Haƙƙoƙin Dijital

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Wikidata.svghakkoki na dijital
Hakkokin Yan-adam da natural rights (en) Fassara
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Applies to jurisdiction (en) Fassara worldwide (en) Fassara

Haƙƙoƙin dijital su ne haƙƙoƙin ɗan adam da haƙƙoƙin doka waɗanda ke ba wa mutane damar shiga, amfani, ƙirƙira, da buga kafofin watsa labarai na dijital ko samun dama da amfani da kwamfutoci, wasu na'urorin lantarki, da hanyoyin sadarwar sadarwa . Manufar tana da alaƙa musamman da karewa da fahimtar haƙƙin da ke akwai, kamar haƙƙin sirri da yancin faɗar albarkacin baki, a cikin yanayin fasahar dijital, musamman Intanet . Dokokin ƙasashe da yawa sun amince da haƙƙin shiga Intanet.[1][2]

Haƙƙin ɗan adam da Intanet[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An gano adadin haƙƙin ɗan adam da suka dace dangane da Intanet . Waɗannan sun haɗa da 'yancin faɗar albarkacin baki, keɓewa, da 'yancin yin tarayya . Bugu da ƙari kuma, an kuma gano haƙƙin ilimi da harsuna da yawa, yancin masu amfani, da haɓaka iya aiki a cikin yanayin haƙƙin ci gaba . [3]

A cewar wani edita a cikin mujallar La Civilta Cattolica yanar gizo amfanin jama'a ne na duniya wanda ya kamata ya zama mai isa ga kowa da kuma mutunta haƙƙin wasu. Tare da gwamnatocin danniya da ke hana damar samun bayanai da sadarwa, yakamata gwamnatocin dimokuradiyya su yi aiki don tabbatar da samun damar Intanet tare da ɗaukar ƙa'idodin gama gari don tabbatar da amfani da hanyar sadarwa ta mutunta haƙƙin ɗan adam na duniya. "Abin da doka ta ba da izini ko ta haramta layi dole ne ya kasance lamarin akan layi . . . "Ijma'in kasa da kasa kawai ya yadu" kan abubuwan kan layi da za a tantance game da batsa na yara da ta'addanci ta intanet. Labarin ya ci gaba da cewa, yayin da daidaikun mutane ke cin zarafin 'yancin fadin albarkacin baki, tare da yin amfani da kamfanoni masu amfani da kwamfuta don samun kudi da kuma tsarin mulkin danniya na toshe bayanai daga 'yan kasarsu, duniya na bukatar "Charter of Human Rights for Internet".

Gidauniyar Wutar Lantarki ta Lantarki ta soki gwamnatin Amurka don yin la’akari da lokacin tsarin kamawa na Megaupload cewa mutane suna rasa haƙƙin mallaka ta hanyar adana bayanai akan sabis ɗin sarrafa girgije. [4]

Tabbatar da samun dama ga kowa da/ko hana hane-hane marasa ma'ana[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kasashe da yawa sun yi amfani da dokokin da ke buƙatar jihar ta yi aiki don tabbatar da samun damar Intanet da kuma/ko hana jihar hana mutum damar samun bayanai da Intanet ba tare da dalili ba:

  • Costa Rica : Hukuncin da Kotun Koli ta Costa Rica ta yanke a ranar 30 ga Yuli, 2010 ya ce: “Ba tare da tsoron zaɓe ba, za a iya cewa waɗannan fasahohin [fasahancin bayanai da sadarwa] sun yi tasiri ga hanyar sadarwar ɗan adam, ta hanyar sauƙaƙe alaƙa tsakanin mutane da cibiyoyi. duniya da kuma kawar da shingen sararin samaniya da lokaci.[5][2]
A wannan lokacin, samun damar yin amfani da waɗannan fasahohin ya zama kayan aiki na asali don sauƙaƙe aikin haƙƙin dimokiradiyya (e-dimokiradiyya) da kula da 'yan ƙasa, ilimi, 'yancin yin tunani da faɗar albarkacin baki, samun damar yin amfani da bayanai da sabis na jama'a akan layi, 'yancin yin sadarwa tare da gwamnati ta hanyar lantarki da nuna gaskiya na gudanarwa, da sauransu. Wannan ya haɗa da ainihin haƙƙin samun damar yin amfani da waɗannan fasahohin, musamman, haƙƙin shiga Intanet ko Gidan Yanar Gizo na Duniya." 
  • Estonia : A shekara ta 2000, majalisar ta kaddamar da wani gagarumin shiri na fadada hanyoyin shiga karkara. Intanet, inji gwamnati, yana da mahimmanci ga rayuwa a cikin karni na 21st. [6]
  • Finland : A watan Yuli na 2010, kowane mutum a Finland zai sami damar yin amfani da hanyar sadarwa mai karfin megabit daya a cikin dakika daya, a cewar Ma'aikatar Sufuri da Sadarwa . Kuma zuwa 2015, samun damar yin amfani da haɗin kai 100Mbit/s. [7]
  • Faransa : A watan Yunin 2009, Majalisar Tsarin Mulki, Kotun Koli ta Faransa, ta ayyana yin amfani da Intanet a matsayin haƙƙin ɗan Adam na asali a cikin wani hukunci mai ƙarfi wanda ya rushe wasu sassan dokar HADOPI, dokar da za ta bin diddigin masu cin zarafi kuma ba tare da shari'a ba. bita da yanke hanyar sadarwa ta atomatik ga waɗanda suka ci gaba da zazzage abubuwan haram bayan gargaɗi guda biyu
  • Girka : Mataki na ashirin da 5A na Kundin Tsarin Mulki na Girka ya bayyana cewa duk mutane suna da hakkin shiga cikin Ƙungiyar Watsa Labarai kuma cewa jiha tana da alhakin sauƙaƙe samarwa, musayar, watsawa, da samun damar yin amfani da bayanai ta hanyar lantarki. [8]
  • Spain : Tun daga 2011, Telefónica, tsohuwar mulkin mallaka na jihar da ke riƙe da kwangilar " sabis na duniya " na ƙasar, dole ne ya ba da garantin bayar da "madaidaicin" farashi mai girma na akalla megabyte daya a sakan daya a ko'ina cikin Spain.

Yarjejeniyar Hakkokin Intanet na APC[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kungiyar Sadarwa ta Progressive Communications (APC) ce ta kafa Yarjejeniya Ta Intanet na APC a taron ‘yancin Intanet na APC Turai, wanda aka gudanar a Prague, Fabrairu 2001. Yarjejeniya ta zana kan Yarjejeniya ta Sadarwa ta Jama'a kuma ta samar da jigogi bakwai: hanyar intanet ga kowa; 'yancin fadin albarkacin baki da tarayya ; samun damar ilimi, ilmantarwa da ƙirƙira - software da ci gaban fasaha kyauta kuma buɗaɗɗen tushe ; keɓantawa, sa ido da ɓoyewa ; mulkin intanet; wayar da kan jama'a, kariya da tabbatar da haqqoqi. APC ta bayyana cewa "Ikon musayar bayanai da sadarwa cikin 'yanci ta hanyar amfani da intanet yana da matukar muhimmanci wajen tabbatar da hakkin dan Adam kamar yadda yake kunshe a cikin sanarwar kasa da kasa kan 'yancin dan adam, yarjejeniyar kasa da kasa kan 'yancin tattalin arziki, zamantakewa da al'adu, yarjejeniyar kasa da kasa kan farar hula. da ‘Yancin Siyasa da Yarjejeniyar kawar da duk wani nau’in nuna wariya ga mata ”.

Taron Duniya akan Ƙungiyar Watsa Labarai (WSIS)[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin Disamba 2003 an kira taron koli na Duniya kan Watsa Labarai (WSIS) a ƙarƙashin inuwar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya (UN). Bayan doguwar tattaunawa tsakanin gwamnatoci, 'yan kasuwa da wakilan ƙungiyoyin jama'a an amince da sanarwar ka'idodin WSIS tana mai tabbatar da haƙƙin ɗan adam : [9]

Muna sake tabbatar da kasancewar duniya, rashin rarrabawa, dogaro da juna da alaƙar duk haƙƙoƙin ɗan adam da yancin ɗan adam, gami da haƙƙin ci gaba, kamar yadda aka tanada a cikin sanarwar Vienna . Muna kuma tabbatar da cewa dimokuradiyya, dawwamammen ci gaba, da mutunta haƙƙin ɗan adam da yancin ɗan adam gami da kyakkyawan shugabanci a kowane mataki na dogara ne da juna kuma suna ƙarfafa juna. Mun ƙara ƙudiri aniyar ƙarfafa bin doka a cikin ƙasa da ƙasa kamar yadda yake a cikin lamuran ƙasa.

