Kogin Zinariya (Mulkin mallaka na Birtaniyya)

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Kogin Zinariya (Mulkin mallaka na Birtaniyya)
Flag of the Gold Coast (1877–1957).svg Badge of the Gold Coast (1877-1957).svg
Administration
Government colony (en) Fassara
Capital Accra
Official languages Turanci
Geography
Colonial Africa 1913 Gold Coast map.svg
Demography
Other information
Currency British West African pound (en) Fassara

Gold Coast ne mai Birtaniya Crown Colony a Gulf na Guinea a Afirka ta Yamma daga 1821 zuwa samun 'yancin kai a matsayin wani bangare na al'ummar Ghana a 1957. Hakanan ana amfani da kalmar Gold Coast galibi don bayyana duk ƙananan hukunce-hukuncen guda huɗu waɗanda suke ƙarƙashin gwamnatin Gwamna na Gold Coast . Waɗannan su ne Yankin Gold Coast da kanta, Ashanti, Protearfafa Yankin Arewacin da kuma yankin amintaccen Burtaniya Togoland.

Farkon masu binciken Turai da suka isa bakin tekun su ne Fotigal a cikin 1471. Sun gamu da masarautun Afirka iri-iri, wasu daga cikinsu suna sarrafa tarin zinare a cikin ƙasa. A shekarar 1483, Turawan Fotigal sun zo nahiyar don karuwar kasuwanci. Sun gina Castle of Elmina, matsuguni na farko na Turai akan Gold Coast. Daga nan suka sami bayi da zinariya a cikin cinikin kayan Turai, kamar su wukake na ƙarfe, beads, madubai, rum, da bindigogi. Labarin cinikin nasara ya bazu cikin sauri, kuma 'yan kasuwa na Burtaniya, Dutch, Danish, da Sweden suma sun zo. 'Yan kasuwar Turai sun gina kagarai da yawa a gefen bakin teku. Kogin Gold ya daɗe yana suna ga yankin da Turawa ke amfani da shi saboda albarkatun zinare da ake samu a yankin. Kasuwancin bayi shine babban musayar kuma babban ɓangare na tattalin arziƙin shekaru. A wannan lokacin, ƙasashen Turai sun fara bincika da mulkin mallaka na Amurka. Ba da daɗewa ba Fotigal da Sifen suka fara fitar da bayin Afirka zuwa ƙasashen Caribbean, da Arewacin da Kudancin Amurka. Dutch da Ingilishi suma sun shiga cinikin bayi, da farko suna ba da kasuwanni a cikin Caribbean da kuma gabar tekun Caribbean na Kudancin Amurka.

Kamfanin Royal Trading ya kafa ta a cikin 1752 don jagorantar kasuwancin ta a Afirka. Kamfanin Afirka na hanan Kasuwa ne ya maye gurbinsa, wanda ya jagoranci yunƙurin kasuwancin Biritaniya zuwa farkon ƙarni na 19. A cikin 1821 gwamnatin Burtaniya ta janye yarjejeniyarsu kuma ta ƙwace ƙasashe masu zaman kansu a bakin tekun. A cikin 1821, gwamnati ta kafa mulkin mallaka na Burtaniya na Kogin Gold, bayan da ta karɓi ragowar bukatun sauran ƙasashen Turai. Sun sayi kuma sun sanya kasar Kogin Zinariya a cikin 1850 da Dutch Kogin Zinariya, gami da Fort Elmina, a cikin 1872. Burtaniya ta fadada mulkin mallaka a hankali ta hanyar mamayewa da yin biyayya ga masarautun cikin gida har ila yau, musamman ma ƙungiyar Ashanti da Fante.

Mutanen Ashanti sun mallaki yawancin yankuna na Ghana kafin zuwan Turawa kuma galibi suna rikici dasu. A cikin karni na 21 sun ci gaba da kasancewa mafi yawan al'ummomin kabilu a Ghana. Yaƙe-yaƙe huɗu, yaƙe-yaƙe na Anglo-Ashanti, an yi su ne tsakanin Ashanti (Asante) da Birtaniyya, waɗanda a wasu lokutan suke ƙawance da Fante.

