana yin musaya (a cikin ma’ana na yau da kullun) tare da “mace” (kamar yadda a cikin, “Matar a kantin sayar da kayayyaki ta ce I zai iya mayar da wannan abu cikin kwanaki talatin). Sai dai kuma wasu matan tun bayan bullowar mace ta biyu, sun yi adawa da kalmar da aka yi amfani da su a cikin mahallin kamar misali na karshe, suna masu cewa kalmar tana jin jin dadi da kuma tsohon lokacin da aka yi amfani da ita ta wannan hanya; mutumin da ke cikin mahallin guda ɗaya ba lallai ba ne a kira shi "mai girma". Ɗaya daga cikin masu goyon bayan mata na sake fasalin harshe, Robin Lakoff, a cikin littafinta Language and Woman's Place (1975), musamman ya tayar da batun hanyoyin da ba a yi amfani da "mace" a matsayin takwaran "mai ladabi". Jami'ar Elizabeth Reid Boyd ta ba da shawarar cewa an dawo da amfani da kalmar "mace" ta hanyar mata a ƙarni na 21. [2]

lakabin Burtaniya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

bisa ka'ida, "Lady" ita ce takwararta ta mace zuwa matsayi mafi girma a cikin al'umma, daga mazaje, ta hanyar jarumawa, zuwa takwarorinsu na daula. A lokacin Tsakiyar Tsakiyar, 'ya'yan sarakuna ko 'ya'yan sarauta na jini yawanci ana san su da sunayensu na farko tare da "Lady" prefixed, misali. Uwargida Elizabeth ; tunda Tsohuwar Ingilishi da Ingilishi na Tsakiya ba su da mace kwatankwacin sarakuna ko ƴan kunne ko wasu ƴan sarauta ko manyan mutane. Baya ga sarauniya, matan sarauta da daraja suna ɗaukar taken "Lady".

A matsayin take na manyan mutane, amfani da “mace” a Biritaniya yayi daidai da na “Ubangiji”. Ta haka ne a kasa m madadin zuwa cikakken take ba da takamaiman matsayi, na tafiyar tafiya, Countess, viscountess ko baroness, ko a matsayin take na miji matsayi da dama ko ladabi, ko a matsayin mace take a kanta. [3] Ana amfani da taken takwarorinsu tare da takamaiman labarin : Matar Ubangiji Morris ita ce "Lady Morris". Mukamin gwauruwa da aka samu daga mijinta ya zama mai sadaki, misali The Dowager Lady Smith .

Ana kuma amfani da lakabin "Lady" ga macen da ke matar wani baron feudal na Scotland ko Laird, lakabin "Lady" wanda ke gaban sunan barony ko lardship. A wajen ƴan ƙanana na Duke ko Marquess, waɗanda suke da laƙabi na ladabi "Ubangiji" a gaban sunan sunan su da na iyali, an san matar da sunan miji da sunan iyali tare da "Lady" prefixed, misali. Lady John Smith . 'Ya'yan sarakuna, marquesses da kunnuwa suna da ladabi "mata"; Anan, wannan take an riga an saka shi zuwa sunan da aka bayar da kuma sunan dangin matar, misali Lady Jane Smith, kuma ana kiyaye wannan idan matar ta auri wani ɗan gari, misali Mr John da Lady Jane Smith . "Lady" kuma al'ada take na matar baronet ko jarumi, amma a cikin wannan yanayin ba tare da sunan Kirista ba: "Lady" tare da sunan mahaifi kawai, [3] Sir John da Lady Smith . Lokacin da mace ta saki jarumi kuma ya sake yin aure, sabuwar matar za ta zama Lady Smith yayin da tsohuwar matar ta zama Jane, Lady Smith .

Yan mata na Order of Garter da Order of thistle waɗanda ba su da wani salo mafi girma kuma suna karɓar prefix na "Lady"; Anan wannan take an riga an saka shi zuwa sunan da aka bayar da kuma sunan dangin matar, misali Lady Marion Fraser, LT, tare da post nominal LG ko LT, bi da bi, kuma wannan yana kiyaye idan mace ta yi aure. [ana buƙatar hujja]</link>[ abubuwan da ake bukata ]

Sauran ma'anoni[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Amfani na musamman na kalmar a matsayin take na Budurwa Maryamu, yawanci Uwargidanmu, tana wakiltar Latin Domina Nostra . A cikin Lady Day da Lady Chapel, kalmar daidai ce mai haɗe-haɗe, wakiltar hlǣfdigan [3] "na Lady".

Hakanan ana amfani da kalmar azaman take na Allahn Wiccan, Uwargida .

Da yawa daga cikin abokan aikinta na siyasa sun yi magana da Margaret Thatcher ba bisa ƙa'ida ba a lokacin Firayim Minista na Burtaniya . An halicci mijinta daga baya baronet, don haka ya sanya ta "Lady Thatcher" a matsayin dama. Bayan ta yi ritaya, an ba ta lamuni a matsayin Baroness Thatcher, na Kesteven a cikin gundumar Lincolnshire, kuma daga baya aka san ta da "The Lady Thatcher".

Wani wuri a cikin Commonwealth, ana amfani da kalmar a cikin irin wannan salon don amfani da aristocratic a Biritaniya. A Ghana, alal misali, an san ma'aikacin Asantehene na mutanen Ashanti Lady Julia Osei Tutu . A Najeriya, 'yan kabilar Yarbawa Kofoworola, Lady Ademola da Oyinkansola, Lady Abayomi sun yi amfani da wannan kambun saboda kasancewarsu matan jaruman Birtaniya.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Yarinya
  • Dame, take daidai da Sir

Nassoshi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Oxford English Dictionary
  2. Empty citation (help)
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. Missing or empty |title= (help) Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "EB1911" defined multiple times with different content
  • Kamus na Merriam Webster na Amfani da Turanci (Merriam-Webster, 1989),  .
  • Lakoff, Robin. Harshe da Wurin Mata (New York, Harper & Row, 1975). ISBN Saukewa: 0-19-516757-0 .

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