Adamu a Musulunci

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Adamu a Musulunci
Annabawa a Musulunci da protoplast (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na Adam
Bangare na Adam and Eve in Islam (en) Fassara
Jinsi namiji
Suna Adam
Wurin mutuwa Makkah
Wajen rufewa Makkah
Mata/miji Eve in Islam (en) Fassara
Yarinya/yaro Seth in Islam (en) Fassara, Abel in Islam (en) Fassara, Cain and Abel in Islam (en) Fassara da Cain in Islam (en) Fassara
Harsuna Larabci

Adam ( Larabci: آدم‎, romanized: ʾĀdam), a Musulunci, an yi imani da cewa shi ne mutum na farko a doronkasa kuma annabin farko (Larabci: نبيnabi) na Musulunci . Musulman suna kallon matsayin Adamu a matsayin uban mutane. Musulmai kuma suna nufin matarsa, Ḥawwāʾ (Larabci: حَوَّاء‎, Hauwa’u), a matsayin “mahaifiyar Yan Adam”. [1] Musulmai suna kallon Adam a matsayin musulmi na farko, kamar yadda Alqur'ani ya bayyana cewa dukkan annabawa sun yi wa'azin imani guda na Musulunci (Larabci: إسلام‎, Sallama ga Allah ). [2]

Kamar yadda addinin Musulunci ya tanada, an halicci Adamu daga abin duniya kuma Allah ne ya raya shi. Allah ya sanya Adamu a cikin Aljannar Firdausi. Bayan Adamu ya yi zunubi ta cin ’ya’yan itacen da aka haramta (Bishiyar dawwama), aljanna ta ki shi, amma yana iya dawowa idan Adamu ya tuba daga zunubinsa. Ana kallon wannan labari a matsayin na zahiri da kuma kwatanci ga dangantakar dan adam ga Allah. Musulunci ba dole ba ne ya yi riko da samarin duniya Halittu, kuma an yi imani da cewa an yi rayuwa a duniya tun kafin Adamu.

Labarin Adamu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mala'iku sun girmama Adamu - karamin Farisa (c. 1560)

Alqur'ani da Hadisi sun ba da labarin halittar Adamu da faduwarsu. Hada Al-Qur'ani tare da tafsirin Ahlus-Sunnah na iya samar da asusu mai zuwa. Allah ya halicci Adamu, kamar yadda Alqur’ani ya fada, daga laka ko yumbu kuma ya hura ruhinsa (rūḥī) cikinsa. Hadisi ya kara da cewa an sa masa suna Adamu ne bayan yumbu da aka yi shi da shi, ko kuma fata (adim) na duniya.

Kamar yadda Alkur’ani ya ce, a lokacin da Allah ya sanar da mala’iku cewa zai sanya wani magaji a doron kasa, sai suka yi tambaya kan dalilin da ya sa Allah zai zabi mutum wanda zai haddasa zubar da jini da barna. Sai Allah ya koya wa Adamu “sunan dukan abu” kuma ya tara mala’iku a gaban Adamu domin ya nuna musu cewa mala’iku sun sani kawai “cece abin da Ka koya mana” [3] amma Adamu ya iya faɗi duka sunaye. Kuma Allah ya umurci mala'iku da su yi sujada ga Adam, a cikinta dukkansu suka yi biyayya, in banda Iblis (Shaidan) ya ce: "Nĩ ne mafi alheri daga gare shi.[4] Sabawa umurnin Allah wanda ya biyo bayan zalunci ga Allah, ya sa shi ya fita daga ni’imar Allah: “Kuma a lõkacin da Muka ce wa mala’iku: “Ku yi sujada ga Ãdam, sai suka yi sujada.” Ba haka ba. Iblis: ya ki, kuma ya yi girman kai, ya kasance/ya kasance daga kafirai.(2:34)

Adamu da matarsa da ba a bayyana sunansa ba (al'adar ta nuna mata da Ḥawwāʾ ), a cikin lambun Adnin.[5] A cikin hadisai na Sunna, bisa ga rahotannin Littafi Mai Tsarki ( Israʼiliyyat), an ce, sa’ad da Adamu yake barci, Allah ya dauke masa hakarkari kuma daga cikinta ya halicci Hauwa’u. Yayin da aka yi maganar halittar Adamu da Hauwa’u a cikin Alkur’ani, ba a bayyana ainihin hanyar yin halitta ba. Wasu majiyoyin Ahlus-Sunnah sun ce daga hakarkari Adamu ne, bisa ga rahotannin Littafi Mai Tsarki (Israʼiliyyat).