Sanarwar ta WSIS ta kuma yi ƙayyadaddun nuni ga mahimmancin 'yancin faɗar albarkacin baki a cikin " Ƙungiyar Watsa Labarai " a cikin cewa:

Mun sake tabbatarwa, a matsayin muhimmin tushe na Ƙungiyar Watsa Labarai, kuma kamar yadda aka bayyana a cikin Mataki na ashirin da 19 na Yarjejeniya ta Duniya na 'Yancin Dan Adam, cewa kowa yana da 'yancin yin ra'ayi da ra'ayi; cewa wannan haƙƙin ya haɗa da 'yancin yin ra'ayi ba tare da tsangwama ba da neman, karɓa da ba da bayanai da ra'ayoyi ta kowace kafofin watsa labaru ba tare da la'akari da iyaka ba. Sadarwa muhimmin tsari ne na zamantakewa, buƙatun ɗan adam na asali da kuma tushen duk ƙungiyoyin zamantakewa. Yana da tsakiya ga Information Society. Kowane mutum, a ko'ina ya kamata ya sami damar shiga kuma kada a ware kowa daga fa'idodin da Ƙungiyoyin Watsa Labarai ke bayarwa.

Sanarwar ka'idojin WSIS ta 2004 ta kuma yarda cewa "ya zama dole a hana amfani da albarkatun bayanai da fasahohi don dalilai na laifi da ta'addanci, tare da mutunta 'yancin ɗan adam". Wolfgang Benedek yayi tsokaci cewa sanarwar ta WSIS ta ƙunshi nassoshi da dama ne kawai game da haƙƙin ɗan adam kuma baya fayyace wata hanya ko hanya don tabbatar da cewa ana la'akari da haƙƙin ɗan adam a aikace.

Tsarin haƙƙin dijital

Tsarin haƙƙin dijital[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin 2005, Ƙungiyar Buɗaɗɗen Haƙƙin Biritaniya ta buga shimfidar haƙƙoƙin dijital, tana tattara kewayon ƙungiyoyi da mutane masu fafutuka a fagen kiyaye haƙƙin dijital. Ƙungiyoyin da ke da alaƙa, daidaikun mutane, da gidajen yanar gizo zuwa wuraren sha'awa.

Dokar Haƙƙin Intanet da Yarjejeniya kan Haƙƙin Intanet da Ka'idodin Intanet[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ƙungiyar Haɗin Kai don Ƙididdigar Haƙƙin Intanet ta gudanar da babban taron tattaunawa na shirye-shirye kan Haƙƙin Intanet a Roma, Satumba 2007 kuma ya gabatar da ra'ayoyinsa a Dandalin Gudanar da Gudanar da Intanet (IGF) a Rio a cikin Nuwamba 2007 wanda ya haifar da sanarwar haɗin gwiwa kan haƙƙin intanet. A IGF a Hyderabad a cikin 2008 haɗin kai tsakanin Ƙungiyoyin Ƙungiyoyin Haƙƙin Dan Adam don Intanet da Ƙa'idodin Intanet sun bar Ƙungiyar Ƙarfafa Haƙƙin Intanet da Ka'idodin Intanet, wanda ya dogara da Yarjejeniya ta Intanet na APC da Yarjejeniya ta Duniya na Dan Adam. Hakkoki sun bayyana Yarjejeniya ta Hakkokin Dan Adam da Ka'idoji don Intanet da aka gabatar a IGF a Vilnius a cikin 2010, wanda tun daga lokacin aka fassara shi zuwa yaruka da yawa.