A lokacin Yaƙin Anglo-Ashanti na Farko (1822-24), ƙungiyoyin biyu sun yi faɗa saboda rashin jituwa a kan shugaban Ashanti da bautar. Turawan ingila sun soke cinikin bayi na tekun Atlantika amma suka ci gaba da kasancewa a cikin yankunanta har zuwa 1834. Tashin hankali ya karu a 1874 yayin Yakin Ashanti na Biyu (1873-74) lokacin da Birtaniyya ta kori Ashanti babban birnin Kumasi. Yakin Ashanti na Uku (1893–94) ya faru ne saboda sabon mai mulkin Ashanti Asantehene yana son yin amfani da sabon taken nasa. Daga 1895–96 Turawan Burtaniya da Ashanti suka fafata a Yakin Ashanti na hudu kuma na karshe, inda Ashanti suka yi gwagwarmaya kuma suka rasa ‘yancinsu. A cikin 1900 tashin Ashanti ya faru. Turawan ingila sun murkushe tashin hankali kuma suka kame garin Kumasi. A karshen wannan makon Ashanti War, karkarar da Ashanti mutanen da suka zama a Birtaniya protectorate a 1 ga watan Janairu 1902.

Zuwa 1901, Birtaniyya ta kafa mulkin mallaka wanda ya hada dukkan Zinariya, tare da masarautun ta da kabilun da suke dauke da rukuni daya. Turawan sun yi amfani da albarkatun ƙasa iri-iri kamar su zinariya, karafan ƙarfe, lu'ulu'u, hauren giwa, barkono, katako, hatsi da koko. Turawan mulkin mallaka na Burtaniya sun gina hanyoyin jirgin kasa da hadaddun hanyoyin sufuri don tallafawa jigilar irin wadannan kayan masarufi. Wannan ya kafa tushe ga kayayyakin sufuri a cikin ƙasar Ghana ta zamani. Sun kuma gina asibitoci da makarantu irin na Yamma don samar da abubuwan more rayuwa ga mutanen masarautar. Alkawarin Ashanti da Fante samari galibi sun kammala karatun su a Biritaniya a wasu manyan jami'o'in ta.

Zuwa 1945, a sakamakon babban rawar mulkin mallaka a yakin duniya na biyu, masu kishin kasa a Kogin Zinariya sun dauki matsayin jagoranci wajen neman karin ikon cin gashin kai. A 1951-55 sun raba mulki tare da Birtaniyya. Zuwa 1956, Burtaniya Togoland, Ashanti protectorate, da Fante protectorate sun hade da Kogin Zinariya don kirkirar yanki daya, wanda ya zama sananne da Kogin Zinariya. Dokar 'Yancin Gana ta 1957 ta zama masarautar masarautar Kogin Zinariya a matsayin wani bangare na sabuwar mamayar Ghana.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mulkin Burtaniya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A ƙarshen karni na 19, Turawan Birtaniyya, ta hanyar mamaya ko sayayya, sun mamaye yawancin katangar bakin tekun. Manyan dalilai guda biyu sun aza harsashin mulkin Burtaniya da kuma kafa mulkin mallaka a kan Kogin Zinariya: Abin da Birtaniyya ta yi game da yaƙe-yaƙe na Asante da sakamakon rashin kwanciyar hankali da rikice-rikice na kasuwanci, da ƙwarewar Birtaniyya tare da danniya da kawar da cinikin bayi.

A lokacin mafi yawan karni na 19, Asante, mafi karfin iko na cikin gidan Akan, ya nemi fadada mulkin sa da inganta da kuma kare kasuwancin sa. Yaƙin Asante na farko na yankunan bakin teku ya faru ne a cikin 1807; ‘yan Asante sun sake komawa kudu a yakin Ga-Fante na 1811 da kuma a yakin Ashanti – Akim – Akwapim na 1814-16. Waɗannan hare-haren, duk da cewa ba su yanke hukunci ba, sun katse fatauci a cikin kayayyakin irin su fuka-fukai, hauren giwa, roba da man dabino, kuma sun yi barazanar tsaron ƙauyukan Turai. Hukumomin Birtaniyya, Dutch, da na Danish duk an tilasta musu su sasanta da Asante. A cikin 1817 Kamfanin Afirka na Mercan Kasuwa suka sanya hannu kan yarjejeniyar abota wacce ta amince da iƙirarin Asante ga ikon mallakar manyan yankuna na gabar teku da jama'arta. Kadarorin Kamfanin 'Yan Kasuwa na Afirka sun ƙunshi manyan wuraren kasuwanci tara ko masana'antu: Fort William, Fort James, Fort Sekondi, Fort Winneba, Fort Apollonia, Fort Tantumquery, Fort Metal Cross, Fort Komenda, da Cape Coast Castle, na ƙarshe na wacce ita ce cibiyar gudanarwa.

