Hanyar Jirgin Kasa ta Hejaz

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Wikidata.svgHanyar Jirgin Kasa ta Hejaz
railway line (en) Fassara
Damascus-Hejaz station.jpg
Bayanai
Ƙasa Siriya, Jordan da Saudi Arebiya
Date of official opening (en) Fassara 1908
Track gauge (en) Fassara 1050 mm track gauge (en) Fassara
Heritage designation (en) Fassara Tentative World Heritage Site (en) Fassara
Terminus (en) Fassara Damascus
Route diagram (en) Fassara Template:Hejaz railway (en) Fassara
World Heritage criteria (en) Fassara World Heritage selection criterion (ii) (en) Fassara, World Heritage selection criterion (iv) (en) Fassara da World Heritage selection criterion (vi) (en) Fassara
Wuri
 32°37′47″N 36°06′13″E / 32.6298°N 36.1037°E / 32.6298; 36.1037
SLM a Siwizalan ta gina aji na locomotive goma guda 2-8-0 don hanyar jirgin Hejaz a cikin shekara ta 1912, mai lamba 87-96. Daga baya aka sake musu suna 150-159. Da yawa sun kame a cikin shekara ta 1918 daga sojojin Birtaniyya da na Daular ko kuma aka tura su a cikin shekara ta 1927 zuwa layin dogo na Falasdinu, wanda ya karbe reshen titin jirgin kasa na Hejaz reshen Jezreel Valley a shekara ta 1920. An tura 153 (a da 90) a shekara ta 1927 kuma hoton ne a kan hanyar jirgin Jezreel a shekara ta 1946 .

A Hejaz (ko Hedjaz ko hijazi) Railway ( Turkish: Hicaz Demiryolu , French: Chemin de fer du Hedjaz ) ya kasance babbar hanyar jirgin ƙasa mai tsayi ( 1,050 mm / Page Template:Fraction/styles.css has no content. track ma'auni ) wanda ya tashi daga Damaskus zuwa Madina, ta yankin Hejaz na Saudiyya ta zamani, tare da layin reshe zuwa Haifa a kan Bahar Rum . Wannan wani bangare ne na layin dogo na Ottoman kuma asalin manufar ita ce ta shimfida layin daga tashar Haydarpaşa da ke Kadikoy har zuwa Damascus zuwa garin Makka mai alfarma . Ko yaya, an katse gine-gine saboda ɓarkewar Yaƙin Duniya na ɗaya, kuma bai kai ga Madina ba, 400 kilometres (250 mi) gajere daga Makka. Yankin Damascus zuwa Madina da aka kammala ya kai 1,300 kilometres (810 mi) .

Babban manufar da jirgin ya na haxi tsakanin Istanbul, babban birnin kasar na Ottoman Empire da wurin zama daga cikin Islamic Khalifanci, kuma Hejaz a Arabia, shafin na wuraren yin tsafin na Musulunci da kuma birni mai tsarki na Makka, da makõma na aikin hajji na shekara-shekara. Wani muhimmin dalili shi ne inganta tattalin arziki da siyasa hadewar lardunan larabawa masu nisa cikin kasar Ottoman, da saukaka jigilar sojojin soja.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Taswirar da ke nuna hanyoyin dogo na Ottoman a jajibirin yakin duniya na 1
Layin dogo na tsohuwar hanyar jirgin Jezreel Valley (wani ɓangare na layin jirgin Hejaz), wanda aka samo kusa da Kfar Baruch

Layin dogo yana fuskantar haɓakar gini a ƙarshen shekara ta 1860s, kuma yankin Hejaz yana ɗaya daga cikin yankuna da yawa don hasashe. Irin wannan shawarar ta farko ta shafi hanyar jirgin ƙasa da ta tashi daga Damascus zuwa Bahar Maliya . Ba da daɗewa ba aka rushe wannan shirin, amma Amir na Makka ya tayar da ƙyama game da dorewar nasa aikin jigilar raƙumi idan za a gina layi. Shiga cikin daular Usmaniyya wajen kirkirar hanyar jirgin kasa ya fara ne daga Kanal Ahmed Reshid Pasha, wanda, bayan ya binciki yankin a kan balaguron zuwa Yemen a cikin 1871-1873, ya kammala da cewa hanya daya tilo da za a iya amfani da ita ta zirga-zirga ga sojojin Ottoman da ke tafiya can ita ce ta jirgin kasa. Sauran jami'an Ottoman, kamar su Osman Nuri Pasha, suma sun ba da shawarwarin layin dogo a Hejaz, suna masu ba da hujjar wajibcin ta idan ana son a tabbatar da tsaro a yankin na Larabawa.