Ƙaddamarwar hanyar sadarwa ta Duniya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A ranar 29 ga watan Oktoban shekara ta, 2008, an kafa Global Network Initiative (GNI) akan "Ka'idojin 'Yancin Magana da Keɓantawa". An ƙaddamar da ƙaddamar da shirin ne a cikin shekaru 60 na Cikar Ƙirar 'Yancin Dan Adam ta Duniya (UDHR) kuma ta dogara ne akan dokoki da ƙa'idodi na duniya da aka amince da su akan ' yancin faɗar albarkacin baki da keɓantawa da aka tsara a cikin UDHR, Yarjejeniyar Kasa da Kasa kan Jama'a da Siyasa Hakkoki (ICCPR) da Yarjejeniya ta Duniya kan Haƙƙin Tattalin Arziki, Jama'a da Al'adu (ICESCR). Mahalarta cikin Ƙaddamarwa sun haɗa da Gidauniyar Wutar Lantarki, Human Rights Watch, Google, Microsoft, Yahoo, wasu manyan kamfanoni, kungiyoyi masu zaman kansu na kare hakkin bil'adama, masu zuba jari, da malaman ilimi.

A cewar rahotanni an gayyaci Cisco Systems zuwa tattaunawar farko amma ba ta shiga cikin shirin ba. Harrington Investments, wanda ya ba da shawarar cewa Cisco ta kafa hukumar kare haƙƙin ɗan adam, ta yi watsi da GNI a matsayin ka'idar ɗabi'a ta son rai da ke da tasiri. Babban jami'in gudanarwa John Harrington ya kira GNI "hayaniyar da ba ta da ma'ana" a maimakon haka ya yi kira da a bullo da dokokin da ke tilasta wa shuwagabannin zartarwa su amince da hakkin dan Adam.

Kuri'ar jin ra'ayin jama'a ta Sashen Duniya na BBC[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wani zaɓe na manya 27,973 a cikin kasashe 26, ciki har da masu amfani da Intanet guda 14,306, [10] an gudanar da shi ga Sashen Duniya na BBC ta kamfanin zabe na kasa da kasa GlobeScan ta hanyar yin amfani da wayar tarho da ta kai tsaye tsakanin 30 ga Nuwamba 2009 da 7 ga Fabrairun shekara ta 2010. Shugaban GlobeScan Doug Miller ya ji, gabaɗaya, cewa ƙuri'ar ta nuna cewa:

Duk da damuwa game da keɓantawa da zamba, mutane a duniya suna ganin damar shiga intanet a matsayin babban haƙƙinsu. Suna tsammanin yanar gizo mai karfi ce mai kyau, kuma yawancin ba sa son gwamnatoci su daidaita shi. [11]

Sakamakon zaben ya hada da: [11]

  • Kusan huɗu cikin biyar (78%) masu amfani da Intanet suna jin cewa Intanet ya kawo musu yanci mafi girma.
  • Yawancin masu amfani da Intanet (53%) sun ji cewa "bai kamata a taba sarrafa intanet ta kowane mataki na gwamnati a ko'ina ba".
  • An raba ra'ayi daidai gwargwado tsakanin masu amfani da Intanet waɗanda suka ji cewa "internet wuri ne mai aminci don bayyana ra'ayi na" (48%) da waɗanda suka ƙi (49%).
  • Abubuwan Intanet waɗanda ke haifar da damuwa sun haɗa da: zamba (32%), abubuwan tashin hankali da bayyane (27%), barazanar sirri (20%), tantance abun ciki na jihohi (6%), da girman kasancewar kamfanoni. (3%).
  • Kusan hudu a cikin biyar masu amfani da Intanet da wadanda ba masu amfani ba a duk duniya suna jin cewa samun damar Intanet wani hakki ne na asali (50% sun yarda sosai, 29% sun amince da ɗan kaɗan, 9% sun ɗan ƙi yarda, 6% sun ƙi yarda sosai, kuma 6% ba su da ra'ayi. ). [12]

Shawarwari na Wakilin Majalisar Dinkin Duniya na Musamman[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Shawarwari 88 da mai bayar da rahoto na musamman ya bayar game da ingantawa da kuma kare yancin fadin albarkacin baki a cikin rahoton watan Mayu na shekara ta 2011 ga hukumar kare hakkin bil adama ta Majalisar Dinkin Duniya, sun hada da da dama da suka shafi batun shiga Intanet [13]

