Fadak

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single entity of population (en) Fassara

Fadak (Larabci فدك) wani yanki ne na lambu a cikin Khaybar(خيبر), wani yanki a arewacin Arebia ; yanzu ta zama kasar Saudiyya . Ya kasance kusan 140 kilometres (87 mi) daga Madina, Fadak an san ta da rijiyoyin ruwa, dabino, da aiyukan hannu. [1] Lokacin da musulmai suka ci mutanen Khaibara a yaƙin Khaybar ; 'Fadak' yana daga cikin falalar da aka yiwa annabin musulunci Muhammad . An ce Fadak ya zama abin da wasu gungun Musulmi suka yi saɓani a tsakanin Fatimah da khalifa Abubakar bayan mutuwar Annabi Muhammad.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Khabar Jahiliyya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin ƙarni na 7, yahudawa Larabawa ne suka mamaye gandun Khaybar, waɗanda suka yi rayuwar itacen dabino . Wasu abubuwa da musulmai suka gano a cikin shakkun a Khabar - injin ingila, da bales 20 na Yaman, da alkyabba 500 - suna nuni zuwa ga fatauci mai tsanani da yahudawa ke yi. [2]

Ruwa ya kasu zuwa yankuna uku: al-Natat, al-Shiqq الشِّق, da al-Katiba الكتيبة, wataƙila an raba su da wasu abubuwa na ɓacin rai, kamar su hamada, kwararar ruwa, da fadama. Kowane ɗayan waɗannan yankuna ya ƙunshi kagarai da yawa ko shakku da ke ɗauke da gidaje, rumbunan ajiya da wuraren shaƙatawa. Kowane sansanin soja mallakar dangi ne kuma an kewaye shi da gonaki da dabino. Domin inganta su tsaron gida damar, kagarar aka tãyar da a kan duwatsu, ko tarin ƙanƙara. [2]

Zamanin Muhammad (629-632 miladiyya)[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Muhammad ya jagoranci tafiya zuwa gaɓar Khabar a ranar 7 ga Mayu AH / 629 CE tare da maza kusan 1500 da dawakai 100-200. Tushen farko da suka haɗa da Sirah Rasul Allah (Tarihin rayuwar Annabi) na Ibn Ishaq sun bayyana mamayar Khaybar, tare da yin bayani dalla-dalla kan yarjejeniyar da Muhammad ya yi da yahudawa na ci gaba da zama a garin Fadak da noman kasarsu, suna rike da rabi na amfanin gonar. [3] Wannan yarjejeniyar ta bambanta da yarjejeniyar da yahudawan Khaybar, wanda a zahiri ya buƙaci aikin raba hannun jari. Muhammad ya riƙe kudaden shiga na yankin Fadak ga matalauta kamar ṣadaqa, matafiya masu buƙata, da danginsa. Ba a bayyana gaba ɗaya yadda Muhammad ya gudanar da mallakar Fadak ba. Ibn Taimiyya ya rubuta a cikin Minhaj al-sunna cewa Muhammad ya nada Amr bn al-As a matsayin gwamnan gandun daji na Khabar [4] Bayan wafatin Muhammad, malamai sun yi sabani kan cewa Fadak din mallakar sa ne kawai. Wasu masharhanta musulmai sun yarda cewa bayan cin Fadak, kadarorin mallakar Muhammad ne kawai, yayin da wasu da dama suka ki yarda da wannan ra'ayin. [5] Majiyoyi na farko daban-daban sun bayyana yadda ake samun Fadak ta wannan hanyar:

Rabin Fadasar Fadak, wanda yahudawa suka bayar bayan yarjejeniyar sulhu, mallakar Rasool Allah (s) ne kawai. Hakanan, 1/3 na Kwarin Qari da kuma gida biyu na Khabar dukiyar Muhammad (s) ce keɓaɓɓiya kuma babu wanda yake da rabonta. [6]


Wani asusun na farko ya bayyana bishiyun ƴaƴan itace goma sha ɗaya a Fadak, wanda Muhammad da kansa ya shuka. [7] Sauran malaman da suka yarda da ra'ayin Fadak na na Muhammad ne kawai bayan cin nasarar Khaybar sun hada da:

  • Ali bn Ahmad al-Samhudi [8]
  • Ibn Hisham [9]
  • Abu al-Fida [10]