Mutanen da ke bakin teku, musamman wasu daga cikin Fante da mazauna sabon garin Accra, wadanda suka kasance manyan Ga, sun dogara ne da kariyar Burtaniya daga mamayar Asante. Amma kamfanonin kasuwanci suna da iyakantaccen ƙarfin samar da irin wannan tsaro. Masarautar Burtaniya ta rusa kamfanin a 1821, tare da ba da iko kan masarautar Burtaniya a kan Gold Coast ga Charles MacCarthy, gwamnan mulkin mallaka na Saliyo. Forungiyoyin Birtaniyya da Saliyo sun kasance ƙarƙashin mulkin gama gari don rabin farkon karni. Umurnin MacCarthy shine gabatar da zaman lafiya da kuma kawo karshen cinikin bayi. Ya nemi yin hakan ta hanyar ƙarfafa mutanen bakin teku su yi adawa da mulkin Kumasi da kuma rufe manyan hanyoyi zuwa bakin tekun. Abubuwa da yaƙe-yaƙe na lokaci-lokaci sun ci gaba, duk da haka. A cikin 1824 an kashe MacCarthy kuma an shafe yawancin ƙarfinsa a cikin yaƙi tare da sojojin Asante. Turawan sun sami nasarar fatattakar mamayar Asante na bakin tekun a cikin 1826 tare da haɗin gwiwa na sojojin Burtaniya da na cikin gida, gami da Fante da mutanen Accra.[1]

Yakin Anglo-Ashanti na Farko

Lokacin da gwamnatin Burtaniya ta ba da izinin kula da matsugunan Gold Coast don komawa ga Kamfanin Kasuwancin Afirka na Burtaniya a ƙarshen 1820s, dangantaka da Asante har yanzu tana da matsala. Daga ra'ayin Asante, Birtaniyyawa sun kasa sarrafa ayyukan ƙawayen yankinsu na bakin teku. Idan aka yi haka, da Asante ba ta ga ya zama dole ba don yunƙurin sanya zaman lafiya a kan mutanen bakin teku. Arfafawar MacCarthy ga adawa da bakin teku ga Asante da harin soja na Biritaniya na 1824 wanda ya biyo baya ya ƙara nuna wa shugabannin Asante cewa Turawa, musamman ma Burtaniya, ba su girmama Asante ba.[1]

A cikin 1830 wani kwamiti na 'yan kasuwa na London ya zaɓi Kyaftin George Maclean ya zama shugaban ƙaramar hukumar' yan kasuwa. Kodayake ikon ikonsa na yau da kullun yana da iyaka, nasarorin Maclean na da yawa; misali, ya shirya yarjejeniyar zaman lafiya tare da Asante a 1831. Maclean ya kuma kula da mutanen bakin teku ta hanyar rike kotu na yau da kullun a Cape Coast, inda ya yanke hukunci tare da hukunta wadanda aka samu da laifin tayar da zaman lafiya. Tsakanin 1830 da 1843, yayin da Maclean ke kula da lamura a kan Gold Coast, babu wani rikici da ya faru da Asante. Reportedlyarar kasuwancin ta ba da rahoton sau uku.