Allah ya gaya wa Adamu da Hauwa’u cewa suna da ’yancin cin moriyar ’ya’yanta sai dai ba za su kusanci “itace ta dawwama” ba, amma shaidan (shaiṭān.) ya iya gamsar da su don su dandana shi: “Ya ce: “Ubangijinku Ya haramta muku wannan itaciya, sai dai ya hana ku zama mala’iku ko dawwama. " (7:21) Sa'an nan Allah ya aiki Adamu da matarsa zuwa duniya, a can aka yanke musu hukunci su "rayu kuma su mutu", amma yana shirye ya gafarta musu. [6] Lokacin da aka fitar da Adamu daga gonar Adnin, Adamu ya juyo ga Allah kuma ya roƙi gafara. Don haka, babu koyarwar asali na zunubi a tiyolojin Musulunci ( Kalām) kuma zunubin Adamu ba dukan ’ya’yansa ne suke dauka ba.[7]

A cikin Qiṣas al-Anbiyāʾ (tatsuniyoyin annabci) an jefar da Adamu da Hauwa'u nesa ba kusa ba, don haka sai suka nemi junansu kuma daga karshe suka hadu a Dutsen Arafat.[8] Hadisi ya ce da Adamu yana duniya, Allah (wani lokaci Jibrilu yana bautar Allah) ya koya masa yadda ake shuka iri da toya burodi. Wannan ya zama hanyar dukan ’ya’yan Adamu. Adamu ya yi rayuwa kusan shekaru 960, ko da yake wannan batu ne na muhawara. [8] Da ’yan Adam sun koyi komai daga wurin Adamu. Shi ne farkon wanda ya koyi shuka, girbi, da gasa da kuma wanda aka fara gaya wa yadda ake tuba da yadda ake binne wani da kyau. [9] Har ila yau, wasu malamai sun ce Allah ya saukar da hani kan abinci iri-iri da haruffa ga Adamu. [8] An naɗa shi annabi na farko kuma an ce an koya masa littattafai guda 21 kuma ya iya rubuta su da kansa. [8]

Muhimman Fahimtoci[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Adamu ya bayyana a matsayin babban nau'in mutane da dangantakarsu da Allah a cikin tauhidin musulmi da falsafa. A cewar hadisai, an halicci Adamu cikin surar Allah, kuma kamar yadda Kur’ani ya fada, “an koyar da su duka sunaye”, don haka ya kafa ra’ayin Adamu a matsayin nunin sifofin Allah na Ubangiji. Ta haka, Adamu ba ya bayyana a matsayin annabi ko kuma namiji kawai, amma kuma ya kunshi ra'ayin ingantaccen nau'in dan adam. Tun da Allah ya gafarta zunubin Adamu, ba a daukan ’yan Adam a matsayin masu zunubi ko kuma suna bukatar fansa. Maimakon haka, ana kallon Adamu (ko ɗan adam) a matsayin halitta ta hanyar dangantaka da Allah ta hanyar koyo da ci gaba. [10]

Suhrawardi ( c. 1145 – 1234) ya tattauna yanayin ruhin mutum a matsayin gauraya tsakanin Adamu da Hawwa ; Adamu yana nufin halayen sama da Hawwa ga sha'awar dabba ta duniya. Ta hanyar cakuden duka biyun, an tsara ruhin dan adam ( Nafs ) kuma ya zama ruhin dabba. Ya kafa ilimin halittarsa a kan ayoyin Alqur’ani kamar haka: “Wanda ya halicce ku daga rai guda, kuma daga gare shi ya halicci ma’auransa, domin mutum ya karkata zuwa ga mace” (7. 189).

Kamar yadda Tafsirin al-Baydawi (d.1319) ya fada, Adamu na iya tsayawa ga wani asali na asali ga dukkan rayuwa ta ruhaniya da ta zahiri ko kuma yin hidima a matsayin hanya ga mala’iku su sami kamalar da aka ba su ta hanyar mika wuya ga umarnin Allah na sujjada a gabansa.[11] :508 Ibn Arabi ya bayyana cewa Adamu ne kawai zai iya fahimtar dukkan sunayen Allah, ta haka ne yake nuni da kamala Adamu na sama a matsayin nunin sunayen Allah.[12] Lokacin da Iblis ya kasa mika wuya ga umurnin Allah, sai ya dangana zalunci ga gaskiya ( al-Haqq</link> ).