Da yawa a duniya ba su yi imanin cewa Daular Ottoman za ta iya ɗaukar nauyin wannan aikin ba: an yi ƙididdigar cewa layin dogo zai ci kusan lira miliyan 4 na Turkiyya, yanki mai girman kasafin. Bankin Ziraat Bankasi, bankin jihar wanda ya ba da gudummawar bukatun noma a Daular Ottoman, ya ba da rancen farko na lira 100,000 a cikin shekara ta 1900. Wannan rancen na farko ya ba da izinin fara aikin daga baya a cikin shekarar. Abdulhamid na II ya yi kira ga dukkan musulmin duniya da su ba da gudummawa don aikin titin jirgin kasa na Hejaz. Aikin ya ɗauki sabon mahimmanci. Ba wai kawai layin dogo ne da za a dauka a matsayin wani muhimmin fasalin soja ga yankin ba, ya kuma kasance alama ce ta addini. Hajji, mahajjata akan hanyarsu ta zuwa Makka mai alfarma, galibi ba su isa inda suke yayin tafiya a kan hanyar Hejaz. Ba a iya gwagwarmaya da mawuyacin yanayi, yanayin tsaunuka, har zuwa 20% na hajis sun mutu a hanya. Abdulhamid ya kafe kan cewa layin dogo ya tsaya a matsayin wata alama ta karfi da hadin kan Musulmai: wannan layin dogo zai sa aikin hajji cikin sauki ba kawai ga Ottoman ba, har ma da dukkan Musulmai. A sakamakon haka, ba za a amince da saka hannun jari daga kasashen waje a cikin aikin ba. An kafa Hukumar ba da gudummawa don tsara kudaden yadda ya kamata, kuma an bayar da lambobin yabo ga masu bayarwa. Duk da kokarin farfaganda kamar katunan gaisuwa na jirgin kasa, kusan gudummawa 1 cikin 10 ne suka zo daga Musulmai a wajen Daular Ottoman. Daya daga cikin wadannan masu ba da gudummawar, shi ne Muhammad Inshaullah, attajirin editan jaridar Punjab i. Ya taimaka wajen kafa kwamitin tsakiya na Railway na Hejaz.

Samun albarkatu ya kasance babban turɓaya yayin gina hanyar Railway Hejaz. Ruwa, mai, da aiki sun kasance da wahalar samu musamman a mafi nesa da Hejaz. A yankunan da babu kowa, an yi amfani da jigilar raƙumi ba kawai don ruwa ba, har ma da abinci da kayayyakin gini. An kawo mai, galibi a cikin kwal, an kawo shi daga ƙasashen da ke kewaye an adana shi a Haifa da Damascus . Tabbas Labour itace babbar matsala a cikin aikin layin dogo. A cikin yankunan da suka fi yawan jama'a, yawancin aikin sun cika ne daga mazauna yankin da kuma musulmin yankin, wadanda doka ta wajabta bayar da hannayensu ga ginin. Wannan aikin tilasta shi galibi ana aiki dashi a cikin ƙoƙarin haƙa ramin haƙa wanda ke cikin aikin jirgin ƙasa. A cikin yankunan da ke nesa da hanyar jirgin kasa za ta isa, an yi amfani da ingantacciyar hanyar magance ta. Mafi yawan wannan aikin an kammala shi ne ta hanyar jirgin ƙasa na sojoji, waɗanda a madadin aikin layin jirgin, an keɓance su daga kashi ɗaya cikin uku na aikin soja. Yayin da layin dogo ya bi ta kasa mai yaudara, dole ne a gina gadoji da gadar ruwa da yawa. Tunda samun damar kankare ya iyakance, da yawa daga cikin waɗannan hanyoyin an yi su ne da dutsen dutsen kuma suna tsaye har zuwa yau.

The Emir Hussein bin Ali, Sharif Makka kyan gani, da layin dogo a matsayin barazana ga Arab suzerainty, tun da shi bayar da Ottoman da sauki damar zuwa su ƙungiyoyin sojoji a Hejaz, Asir, da kuma Yemen. Tun daga farkonta, layin dogo ya kasance abin da ƙabilar Larabawa na cikin gari ke hari. Waɗannan ba su taɓa yin nasara ba musamman, amma kuma ba Turkawa ba su iya sarrafa yankunan da ke nisan sama da mil ɗaya ko ma kowane layi na layi. Saboda al'adar mazauna yankin na jan masu bacci na katako don rura wutar wutar sansaninsu, wasu sassan waƙar an ɗora su a kan masu yin baƙin ƙarfe.

A watan Satumbar shekara ta 1907, yayin da jama'a suka yi bikin layin dogo zuwa tashar Al-'Ula, wani tawayen da ƙabilar Harb suka shirya ya yi barazanar dakatar da ci gaba. 'Yan tawayen ba su yarda da layin dogo da ya shimfida zuwa Makka ba; suna tsoron za su rasa abin da za su ci saboda safarar raƙumi ta zama ta tsufa. Daga baya Abdulhamid ya yanke shawarar cewa hanyar jirgin za ta wuce zuwa Madina ne kawai .