Burtaniya ta saya Elmina Castle da Fotigal ta gina a 1873. Hakanan ana kiranta da St. George Castle, yanzu ya zama Gidan Tarihin Duniya

Aikin Maclean na iyakance ikon shari'a a bakin ruwa yayi tasiri sosai har wani kwamiti na majalisar dokoki ya ba da shawarar cewa gwamnatin Burtaniya ta gudanar da ayyukanta na dindindin tare da tattauna yarjejeniyoyi tare da shuwagabannin gabar teku don ayyana alakar Biritaniya da su. Gwamnatin ta yi haka a cikin 1843, a wannan shekarar aka sake dawo da gwamnatin ta kambi. An nada kwamanda Henry Worsley Hill gwamnan farko na Gold Coast . A karkashin gwamnatin Maclean, yawancin kabilun bakin teku sun mika wuya don kariyar Burtaniya. Hill ya ci gaba da ayyana yanayi da nauyi na ikon sa a kan yankunan da aka kiyaye. Ya yi yarjejeniya da wata yarjejeniya ta musamman tare da wasu Fante da sauran shugabannin gargajiya waɗanda aka sansu da suna Jond na 1844. Wannan takaddar ta tilasta wa shugabannin yankin gabatar da manyan laifuka, kamar kisan kai da fashi, zuwa ikon Burtaniya; ta aza harsashin doka don mulkin mallaka na Burtaniya na gaba na yankin bakin teku.[1]

Karin jihohin bakin teku da kuma sauran jihohin da ke nesa daga baya sun rattaba hannu kan yarjejeniyar, kuma an karɓi tasirin Burtaniya, an ƙarfafa shi, an faɗaɗa shi. A karkashin sharuddan tsarin 1844, Burtaniya ta bayyana don samar da tsaro ga yankunan bakin teku; don haka, tsarin kare jama'a ya kasance. Kamar yadda nauyin kare kawancen cikin gida da kula da lamuran tsaron gabar teku ya karu, an raba gudanar da Gold Coast da Saliyo a 1850.[1]

A kusan lokaci guda, karɓar karɓar fa'idodin da kasancewar Burtaniya ta haifar da ƙaddamar da wani muhimmin mataki. A watan Afrilu na 1852, manyan sarakuna da dattawa sun hadu a Cape Coast don tuntubar gwamnan kan hanyoyin samun kudaden shiga. Tare da amincewar gwamnan, majalisar sarakuna ta kafa kanta a matsayin majalisar dokoki. A yayin amincewa da kudurorin nata, gwamnan ya nuna cewa taron shugabannin ya kamata ya zama kayan aiki na dindindin na kayan kare kundin tsarin mulki, amma ba a ba wa majalisar takamaiman ikon tsarin mulki ta zartar da dokoki ko karbar haraji ba tare da yardar mutane ba.[1]

Bayan Yaƙin Anglo-Ashanti na huɗu a cikin 1896, Birtaniyyawa sun ba da sanarwar kariya a kan Masarautar Ashanti .

A cikin 1872 tasirin Birtaniyya akan Gold Coast ya ƙara haɓaka lokacin da Birtaniyya ta sayi theasar Zinariya ta Dutch. Asante, wanda ya kwashe shekaru yana ɗaukar Yaren mutanen Holland a Elmina a matsayin ƙawayensu, saboda haka ya rasa hanyar kasuwanci ta ƙarshe zuwa cikin teku. Don hana wannan asara kuma don tabbatar da cewa kudaden shiga da aka samu daga wannan mukamin sun ci gaba, Asante sun yi mamayar su ta ƙarshe a bakin tekun a cikin 1873. Bayan nasarorin da suka samu da wuri, daga ƙarshe suka yi yaƙi da sojojin Burtaniya da suka sami horo sosai waɗanda suka tilasta su koma baya hayin Kogin Pra . Daga baya ƙoƙarin sasantawa da Birtaniyya ya ƙi amincewa da komandan sojojinsu, Manjo Janar Sir Garnet Wolseley. Don daidaita matsalar Asante har abada, Birtaniyyawa sun mamaye Asante tare da manyan sojoji. Harin, wanda sojojin Birtaniyya 2500 da dimbin mataimakan Afirka suka kaddamar a watan Janairun 1874, ya haifar da mamaya da kone Kumasi, babban birnin Asante.[1]