67. Ba kamar kowace hanya ba, Intanet yana baiwa mutane damar nema, karɓa da kuma ba da bayanai da kuma ra'ayoyin kowane iri nan take kuma cikin rahusa a kan iyakokin ƙasa. Ta hanyar faɗaɗa ƙarfin ɗaiɗaikun mutane don cin moriyar yancinsu na 'yancin yin ra'ayi da faɗar albarkacin baki, wanda shine "mai ba da damar" sauran 'yancin ɗan adam, Intanet yana haɓaka ci gaban tattalin arziki, zamantakewa da siyasa, kuma yana ba da gudummawa ga ci gaban ɗan adam gaba ɗaya. Dangane da haka, Mai ba da rahoto na musamman yana ƙarfafa wasu ƙa'idodi na musamman waɗanda ke ba wa masu riƙe da doka damar shiga kan batun Intanet dangane da takamaiman umarninsu.
78. Yayin da matakan toshewa da tacewa ke hana masu amfani damar samun takamaiman abun ciki a Intanet, Jihohin ma sun dauki matakin katse hanyoyin shiga Intanet gaba daya. Rapportereur na Musamman yana ɗaukar yankan masu amfani daga hanyar Intanet, ba tare da da cikakkiyar gaskatawa ba, da kuma sakin layi na duniya a kan jama'a da siyasa Hakkoki.
79. Wakilin na musamman ya yi kira ga dukkan Jihohi da su tabbatar da cewa an kiyaye hanyoyin shiga Intanet a kowane lokaci, gami da lokacin rikicin siyasa.
85. Ganin cewa Intanet ya zama wani makami mai mahimmanci don tabbatar da haƙƙin ɗan adam da dama, da yaƙi da rashin daidaito, da haɓaka ci gaba da ci gaban ɗan adam, tabbatar da samun damar Intanet a duniya ya kamata ya zama fifiko ga dukkan Jihohi. Don haka ya kamata kowace Jiha ta bullo da ingantaccen tsari mai inganci, tare da tuntubar mutane daga kowane bangare na al’umma, ciki har da kamfanoni masu zaman kansu da ma’aikatun gwamnati, don samar da Intanet a yalwace, mai sauki da sauki ga kowane bangare na al’umma.

Waɗannan shawarwarin sun haifar da shawarar cewa yin amfani da Intanet kansa shine ko yakamata ya zama ainihin haƙƙin ɗan adam. [14]

Binciken Jama'ar Intanet na Duniya na Masu Amfani da Intanet[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin watan Yulin shekara ta da watan Agustan shekara ta 2012 Ƙungiyar Intanet ta gudanar da hirarrakin kan layi na masu amfani da Intanet fiye da mutane 10,000 a cikin ƙasashe guda 20. An taƙaita wasu sakamakon da suka shafi haƙƙin dijital da samun damar Intanet a ƙasa.

Tambaya No. na Martani Martani
Ya kamata a dauki damar yin amfani da Intanet a matsayin haƙƙin ɗan adam na asali. 10,789 83% kadan ko yarda sosai,



</br> 14% kadan ko rashin yarda,



</br>  3% ba su sani ba
Kowace kasa tana da ‘yancin gudanar da harkokin Intanet yadda suka ga dama. 10,789 67% kadan ko yarda sosai,



</br> 29% kadan ko rashin yarda,



</br>  4% ba su sani ba / bai dace ba
Intanet yana taimaka wa al'umma fiye da yadda yake cutar da ita. 10,789 83% kadan ko yarda sosai,



</br> 13% kadan ko rashin yarda,



</br>  4% ba su sani ba / ba a zartar ba
Ƙarfafa ikon gwamnati na Intanet zai sa na rage amfani da Intanet. 9,717 57% kadan ko yarda sosai,



</br> 39% kadan ko rashin yarda,



</br>  5% ba su sani ba / ba a zartar ba
Ƙara yawan ikon gwamnati na Intanet zai ƙara yawan masu amfani. 9,717 40% kadan ko yarda sosai,



</br> 52% kadan ko rashin yarda,



</br>  8% ba su sani ba / ba a zartar ba
Ya kamata gwamnatoci su ba da fifiko mafi girma wajen fadada Intanet da fa'idarsa a kasata. 10,789 83% kadan ko yarda sosai,