Fatimah (Mahangar Shi'a)[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayan rasuwar Muhammad, ƴarsa Fatimah ta bayyana iƙirarinta na mallakar Fadak a matsayin mahaifinta. Da'awar da halifa mai mulki, Abubakar ya ƙi amincewa da ita bisa hujjar cewa Fadak kayan jama'a ne kuma suna jayayya cewa Muhammad ba shi da magada. Majiyoyi sun ruwaito cewa Ali tare da Ummu Ayman (Barakah) sun ba da shaidar cewa Muhammad ya bayar da ita ga Fatimah Zahra, lokacin da Abu Bakr ya bukaci Fatima da ta kira shaidu game da ikirarin nata. [11] Majiyoyi daban-daban na firamare sun nuna cewa Muhammad ne ya baiwa Fadak kyautar Fatima, wanda ya jawo Alkur'ani a matsayin hujja. [12] Wadannan sun hada da ruwayar Ibn 'Abbas wanda ya ce lokacin da ayar Kur'ani ta ba da hakki ga dangi ta sauka, Muhammad ya kira ɗiyarsa ya ba ta kasar Fadak.

Masana daban-daban da ke yin sharhi a kan Ƙur'ani, Babin Al-Hashr, aya ta 7, sun rubuta cewa Mala'ika Jibril ya zo wurin Muhammadu kuma ya umurce shi da ya ba da haƙƙin da ya dace da "Dhul Qurba" (makusanta). Lokacin da aka tambayi Muhammad, wanda "Dhul Qurba" ya ambata, Gabriel ya amsa "Fatima" kuma cewa ta "'' haƙƙoƙi" ana nufin "Fadak", wanda Muhammad ya kira Fatima kuma ya gabatar da Fadak gare ta. [13]

Bayan ayoyin Ƙur'ani da ke sama, akwai wasu ingantattun nassoshi game da wannan batun. Misali, Ali Ibn Burhanu'd-din Halabi Shafi'i ya yi rubutu a cikin Siratu'l-Halabiyya, shafi na. 39 cewa da farko Fatimah ta kai kukanta ga Abubakar game da gaskiyar cewa annabin Islama ya ba ta fadak a matsayin kyauta, kasancewar ba a samu shaidun ba sai aka tilasta mata ta yi zargin cewa tana da haƙƙi bisa dokar gado. Hakanan an ambace shi a cikin Mu'jam Al-Buldan na Yaqut al-Hamawi, Tafsir al-Kabir na Imam Fakhru'd-din Razi, Sawa'iq al-Muhriqa na Ibn Hajar p. 21, Sharh al-Nahju'l-Balagha na Ibn Abi'l-Hadid Mu'tazali Juzu'i na 4, shafi na. 80 cewa da farko Fatima ta ce an bata kyautar a matsayin kyauta amma sun ki yarda da shaidanta sai ta sha wahala kuma cikin fushi ta ce ba za ta sake magana da Abubakar da Umar ba. [14]

Bayan wafatin Muhammad[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Lesley Hazleton ta bayyana taƙaddama tsakanin Fatimah da Abu Bakr kamar haka: "[Fatimah] ta aika wa Abu Bakr da neman kaso daga gonar mahaifinta - gonakin itacen dabino a cikin babbar bishiyoyin Khaybar da Fadak zuwa arewacin Madina. Amsar da ya bashi yasa ta dimauce. Yankin Muhammad na al'umma ne, ba na wani mutum ba, Abubakar ya amsa. Yana daga cikin amanar alherin musulmai wanda ya gudanar dashi a matsayin Khalifa. [. . . Ba a musanta roƙon da jama'a ke yi na saƙon da Abubakar ya aika ta musun da'awar Fatima: Gidan Muhammad gidan Musulunci ne, kuma duk sun daidaita a cikin sa. " [15]

Lokacin da Umar ya zama Khalifa, darajar ƙasar Fadak tare da kwanakinta ya kai dirhami dubu 50. [7] Ali ya sake neman gadon Fatima a zamanin Umar, amma aka hana shi da hujja irin ta lokacin Abubakar. Umar duk da haka, ya mayar da filaye a Madina ga 'Abbas ibn' Abd al-Muttalib da Ali, a matsayin wakilan dangin Muhammad, Banu Hashim . A lokacin khalifancin Usman, Marwan ibn al-Hakâm, wanda ɗan baffansa ne, ya zama wakili na Fadak. [16]

