Riyadh da Larabci|الرياض|, ar-Riyāḍ, Najdi itace babban birnin kasar Saudiya kuma garin dakeda mafi yawan al'ummah, fadin Kasar yakai kimanin kilomita 790 km (491 mi), tana nan ne a arewa maso gabashin Makkah. Kuma harwayau itace babban birnin Riyadh Province kuma tana cikin garuruwan tarihin Najd da Al-Yamama. taba nan ne a tsakiyar Arabian Peninsula akan wani babban plateau, yawan al'umman garin sunfi miliyan shida (6,000,000).
Ankasa birnin zuwa gundumomi 15, wanda shugaban birnin ke kula dasu, wato shugaban Riyadh da kuma hukumar cigaban birnin Riyadh, wanda gwamnan shine Faisal bin Bandar Al Saud. Shugaban ta na yanzu shine Ibrahim Mohammed Al-Sultan. Riyadh itama tana daga cikin biranen Duniya kyawawa.
Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]
Farkon Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]
Lokacin zamanin Jahiliyya birnin dayake a waccan lokaci a inda ake kira Riyadh ayanzu itace Hajr (حجر), kuma an ruwaito cewar kabilar Banu Hanifa ne suka kafa ta. Hajr itace babban birnin yankin Al-Yamamah Wanda gwamnoninta sukeda hurimin gudanar da yawaicin tsakiya da gabashin Arabia Lokacin zamanin Umayyad da Abbasid. Al-Yamamah ta balle daga cikin Daular Abbasid a 866 sannan garin yafada karkashin mulkin Ukhaydhirites, Wanda suka canja birnin daga Hajr zuwa kusan da Al-Kharj. Daga nan garin yashiga cibaya na tsawon lokaci. A karni na 14th, matafiyin nan na Arewacin Afirka Ibn Battuta yayi rubutu akan ziyararsa zuwa Hajr, inda ya bayyana ta da "Babban birnin Al-Yamamah, kuma sunan ta itace Hajr". Ibn Battuta ya cigaba da bayyana garin a matsayin birnin canals da itatuwa Wanda yawan al'ummah ta ke daga cikin Bani Hanifa, yace yacigaba da tafiya da Shugaban su har zuwa Makkah da yin aikin Hajji.
Daga baya, garin Hajr ya balle zuwa kananan gidaje da unguwanni, daga cikin shahararrunsu akwai Migrin (ko Muqrin) da Mi'kal, dukda sunan Hajr an cigaba da amfani dashi acikin wakokin mawakan garin. Abinda aka dogara dashi dangane da sunan Riyadh na farko yazone da jerin bukukuwa da aka ruwaito tun a karni na 17th a shekarar 1590. A 1737, Deham ibn Dawwas, Dan gudun hijira dake unguwan Manfuha, ya karbe ikon gudanarwar Riyadh. Ibn Dawwas ya Gina Katanga daya data zagaye the various oasis town in the area, Wanda tazamar dasu cikekken gari dunkulalliya. Sunan "Riyadh," dake nufin "gardens" refers to these earlier oasis towns.
Kasar Saudiya ta Uku[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]
A 1744, Muhammad ibn Abdel Wahhab yayi hadaka da Muhammad ibn Saud, Shugaban garin dake kusa Diriyah. Ibn Saud ya shirya kwace sauran yankin da burin shigo da ita karkashin mulkin kasar musulunci daya. Ibn Dawwas na Riyadh led the most determined resistance, da hadin gwiwa da mayaka daga Al Kharj, Al Ahsa, da kuma Banu Yam clan of Najran. However, Ibn Dawwas fled and Riyadh capitulated to the Saudiya a 1774, Wanda yakawo karshen dogon Lokacin da akai tayi, kuma yakaiga kaddamar da First Saudi State, tareda Diriyah a matsayin babban birni.
First Saudi State an lalata ta daga sojojin da Muhammad Ali of Egypt ya turo, kuma sunyi hakan ne karkashin Ottoman Empire. Mayakan Ottoman razed the Saudi capital Diriyah in 1818. They had maintained a garrison at Najd. This marked the decline of the House of Saud for a short time.(sfn|Farsy|1990|p=14) Turki bin Abdullah bin Muhammad became the first Amir of the Second Saudi State; the cousin of Saud bin Saud, he ruled for 19 years till 1834, leading to the consolidation of the area though they were notionally under the control of the Muhammad Ali, the Viceroy of Egypt.(sfn|Farsy|1990|p=14) In 1823, Turki ibn Abdallah chose Riyadh as the new capital. Following the assassination of Turki in 1834, his eldest son Faisal killed the assassin and took control, and refused to be controlled by the Viceroy of Egypt. Najd was then invaded and Faisal taken captive and held in Cairo. However, as Egypt became independent of the Ottoman Empire, Faisal escaped after five years of incarceration, returned to Najd and resumed his reign, ruled till 1865, and consolidated the reign of House of Saud.(sfn|Farsy|1990|p=14)
Following the death of Faisal, there was rivalry among his sons which situation was exploited by Muhammad bin Rashid who took most of Najd, signed a treaty with the Ottomans and also captured Hasa in 1871. In 1889, Abdul Rahman bin Faisal, the third son of Faisal again regained control over Najd and ruled till 1891, whereafter the control was regained by Muhammad bin Raschid.(sfn|Farsy|1990|p=14)
Internecine struggles between Turki's grandsons led to the fall of the Second Saudi State in 1891 at the hand of the rival Al Rashid clan, which ruled from the northern city of Ha'il. The al-Masmak fort dates from that period.