A karkashin kulawar babban injiniya Mouktar Bey, titin jirgin ya isa Madina a ranar 1 ga Satumbar shekara ta 1908, ranar tunawa da hawan Sarki. Koyaya, dole ne ayi sulhu da yawa don gamawa zuwa wannan kwanan wata, tare da sanya wasu ɓangarorin waƙa a kan shinge na wucin gadi a ƙetaren wadis . A cikin shekara ta 1913 an buɗe tashar jirgin ƙasa ta Hejaz a tsakiyar Dimashƙu a matsayin farkon layin.

Yaƙin Duniya na 1[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Don amfani da locomotives masu aiki akan layin dogo a lokacin Yaƙin Duniya na ɗaya, Sojojin na Jamusawa sun samar da man shale daga ajiyar ɗanyen mai Yarmouk. Turkawan sun gina layin dogo na soja daga layin Hejaz zuwa Beersheba, wanda aka buɗe a ranar 30 ga watan Oktoban shekara ta 1915.

An sha kaiwa layin Hejaz hari kuma an lalata shi, musamman a lokacin Tawayen Larabawa , lokacin da rundunar mayaƙan da Law Law ya jagoranta suka yi wa jiragen Ottoman kwanton bauna.

  • A ranar 26 ga Maris, 1917, TE Lawrence (wanda aka fi sani da Lawrence na Arabiya) ya jagoranci kai hari kan Tashar Aba el Naam, inda suka dauki fursunoni 30 tare da yi wa mutum 70 rauni. Ya ci gaba da cewa, “An ci gaba da zirga-zirgar ababen hawa har tsawon kwanaki uku na gyara da bincike. Don haka ba mu gaza gaba daya ba ”
  • A watan Mayu 1917, 'yan Boma-bomai sun jefa bam a tashar Al-' Ula . A cikin watan Yulin 1917, Stewart Newcombe, injiniyan injiniya dan Burtaniya kuma abokin tarayya na Lawrence, ya haɗa baki da sojoji daga sojojin Masar da na Indiya don ɓata jirgin. An kai hari kan tashar Al-Akhdhar inda aka kame sojojin Turkiyya 20.
  • A cikin watan Oktoba 1917, daular Usmaniyya ta Tabuk ta fada hannun ‘yan tawayen Larabawa. An kuma kame tashar Abu-Anna'em.
  • A watan Nuwamba na shekarar 1917, Sharif Abdullah tare da kabilar Harb sun kai hari tashar Al-Bwair inda suka lalata manyan motocin shiga biyu.
  • A watan Disamba na shekarar 1917, wasu gungun maza karkashin jagorancin Ibn Ghusiab sun bi hanyar jirgin kasa zuwa layin kudu da Tabuk.

Tare da Tawayen Larabawa da rusa Daular Ottoman, ba a san wanda ya kamata hanyar jirgin ta kasance ba. An rarraba yankin tsakanin Birtaniyya da Faransanci, dukansu suna ɗokin karɓar iko. Koyaya, bayan shekarun kulawa da ba a kula da su, yawancin sassan hanyar sun faɗi cikin lalacewa; an yi watsi da hanyar jirgin ƙasa ta hanyar 1920. A cikin 1924, lokacin da Ibn Saud ya karbe ikon yankin teku, shirye-shiryen farfado da hanyar jirgin kasan ba su kasance kan batun ba.

Yaƙin Duniya na II[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A yakin duniya na biyu, layin Samakh (daga Haifa zuwa Deraa a iyakar Siriya da Dimashƙu) an yi shi ne don sojojin haɗin gwiwa ta Rukunin Jirgin Ruwa na New Zealand Rukunin 17th ROC, daga Afula (tare da bita a Deraa da Haifa). Abubuwan locomotives sune 1914 Borsig da shekara ta 1917 Hartmann samfura daga Jamus. Layin, wanda Vichy Faransanci ya sarrafa shi, ya lalace. Jiragen kasa da ke kan tsaunin tsakanin Samakh (yanzu Ma'agan) da Derea sun kai nauyin tan 230, inda aka kwashe tan 1,000 cikin awanni 24. Har ila yau, kungiyar ta yi tafiyar mil 60 (95 km) na layin reshe, gami da Afula zuwa Tulkarm.

Shekarun 1960[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Jirgin kasan da ke kudu da kasar Jordan na wannan zamani - Saudi Arabiya ya kasance a rufe bayan faduwar Daular Ottoman a shekara ta 1920. An yi ƙoƙari don sake gina shi a tsakiyar shekara ta 1960, amma sai aka watsar saboda Yakin kwana shida a shekara ta 1967.