Mahangar Sunni ga Fadak[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A wurin Ahlus-Sunnah, Fadak wani yanki ne, kusa da Khaiber, inda yahudawa suke. Muhammadu ne ya ci Fadak. Kur'ani yana cewa: "Kuma abin da Allah ya ba ganimar manzonsa daga gare su, to, ba ku tilasta wa doki ko rakumi ba saboda su, amma Allah Yana ba da manzonSa a kan wanda Yake so. Kuma Allah a kan dukkan k .me, Mai Abkon yi ne. Abin da Allah Ya ba da ganima ga manzon Sa daga mutanen garuruwa, to, ga Allah da manzonSa ne, kuma ma'abucin kusanci da marayu da matalauta da matafiyi, to, wannan bai zama kaya ba a tsakanin mawadata daga cikinku. . Duk abin da manzo ya ba ka, ka karɓa. Kuma abin da ya hana, to, ka ƙaurace masa. Kuma ku bi Allah da taƙawa. Lalle ne, Kuma Allah Mai tsananin uƙuba ne. - (59: 6-7). Don haka a cewar Kur'ani, Fa'i yana nufin irin dukiyar kafirai kamar yadda aka mayar wa musulmai ba tare da yaki ba. Ba za'a rarraba kamar ganima tsakanin sojoji ba, amma gaba daya na Allah da manzon sa ne. Daga Sunnoni da Aikin Annabin Islama ya bayyana cewa Muhammadu da kansa ya kasance yana gudanar da Fai a matsayin shugaban jamhuriyar Musulunci. [17]

A cewar Ahlus-Sunnah, Muhammad bai ba ’yarsa Fadak ba. Duk ruwayoyin da suka shafi wannan masu rauni ne. Dangane da da’awar ‘yan Shi’a kuwa, cewa lokacin da ayar Alqurani," Kuma ku bai wa dangi haƙƙinsa ", [18] ta sauka, Annabi ya ba Fadak‘ yarsa kamar yadda ta zama hakkinta. Amma, akwai shahararrun Malaman Sunni da yawa da suka fayyace cewa wahayi na 17:26 [19] game da Fadak ne daga Annabi zuwa Fatima, kamar su: Razi, [20] Suyuti, [21] Khwarizmi, Ali ibn Abd-al-Malik al-Hindi [22] da sauransu. Duk da haka, an ruwaito cewa Umme Hani ta ce Fatimah ta ce Abubakar ya gaya mata cewa Annabi ya ce "Mu Annabawa ba mu da magada, maimakon haka abin da muka bari Sadaka ne ga Al'umma". [23]

Fadak ƙarƙashin Umayyad (661 – 750)[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mu'awiyah, halifan Umayyawa na farko bai mayar da Fadak ga zuriyar Fatimah ba. Wannan hanyar ta ci gaba daga halifofin Umayyawa daga baya har Umar bin Abd al-Aziz ya karɓi iko. Lokacin da Umar bn Abd al-Aziz, wanda aka fi sani da Umar na II, ya zama Khalifa a shekara ta 717 CE, kuɗin da aka samu daga dukiyar Fadak ya zama dinari 40,000. [24] Fadak an mayar da shi ga zuriyar Fatima ta hanyar umarnin da Umar II ya bayar, [25] amma halifofin da suka zo daga baya sun yi watsi da wannan shawarar. Magajin Umar II , Yazid bn Abd al-Malik (wanda aka fi sani da Yazid na II ) ya yi watsi da shawarar tasa, kuma an sake sake Fadak ya zama amintacce ga jama'a. Daga nan aka sarrafa Fadak har zuwa lokacin da Halifancin Ummayad ya ƙare.

Fadak ƙarƙashin Abbasiyawa (750 – 1258)[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A shekara ta 747 CE, babbar tawaye ga daular Umayyad ta faru. Umayyawa ta aka ƙarshe ci da Abbasiyawa ƙarƙashin mulkin Abu Abbas Abdullah al-Saffah (ga Battle na Zab ) a shekara 750. An kashe Halifa na Umayyad na karshe, Marwan II a wani karami karami ‘yan watanni bayan Yakin Zab, wanda hakan ya kawo karsyhen Halifancin Umayyawa . Lissafin tarihi ya banbanta a kan abin da ya faru da Fadak a ƙarƙashin khalifofin farko na Abbasawa. Amma akwai ijma'i a tsakanin Malaman Musulunci cewa an ba da Fadak ga zuriyar Fatimah a lokacin mulkin Al-Ma'mun a matsayin Khalifa (831-833 CE). Al-Ma'mun har ma ya yanke hukuncin yin hakan a cikin (dīwāns) . Magajin Al-Ma'mun, Al-Mutawakkil (847-861) ya sake kwace Fadak daga zuriyar Fatimah, yana mai ba da umarnin a yi amfani da shi don dalilan da Abu Bakr ya bayyana tun farko. Al-Muntasir (861-862), amma, a bayyane ya tabbatar da shawarar Al-Ma'mun, don haka ya ba wa zuriya Fatimah damar gudanar da Fadak. [26] Abin da ya faru a nan gaba ba shi da tabbas, amma mai yiwuwa Halifa ya sake kwace Fadak kuma mai mulkin lokacin ya mallake shi kawai a matsayin mallakar kansa.