‘Iṣmah[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Malaman musulmi za a iya kasu kashi biyu dangane da rashin tabbatuwa na Adamu (‘iṣmah): Wani yana cewa Adamu ya zama Annabi ne bayan an kore shi daga aljanna. Sun yi riko da akidar cewa ‘iṣmah kawai ya shafi annabawa bayan an aika su zuwa ga aiki. Amma da yake babu yawan jama'a da za a aika Adamu zuwa gare shi, ba zai iya zama Annabi ba don haka ‘iṣmah bai nema ba sai da ya bar aljanna. Wadannan hujjoji, duk da haka, masu hujjar cewa annabci ba ya farawa da wa'azin kalmar Allah don haka ‘iṣmah</link> ya fara kafin aikin annabci. A ra'ayi na biyu, Allah ya kaddara Adamu ya ci daga itacen haramun domin Allah ya shirya ya kafa Adamu da zuriyarsa a duniya tun daga farko kuma ta haka ne ya dora Adamu ya fadi. [13] : 194 Da haka da Adamu ba zai yi rashin biyayya da gaske ba, amma ya yi aiki da nufin Allah iyakar iyawarsa. Don haka da yawa daga cikin malaman tafsirin musulmi ba sa daukar korar Adamu da Hauwa’u a matsayin hukuncin rashin biyayya ko kuma sakamakon zaluntar ‘yancin son rai daga bangarensu, [14] : 171 amma a matsayin wani bangare na hikimar Allah (ḥikma) kuma ya tsara don ɗan adam ya sami cikakkiyar halayensa, ƙauna, gafara, da ikonsa ga halittarsa. [14] Ta wurin zamansu na dā a aljanna, za su iya begen komowa a lokacin rayuwarsu.[14]

Wasu malaman musulmi suna kallon Adamu a matsayin siffar zuriyarsa: mutane sun yi zunubi, suka san shi, suka tuba ( Tawba</link> ), kuma su sami hanyar komawa zuwa ga Allah. Adamu ya kunshi ’yan Adam kuma faɗuwarsa yana nuna wa ’yan Adam yadda za su yi aiki sa’ad da suka yi zunubi.  : 194 Ba kamar Iblis (Shaidan) ba, Adamu ya nemi gafarar laifinsa. [13]: Unlike Iblis (Satan), Adam asked for forgiveness for his transgression.[15]

Adamu da mala'iku[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Labarin mala’iku da suka yi sujada ga Adamu ya haifar da muhawara iri-iri game da ko mutane ko mala’iku sun fi girma. An ambaci mala’ikun da suke durkusa a gaban Adamu a matsayin shaida na fifikon ’yan Adam a kan mala’iku. Wasu kuma suna ganin cewa sujjadar ba ta nufin haka ba, a’a umarni ne kawai ko jarrabawa ga mala’iku.[16] Matsayin da aka samu musamman a tsakanin Mu’utazilawa da wasu Asharawa, yana ganin cewa mala’iku sun fi karfinsu saboda rashin kwadayinsu da sha’awarsu. Maturidism gaba daya baya tunanin daya daga cikin wadannan halittun ya fi daya, kuma cewa mala'iku da na annabawa biyayya suna samuwa ne daga kyawawan halayensu da fahimtar aikin Allah, amma ba a matsayin tsarkinsu na asali ba.[17]

A cikin juzu'in Kur'ani na faduwar Adamu, Shaidan ya jarabce su da alkawarin zama mala'iku marasa mutuwa. Al-Qushayri yayi sharhi akan 7:20 cewa faduwar Adamu shine burinsa ya zama kamar mala'ika, yayin da mala'iku suka fadi saboda lokacin da suke son zama kamar mutum.[18] Adamu ya so yanayin mala’ika mara sha’awa da gujewa kaddarar mutuwa, yayin da Harut da Marut suka bukaci ‘yancin zabi da farin ciki da almubazzaranci.[19]