Abdul Rahman bin Faisal al-Saud had sought refuge among a tribal community on the outskirts of Najd and then went to Kuwait with his family and stayed in exile. However, his son Abdul Aziz retrieved his ancestral kingdom of Najd in 1902 and consolidated his rule by 1926, and further expanded his kingdom to cover "most of the Arabian Peninsula."(sfn|Farsy|1990|p=15) He named his kingdom as Saudi Arabia in September 1932(sfn|Farsy|1990|p=15) with Riyadh as the capital.(sfn|Facey|1992|p=271) King Abdul Aziz died in 1953 and his son Saud took control as per the established succession rule of father to son from the time Muhammad bin Saud had established the Saud rule in 1744. However, this established line of succession was broken when King Saud was succeeded by his brother King Faisal in 1964. In 1975, Faisal was succeeded by his brother King Khalid. In 1982, King Fahd took the reins from his brother. This new line of succession is among the sons of King Abdul Aziz who has 35 sons; this large family of Ibn Saud hold all key positions in the large kingdom.(sfn|Farsy|1990|p=15)
Tarihi na Zamani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]
daga 1940s, Riyadh "mushroomed" daga wani karamin gari da aka wasar dashi zuwa wani ishashen metropolis.  sanda sarkin Shah Saud ya hau mulki, ya mayar da kudurinsa canja fasalin Riyadh zuwa tazamani, kuma yafara cigaban Annasriyyah, cibiyar fadar sarautar garin, a 1950. biyo bayan misalai kamar birnin American, sabbin garuruwan dake dukkanin unguwan nin anyi sune samfarin grid-like squares of a chess board kuma aka sadar dasu da manyan hanyoyi da suka shiga zuwa cikin garin. Samfarin na grid pattern a birnin an shigo dashi a 1953. Karin yawan al'ummah garin yacigaba da karuwa daga 1974-1992 averaged 8.2 percent a duk shekara.
Tun a 1990s, ansamu jerin terrorist attacks akan YAN garin da baki da kuma samun zanga-zanga akan gidan masarautar garin. A 13 November 1995, wani bam a mota daya tashi a wajen wani aji na Saudi National Guard yakashe mutane shida, tareda jikkata mutum sama da 60. A 12 May 2003, mutum 34 sun mutu a series of suicide attacks harin da akakai kan YAN Amurika. A 8 November 2003, a suicide truck bomb attack in the Muhiya residential area with Saudis and Arab foreigners was responsible for killing 18 and injuring 122 people. Al-Qaeda has claimed responsibility for the attacks. On 23 June 2006, Saudi security forces stormed a suspected hideout of al-Qaeda in the neighborhood of al-Nakhil; a bloody battle ensued during which six extremists and a policeman were killed. The current mayor of Riyadh is Ibrahim Mohammed Al Sultan, an experienced transport official. He was appointed mayor in 2015.
Riyadh is now the administrative and to a great extent the commercial hub of the Kingdom. According to the Saudi Real Estate Companion, most large companies in the country establish either sole headquarters or a large office in the city. For this reason, there has been a significant growth in high rise developments in all areas of the city. Most notable among these is King Abdullah Financial District which is fast becoming the key business hub in the city.
According to the Global Financial Centres Index, Riyadh ranked at 77 in 2016-2017. Though the rank moved up to 69 in 2018, diversification in the economy of the capital is required in order to avoid what the World Bank called a "looming poverty crisis" brought on by lingering low oil prices and rich state benefits.
Since 2017, Riyadh has been the target of missiles from Yemen. In March 2018, one person died as a result of a missile attack. The number of missiles which targeted Riyadh are a small portion of the dozens of missiles fired from Yemen at Saudi Arabia due to the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen. In April 2018, heavy gunfire was heard in Khozama; this led to rumors of a coup attempt.
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Anazarci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]
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