Yarjejeniyar zaman lafiya da ta biyo baya ta buƙaci Asante ta yi watsi da duk wata da'awar zuwa yankuna da yawa na kudu. Hakanan Asante dole ne ta buɗe hanyar zuwa Kumasi a buɗe don kasuwanci. Daga wannan lokaci zuwa gaba, ƙarfin Asante ya ci gaba da raguwa. Kungiyar a hankali ta wargaje yayin da yankuna da ke ƙarƙashin suka balle kuma yayin da yankuna da ke da kariya suka koma mulkin Burtaniya. Aiwatar da yarjejeniyar ya haifar da matsaloli da rikice-rikice. A cikin 1896 Burtaniya ta sake tura wani balaguro wanda ya mamaye Kumasi kuma ya tilasta Asante ta zama kariyar Masarautar Burtaniya. Burtaniya ta soke matsayin asantehene kuma ta kori mai ci daga mulkin mallaka.[1]

Babban jigon tarayyar Asante ya karɓi waɗannan sharuɗɗan da gangan. A cikin 1900 Asante sun yi tawaye a Yakin Zinari na Zinare amma an ci su a shekara mai zuwa. A cikin 1902 Burtaniya ta shelanta Asante a matsayin mallaka a ƙarƙashin ikon gwamnan Gold Coast. An sanya rakiyar tare da rashi tunani da tunani a bangarorin biyu. Tare da fatattakar Asante da haɗe shi, mulkin mallaka na Burtaniya na yankin ya zama gaskiya.[1]

Mulkin mallaka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yammacin Afirka kusan 1875

Rikicin soja tsakanin Asante da Fante ya ba da gudummawa ga haɓakar tasirin Birtaniyya a kan Gold Coast. Damuwa ce game da ayyukan Asante a gabar tekun wanda ya tilastawa jihohin Fante sanya hannu kan yarjejeniyar ta 1844. A ka'ida, jingina ta bai wa Birtaniyya iyakantattun ikon shari'a-kokarin kisan kai da kuma karar fashi kawai. Hakanan, Turawan ba za su iya samun ƙarin haƙƙoƙin shari'a ba tare da yardar sarakuna, da sarakuna, da kuma mutanen da ke cikin kariya ba. A zahiri, duk da haka, ƙoƙarin Burtaniya don ƙwace ikon mallakar shari'a da yawa ya ci nasara ƙwarai da gaske cewa a cikin 1850s sun yi tunanin kafa kotunan Turai maimakon na gargajiya na Afirka.[2]

Sakamakon motsa jiki na kara fadada ikon shari'a a bakin teku da kuma tabbatar da cewa mutanen bakin teku sun kasance cikin karfin iko, Turawan Burtaniya, bayan kayen da suka yi da Asante a 1874, ya yi shelar tsohuwar masarautar bakin teku mai mulkin mallaka. Yankin Yankin Gold Coast, wanda aka kafa a ranar 24 ga Yuli 1874, ya ƙunshi yankunan bakin teku kuma ya faɗaɗa har zuwa kan iyakokin mara iyaka na Asante.[2]

Mutanen da ke bakin teku ba su yi maraba da wannan motsi da farin ciki ba. Ba a shawarce su ba game da wannan haɗakarwar, wanda ya ba da izinin ware Jond na 1844 ba tare da izini ba kuma ya ɗauki masu sanya hannun sa kamar yankunan da aka ci da yaƙi. Birtaniyyawa, duk da haka, ba ta da'awar kowane haƙƙin mallakar ƙasa, yanayin da wataƙila ke bayyana rashin jituwa tsakanin jama'a. Jim kaɗan bayan ayyana yankin bakin teku a matsayin mallaka, Turawan ingila suka ƙaura da babban birnin mulkin mallaka daga Cape Coast zuwa tsohuwar gidan Danish a Christianborg da ke Accra.[2]

Taswira daga 1896 na Turawan Mulkin Mallaka na Gold Coast

Kasar Biritaniya ta sami tasiri daga ƙarshe har ya haɗa da Asante. Bayan kayen Asante a cikin 1896, Turawan Burtaniya sun yi shelar kariyar mulkin mallaka. Da zarar an kori mutanen asantehene da majalisarsa, sai Birtaniyya ta nada wani kwamishina a garin Asante, wanda aka ba shi ikon yin farar hula da na aikata laifi a kan yankunan. Ana gudanar da kowace jihar Asante daga Kumasi a matsayin wani keɓaɓɓen mahaluƙi kuma yana da matuƙar alhakin gwamnan Kogin Zinariya. Kamar yadda muka gani a sama, Asante ta zama mulkin mallaka bayan shan kayen ta na karshe a shekarar 1901.[2]