Rayuwa kafin Adamu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ya tabbata daga Alqur'ani cewa Adam shine uban bil'adama na wannan zamani,  : 21 amma idan akwai rayuwa a gabansa ana muhawara. A cewar wasu ra'ayoyi, Allah ya halicci Adamu sau talatin, a kowace shekara 1000. Bayan faduwar kowane dan adam, Allah ya bar duniya ba tare da zama ba har tsawon shekaru 50,000, sannan 50,000 suka zauna, sannan aka halicci sabon Adamu. [13] : 195 Amma mafi yawan malamai sun yi watsi da wannan ra'ayi, amma sun yarda cewa aljanu da dabbobi sun yi rayuwa a bayan kasa. A cewar Majillat Al Azhar, babu wani wuri a cikin nassosin Musulunci da aka tsara tsawon lokacin da ’yan Adam suka wanzu kuma kowane musulmi yana da ’yancin yin tunanin cewa daidai ne, kuma ra’ayin matashiyar ƙasa ta samo asali ne daga rahotannin Littafi Mai Tsarki ( Israʼiliyyat). [13] : 196 

Halittar Adamu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Halittar jikin Adamu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Abubuwan hadisi, waɗanda aka hada cikin tafsiri da qaṣaṣ ul-anbiyā, suna ba da cikakkun bayanai game da halittar jikin Adamu. Kodayake sun bambanta daki-daki, abubuwan da ke biyo baya suna da mahimmanci: [20]

  1. Allah ya umurci mala'iku da su tattara turbaya daga kasa don su halicci Adamu.
  2. Ana kwasar kura daga wurare daban-daban, tana yin tasiri ga zuriyar Adamu.
  3. Ma'anar tatsuniya bayan sunan mutum na farko
  4. Adamu ya yi shekara arba'in a kwance babu motsi kuma Adamu ya yi gaggawar tashi ya kasa yin hakan.
  5. Adamu ya yi atishawa ya ce al-hamdu li-allah .

Wasu sassa sun bayyana a cikin al'adun Yahudawa da na Musulunci iri daya. Tunanin cewa Allah ya umurci mala’iku da su kwashe kura daga kasa, ya kebanta da Musulunci. An daidaita shi ne kawai a cikin littafin tarihin Jerahmeel na baya. [20] Musulunci yawanci yana da Azrael ya yi nasara, yana daukar kasa duk da rokon da duniya ta yi cewa kada a yi haka. Domin juriyarsa marar tausayi, ya sami matsayinsa na mala'ikan mutuwa. Wannan yana kara nuna cewa rayuwa da mutuwa suna hade. [20] Sai dai a wani taqaitaccen bayani da Tabari ya yi, Iblis ne, ba Azra’ila ba ne yake tara Kura daga kasa, abin da ya kai ga da’awarsa na daukaka. [20]

Dukansu kafofin yahudawa da na musulmi sun yarda cewa an dauke kurar halittar jikin Adamu daga dukan duniya, kuma sau da yawa wani wuri mai tsarki. Duk da haka, sun bambanta dangane da ainihin wurare masu tsarki da ma'anar tattara Kura daga duniya. [20] Yayin da al'adar Yahudawa ke gano wurare masu tsarki daga Isra'ila ko bagadin Haikali, kafofin musulmi sun gano wurin da Makka ko Ka'aba . [20] A bisa tafsirin musulmi, kura da aka tattara daga ko’ina a duniya tana bayyana bambance-bambancen da ke tsakanin ‘yan Adam, kamar launin fata, amma sun dage kan cewa bil’adama gaba dayansa ya hade a zuriyar Adamu. [20]

Halittar ran Adamu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Adamu da Hauwa'u tare da 'ya'yansu tagwaye goma sha uku, karamar Zubdat al-Tawarikh. Kamar yadda nassin ya nuna, dukkan ‘ya’yan Adamu tagwaye ne kuma kowanne dan ya auri ‘yar’uwar tagwaye. Mahaifinsa ya nemi Habila ya auri ‘yar’uwar tagwaye ta Cane, amma Rara, wadda tagwayenta ta fi kyau ya so ya rike ta. Haka dai rigimar ta taso tsakanin ‘yan’uwan biyu. Don kawo karshen gardama, Adamu ya nemi ’ya’yan biyu su yi hadaya ga Allah kuma na Habila ya karbi. An nuna wannan sigar labarin mai ban sha'awa a kusurwar hannun hagu na kasa, inda aka nuna Cane yana jan hannun 'yar uwarsa tagwaye. Kushiyoyin, alamar hadaya ta Cane, sun huta sama da sifofin Cane da 'yar uwarsa. Tun da farko masu fasahar Islama, lokacin da suke ba da labarin Adamu da Hauwa'u, yawanci suna nuna ma'auratan a cikin aljanna amma ba su sanya su tare da 'ya'yansu ba, kuma ba su wakilci wannan juzu'i na jayayya tsakanin Rake da Habila. Manufar labarin mai zanen Ottoman ya zo a nan lokacin da ya bayyana labarin a takaice kuma ya sa tufafinsa a cikin karni na sha shida na Ottoman kamar jigon wani taron gida ne.