</br> 11% kadan ko rashin yarda,



</br>  5% ba su sani ba / ba a zartar ba
Don Intanet ta isa ga cikakkiyar damarta a cikin ƙasata mutane suna buƙatar samun damar shiga Intanet ba tare da ƙuntatawa da bayanai ba. 10,789 79% kadan ko yarda sosai,



</br> 17% kadan ko rashin yarda,



</br>  4% ba su sani ba / ba a zartar ba

Ƙungiyoyin kare haƙƙin dijital[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Shiga Yanzu
  • Cibiyar Dimokuradiyya da Fasaha
  • Hakkokin Dan Adam na Dijital na Duniya (Masu Shafukan Duniya na Moscow)
  • Digital Rights Ireland
  • Digital Rights Watch
  • Gidauniyar Frontier Electronic
  • Ƙungiyar Masu Amfani da Nishaɗi
  • Hakkokin Dijital na Turai
  • Free Software Foundation
  • FreedomBox
  • IT-Ƙungiyar Siyasa ta Denmark
  • Bude Rukunin Hakkoki
  • Ilimin Jama'a
  • TestPAC, Kwamitin Ayyukan Siyasa na Amurka
  • Gidauniyar Yanar Gizo ta Duniya
  • Xnet[15]

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Yarjejeniyar Ciniki ta Ƙarfafawa (ACTA)
  • Samun damar kwamfuta
  • Dijital rarraba
    • Rarraba dijital ta duniya
    • Shirye-shiryen watsa labarai na ƙasa daga ko'ina cikin duniya
  • Ƙaddamar da kai na dijital
  • Gudanar da Haƙƙin Dijital (DRM)
  • Darakta-Janar na Ƙungiyar Watsa Labarai da Watsa Labarai (Hukumar Turai)
  • Electronic farar hula rashin biyayya
  • Amfanin intanet na duniya
  • Ƙungiyar Ƙwararrun 'Yancin Intanet ta Duniya (GIFT) - Ƙirƙiri a cikin Ma'aikatar Harkokin Wajen Amurka
  • Amsa da aka kammala (aka buga uku)
  • Haƙƙin ɗan adam a cikin sararin samaniya
  • Da'a na bayanai
  • Keɓaɓɓen bayanin sirri
  • Binciken Intanet
    • Binciken Intanet ta ƙasa
  • Sirrin Intanet
  • Rashin tsaka tsaki na hanyar sadarwa
  • Falsafa na bayanai
  • Kare Dokar IP (PIPA)

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. "Digital freedom: the case for civil liberties on the Net". BBC News. 1999-03-04. Retrieved 2010-05-01.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Lucchi, Nicola (2011-02-06). "Access to Network Services and Protection of Constitutional Rights: Recognizing the Essential Role of Internet Access for the Freedom of Expression" (in Turanci). Rochester, NY. SSRN 1756243. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  3. Benedek 2008, 17 November 2011
  4. Megaupload and the Government's Attack on Cloud Computing - Electronic Frontier Foundation, October 31, 2012
  5. "Digital freedom: the case for civil liberties on the Net". BBC News. 1999-03-04. Retrieved 2010-05-01.
  6. "Estonia, where being wired is a human right", Colin Woodard, Christian Science Monitor, 1 July 2003
  7. "Finland makes 1Mb broadband access a legal right", Don Reisinger, CNet News, 14 October 2009
  8. Constitution of Greece As revised by the parliamentary resolution of May 27th 2008 of the VIIIth Revisionary Parliament, English language translation, Hellenic Parliament
  9. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Murray
  10. For the BBC poll Internet users are those who used the Internet within the previous six months.
  11. 11.0 11.1 "BBC Internet Poll: Detailed Findings", BBC World Service, 8 March 2010
  12. "Internet access is 'a fundamental right'", BBC News, 8 March 2010
  13. "VI. Conclusions and recommendations", Report of the Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression, Frank La Rue, Human Rights Council, Seventeenth session Agenda item 3, United Nations General Assembly, 16 May 2011
  14. "Can the Internet be a Human Right?", Michael L. Best, Human rights & Human Welfare, Vol. 4 (2004)
  15. "Digital Rights Global Shapers". Global Law Forum. Archived from the original on 2020-06-07. Retrieved 2021-09-20.

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]