Fadak cikin adabi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Rikicin kan Fadak an ruwaito shi ta hanyoyi daban-daban, wasu daga cikinsu sun zama kusan almara. Daga cikin waɗannan ne labari na mashahuriyar kalifa na Dare dubu da ɗaya tãtsũniyõyin, Harun al Rashid, ya ruwaito a cikin ƙarni na 16 aikin Laṭā'if al-Tawā'if tausasãwa na Mutane, a cikin abin da Harun ne aka bayyana a matsayin jin nadãma a kan hana Fadak ga dangin Muhammad. Haruna ya yi tambaya game da iyakokin ruwan daga zuriyar Fatima domin mayar da ita ga wadanda suka mallaka ta. Zuriyar ta yi gargaɗin cewa bayan zana iyakokin gonar Fadak, Haruna ba zai ƙara barin ta ba. Duk da haka, Haruna ya ci gaba. Zuriyarsa ya amsa cewa iyakar Fadak ita ce Aden, ta biyu Samarqand, na uku Maghrib, na huɗu kuma Tekun Armeniya. Waɗannan iyakokin sun bayyana kusan dukkanin daular Harun. Cewa Haruna da kansa ya fara aiwatar da dawo da Fadak kuma zuriyar Muhammad ba ta matsa masa ba ya bayyana cewa a cikin ra'ayin Shi'i, dukiyar duniya ba ta da wata mahimmanci ga dangin Muhammadu ko kuma ga ikon imamai. [27]

Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Veccia Vaglieri, L. "Fadak." Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Edited by: P. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C. E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; and W. P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2010. Brill Online. University of Toronto. 8 August 2010
  2. 2.0 2.1 Veccia Vaglieri, L. "Khaybar". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Ed. P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912
  3. Sirat Rasulullah, Chapter 'Khaybar'
  4. Minhaj as-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah by Ibn Taimiyya, volume 4-page 460
  5. A Shah Waliullah in Quratul Ain p228 and Ibn Taymiyyah in Minhaj al-Sunnah, Dhikr of Fadak
  6. Al Minhaj bi Sharh Sahih Muslim Volume 2, 92.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Sharh Ibn Abi Al-Hadeed, v4, p108
  8. Wafa al-Wafa, v4, p1280
  9. Sirah Rasul Allah by Ibn Hisham, v3, p353
  10. The Concise History of Humanity or Chronicles, p140, Dhikr Ghazwa Khaybar
  11. Ordoni (1990) p. 211
  12. Q Al-Hashr, 7
  13. Ruzatul Safa as quoted in Tashdheed-ul-Mathaeen page 102.
  14. Peshawar Nights, Sultan al-Wa’adhim As-Sayyid Muhammad al-Musawi ash-Shirazi
  15. After the Prophet: The Epic Story of the Shia-Sunni Split in Islam By Lesley Hazleton, pp. 71-73
  16. Wafa al Wafa (vol 3 p 1000), Tarikh Abu al-Fida (vol 1 p 168)
  17. http://www.muslimtents.com/shaufi/b16/b16_13.htm
  18. Quran, Surah Isra, verse 26
  19. 17:26
  20. [Razi in the book "Aljrh and Altdyl" vol. 1, p. 257]
  21. [Suyuti (Vol. 2, p. 158 and vol. 5, pp.273_274)]
  22. [Ali ibn Abd-al-Malik al-Hindi (vol. 2, p. 158 and vol. 3, p. 767)]
  23. Darqutni,Al ilal ,1:231:34
  24. Sunan Abu Dawud, v3, p144, Dhikr Fa'y
  25. Wafa al-Wafa, page 99
  26. As stated in Tarikh Yaqubi (2:199, 3:48), Wafa al Wafa vol 3 pp. 999–1000, Tarikh ul Khulafa, pp. 231–32
  27. Virani, Shafique N. The Ismailis in the Middle Ages: A History of Survival, A Search for Salvation (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007), 165-167.