Ko da yake ana daukar Adamu dan adam na farko, ba lallai ba ne a kwatanta shi a matsayin annabi na farko ko kuma mutum na farko a ruhaniya. Al'adun Islama sun yarda cewa kafin a halicci Adamu, an riga an halicci ruhun Muhammadu, wanda kuma aka sani da Hasken Muhammadu.[21]

An yi sabani idan wannan yana nufin kaddarar Muhammadu a haife shi a matsayin annabi wata rana, ko kuma ainihin ainihinsa.

Ibn Sa’ad ya dangana wa Qatada bn Di’ama ya nakalto Muhammad cewa: “Ni ne mutum na farko a cikin halitta kuma ni ne na karshe a tashin kiyama”.[22] A bisa al’adar ‘yan Shi’a, bayan mala’iku sun yi wa Adamu sujada, Allah ya umurci Adamu ya dubi Al’arshin Ubangiji. Sai yaga jikin Muhammad da iyalansa suna annuri.[23]

Wannan hadisin kuma ya shiga zance na Ahlus-Sunnah ta hanyar hadisai kamar yadda Al-Tirmizi ya ruwaito, lokacin da aka tambayi Muhammad sai an fara annabcinsa, da ya amsa da cewa: "Lokacin da Adam ya kasance tsakanin ruhi da jiki."[24]

Don haka, ko da yake Adamu yana taka rawar dan adam na zahiri na farko, har yanzu yana gaba da ainihin Muhammadu. Ko da yake ra'ayin Muhammadu wanda ya rigaya ya dauki dan kamanni da koyaswar Kirista na wanzuwar Almasihu kafin wanzuwar Almasihu, Muhammadu ana daukarsa mutum ne a zahiri, ba mutum na biyu cikin Allah ba.[25]

Zuriyar Adamu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An ce Hauwa’u ta yi ciki 120 da Adamu kuma kowannensu ya kunshi tagwaye: namiji da mace. A wasu hadisai, ‘ya’yansu na farko mace ce, aka haifa ita kadai, ana kiranta da ‘Anaq . [26] A cewar majiyoyi da yawa, Allah ya dauke dukan zuriyar Adamu daga bayansa tun suna sama. Ya tambayi kowannensu "Shin ba ni ne ubangijin ku ba?" kamar yadda aka karanta a aya ta 7:172 sai suka amsa da e. [8] Saboda haka, an gaskata cewa dukan ’yan Adam an haife su da sanin Allah na zahiri. Shahararrun ’ya’yan Adamu su ne Kayinu da Habila . An gaya wa ’yan’uwan biyu su Mika hadayu ga Allah. Allah ya karbi hadayar Habila saboda adalcin Habila kuma Kayinu, saboda kishi, ya jefi Habila dutse, wanda ya kai ga kisan kai na farko a tarihin dan adam: kashe Habila da Kayinu ya yi. [8] Kamar yadda Adamu ya yi bakin ciki da dansa, zai yi wa sauran ’ya’yansa wa’azi game da Allah da bangaskiya gare shi. [27] Sa’ad da mutuwar Adamu ta yi kusa, ya nada dansa Shitu ya zama magajinsa.

Ibn Jarir at-Tabari ya ruwaito cewa Hawwa'u ta haifi Adam tagwaye guda dari da ashirin. Na farkonsu su ne Qabil da tagwayen ‘yar uwarsa Qalima, sai na karshensu Abdulmughith da ‘yar uwarsa tagwaye Amat al-Mughith. An karbo daga Ibn Ishaq ya ce dukkan ‘ya’yan da Hawwa’u ta haifa wa Adam ‘ya’ya arba’in ne, maza da mata, daga cikin tagwaye ashirin. Sai ya ce: Wasu daga cikinsu sun zo mana, wasu kuma ba su zo ba. "

Malamin addinin Musulunci, Sayyid Mumtaz Ali, yayin da yake tsokaci a kan shin Adam na farko ne ko kuma Hauwa’u, ya ce “hakikanin da aka fara halittar Adamu ba komai ba ne face na yara, da farko dai muna da sha’awar cewa hakan ya kasance saboda ba a yarda da shi ba. Allah da cewa mace ta kasance ba ta da abokiyar zama ko da dakika daya, don haka saboda ita ne ya halicci Adamu da farko, amma a hakikanin gaskiya imani cewa an fara halicci Adamu ne, sannan kuma Hauwa’u ta zo, yana cikin Kiristanci. da kuma addinin Yahudanci, wannan ko kadan baya cikin akidar Musulunci, babu wani magana a cikin Alkur'ani game da wanda aka fara halitta, Adamu ko Hauwa'u."