Matsayin yanzu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wasu bangarorin haɗin jirgin biyu na Hejaz suna cikin sabis:

  • daga Amman a cikin Jordan zuwa Dimashƙu a Siriya, kamar Railway Hedjaz Jordan da Chemin de Fer de Hedjaz Syrie
  • daga ma'adinan phosphate kusa da Ma'an zuwa Tekun Aqaba, a matsayin Railway Railway

Ma'aikata a kan layin dogo sun dawo da da yawa daga locomotives na asali: akwai locomotive tara a Siriya yayin da bakwai a Jordan cikin aiki. Tun bayan hawan Sarki Abdullah II, dangantaka tsakanin Jordan da Syria ta inganta, wanda ya haifar da farfado da sha'awar layin dogo. Jirgin kasan ya taso ne daga tashar Qadam da ke wajen birnin Damascus, ba daga tashar Hejaz ba, wacce aka rufe a shekarar 2004, har zuwa lokacin da wani babban ci gaban kasuwanci zai kasance. A ranar 4 ga watan Fabrairun shekara ta 2009 Ministan Sufuri na Turkiyya Binali Yildirim ya ce a Riyadh game da shirin sake gina layin jirgin kasa: [1]

Sectionsananan ɓangarorin da ba sa aiki da hanyar jirgin ƙasa, gine-gine da kayayyakin da ke jujjuya har yanzu ana kiyaye su a matsayin abubuwan jan hankalin masu yawon buɗe ido a Saudi Arabia, gami da Medina Terminus, waɗanda aka maido da su a cikin 2005 tare da hanyoyin jirgin ƙasa da shimfidar locomotive. Tsohuwar gadar jirgin ƙasa da ke kan kwarin Aqiq duk da cewa an rushe ta a shekara ta 2005 saboda lalacewar ruwan sama mai yawa shekara da ta gabata. [2] Har yanzu ana iya ganin jiragen kasa da suka lalace a lokacin tawayen Larabawa na shekara ta 1916-1918 inda suka faɗi.

Railways na Israila sun sake sake gina tsayayyen aikin Haifa, hanyar jirgin Jezreel Valley, ta amfani da ma'auni mai kyau, tare da yuwuwar wata rana ta tsawaita shi zuwa Irbid a Jordan. Layin da aka sake ginawa ya buɗe daga Haifa zuwa Beit She'an a cikin watan Oktoban shekara ta 2016.

A cikin shekara ta 2009, ma'aikatar sufuri ta Kasar Jordan ta ba da shawarar kafa hanyar jirgin kasa mai nisan mil 990 (1590-km) dala biliyan 5, wanda za a iya fara shi a farkon zangon shekara ta 2012. Hanyar sadarwar zata samar da hanyoyin jirgin kasa daga Jordan zuwa Syria, Saudi Arabia da Iraq. Ana iya fadada layukan dogo na fasinjoji zuwa Lebanon, Turkiyya da sauran wurare. Gwamnati, wacce za ta dauki nauyin wani bangare na aikin, tana gayyatar masu neman takara daga kamfanoni masu zaman kansu don kara sauran kudin aikin.

A shekara ta 2008, an bude "gidan kayan tarihin kayan layin dogo na Al-Hejaz" a tashar Khadam ta Damascus bayan manyan gyare-gyare don baje kolin wuraren locomotives. Jiragen ƙasa suna tashi daga tashar Khadam akan buƙata (yawanci daga ƙungiyoyin Jamusanci, Burtaniya ko Switzerland). Yankin arewacin waƙar Zabadani ba shi da damar shiga. Akwai karamin gidan kayan gargajiya na jirgin kasa a tashar a Mada'in Saleh [3] da kuma wani aiki mafi girma a " Hejaz Railway Museum " a Madina, wanda aka buɗe a shekara ta 2006.

A cikin watan Nuwamban shekara ta 2018, Gabas ta Tsakiya ya bayyana shirye-shiryen hadin gwiwar Saudiyya da Isra'ila don farfado da hanyar jirgin kasa daga Haifa zuwa Riyadh .

Hoton hoto[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Article Kingdom, Turkey decide to restore historic Hejaz railway in the Arab News for Thursday 5 February 2009
  2. Article Madinah Municipality Razes Hijaz Railway Bridge in the Arab News from Wednesday 31 August 2005.
  3. Article Move Under Way to Restore Madain Saleh Railway Station in the Arab News of Thursday 22 June 2006

Kara karantawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  •  0-905878-05-1
  •  1-900988-81-X
  • Judd, Brendon Railway Rail: Theungiyar Railway ta New Zealand a Arewacin Afirka da Gabas ta Tsakiya a lokacin Yaƙin Duniya na Biyu (2003, 2004 Auckland, Penguin) 

Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]