Bayanan kula[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Historical Dictionary of Prophets in Islam and Judaism, Wheeler, Adam and Eve
  2. Concise Encyclopedia of Islam, C. Glasse, Aadam = Adam = Man = Mankind = Early humans. His wife = Woman = Allegorically, early women. Udma = Ability to live together as a community. Aadam from Udma thus, indicates humankind. The word 'Eve' or 'Hawwa' is not mentioned in the Quran. She is described with dignity as Mer’a-til-Aadam = Wife of Adam = Mrs. Adam.
  3. Qur'an 2:30
  4. [Al Kur'ani 7:12]
  5. Sharpe, Elizabeth Marie (1992). Into the realm of smokeless fire: (Qur'an 55:14): A critical translation of al-Damiri's article on the jinn from "Hayat al-Hayawan al-Kubra" (Master's thesis). University of Arizona. hdl:10150/291386.
  6. Stieglecker, H. (1962). Die Glaubenslehren des Islam. Deutschland: F. Schöningh.
  7. Phipps, William (1996). Muhammad and Jesus. New York: The Continuum Publishing Company. pp. 122–3. ISBN 0-8264-0914-8.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 al-Tabari (1989). The History of al-Tabari. New York: State University of New York Press. p. 259. ISBN 0-88706-562-7.
  9. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named wheeler
  10. . 1 Invalid |url-status=29–34 (help); Cite journal requires |journal= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  11. The Shari'a: History, Ethics and Law. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. 2018. p. 91. ISBN 978-1-78831-316-2.
  12. Khodayarifard, Mohammad; et al. (2016). "Positive psychology from Islamic perspective". International Journal of Behavioral Sciences. 10 (1): 29–34.
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named dogma
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 Empty citation (help) Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Lange-2016" defined multiple times with different content
  15. Latif, Amer. Quranic narrative and Sufi hermeneutics: Rūmī's interpretations of Pharaoh's character. State University of New York at Stony Brook, 2009.
  16. Chipman, Leigh (2002). "Adam and the Angels: An examination of mythic elements in Islamic sources". Arabica. 49 (4): 429–455. doi:10.1163/15700580260375407.
  17. Houtsma, M. Th. (1993). E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936. 5. Brill. p. 191. ISBN 978-9-004-09791-9.
  18. Rudolph, Ulrich (1997). Al-Māturīdī und Die Sunnitische Theologie in Samarkand (in Jamusanci). Brill. pp. 54–56. ISBN 90-04-10023-7.
  19. Gallorini, Louise (2021). The Symbolic Function of Angels in the Qurʾān and Sufi Literature (PhD thesis). American University of Beirut. hdl:10938/22446.
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 20.5 20.6 Chipman, Leigh NB. "Mythic Aspects of the Process of Adam's Creation in Judaism and Islam." Studia Islamica (2001): 5-25.
  21. Rubin, U., “Nūr Muḥammadī”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Consulted online on 04 December 2023 doi:10.1163/1573-3912_islam_SIM_5985 First published online: 2012 First print edition: 08033994793.ABA, 1960-2007
  22. Goldziher, Ignaz (1909). "Neuplatonische und gnostische Elemente im Ḥadῑṯ". Zeitschrift für Assyriologie (in Jamusanci). 22 (2): 317–344. doi:10.1515/zava.1909.22.2.317. S2CID 162392112.
  23. Kister, M. J. (1988). "Adam: A Study of Some Legends in Tafsir and Hadit Literature". Approaches to the History of the Interpretation of The Qur'an. Oxford University Press. p. 129. ISBN 0-19-826546-8.
  24. Katz, Marion Holmes (2007). The Birth of The Prophet Muhammad: Devotional Piety in Sunni Islam. Routledge. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-135-98394-9.
  25. Landau, Rom (2013). The Philosophy of Ibn 'Arabi. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-02969-2.
  26. (Gudrun ed.). OCLC Stewart Check |oclc= value (help). Invalid |url-access=Nawas (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
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