A halin yanzu, Turawan Burtaniya sun sami sha'awar manyan yankuna a arewacin Asante, wanda aka fi sani da Yankin Arewa. Wannan buƙata ta samo asali ne ta hanyar buƙatar hana Faransawa da Jamusawa, waɗanda ke samun ci gaba cikin sauri a yankunan kewayen. Jami'an Burtaniya sun fara kutsawa yankin a cikin 1880s, kuma bayan 1896 an ba da kariya ga yankunan arewacin da Asante ke kula da kasuwancinsu da gabar teku. A cikin 1898 da 1899, ikon Turawan mulkin mallaka ya shata kan iyakokin tsakanin Terasashen Arewacin da yankunan da ke kewaye da Faransa da Jamusawa. An ayyana Yankin Arewacin a matsayin mai mulkin mallakar Biritaniya a cikin shekarar 1902.[2]

Kamar Asante protectorate, Yankin Arewa an sanya shi ƙarƙashin ikon kwamishina mazaunin wanda ke da alhakin gwamnan Gold Coast. Gwamnan ya mulki Asante da yankunan Arewacin ta hanyar sanarwa har zuwa 1946.[2]

Tare da arewa karkashin ikon Birtaniyya, yankuna uku na Gold Coast - Yankin mallaka (yankuna na gabar teku), Asante, da Yankin Arewacin — sun zama, ga dukkan dalilai masu amfani, rukunin siyasa daya, ko mulkin mallaka, wanda aka fi sani da "dogaro" ko kuma kawai a matsayin Kogin Zinariya. Iyakokin ƙasar Ghana ta yau sun farga ne a watan Mayu 1956 lokacin da mutanen yankin Volta, waɗanda aka fi sani da British Mandated Togoland, suka jefa ƙuri'a cikin yardar rai don zama ɓangare na Ghana ta zamani.[2]

Mulkin mallaka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ziyarcin Maɗaukakin Sarki Yariman Wales zuwa Coastasar Gold Coast a shekara ta 1925, ya haɗu da Mai martaba, Nana Kwasi Akuffo I, Akuapemhene

Farawa a cikin 1850, yankuna na bakin teku suna ƙara ƙarƙashin ikon gwamnan masarautun Birtaniyya, wanda Majalisar Zartarwa da Majalisar dokoki suka taimaka masa. Majalisar Zartarwa karamar kungiya ce ta shawarwari ta jami'an Turai da ke ba da shawarar dokoki da jefa kuri'a, gwargwadon amincewar gwamna. Majalisar Dokokin ta hada membobin Majalisar Zartarwa da mambobin da ba na hukuma ba wadanda aka zaba da farko daga bukatun kasuwancin Burtaniya. Bayan 1900 an kara shugabannin uku da wasu 'yan Afirka uku a cikin Majalisar Dokokin, an zaba wadannan daga al'ummomin Turai da suka hada da Accra, Cape Coast, da Sekondi. Cire 'yan Afirka daga Asante da Yankin Arewa bai faru ba sai daga baya. Kafin shekara ta 1925, duk mambobin majalisar dokoki da gwamna ya nada. Membobin hukuma koyaushe suna da yawa fiye da membobin hukuma.[3]

Samuwar sannu-sannu game da mulkin mallakar mulkin mallaka ya kawo ikon dunkulewa kan ayyukan gida, kodayake har yanzu ana ba da ainihin ayyukan waɗannan ayyukan ga ƙananan hukumomi. An bayyana takamaiman ayyuka da nauyi a fili, kuma an bayyana rawar da gwamnatocin gargajiya ke takawa a harkokin cikin gida.[3]

Tsarin kananan hukumomi ya samo asali ne daga tsarin mulkin gargajiya. Kungiyoyin shugabannin gari da dattawa kusan ke da alhakin biyan bukatun kowane yanki, ciki har da doka da oda da kuma jin daɗin jama'a. Kansiloli, duk da haka, ana mulkinsu da yardar rai maimakon ta hanyar dama. Ajin masu mulkin al'umma ne suka zabi shuwagabanni; wani shugaban gargajiya ya ci gaba da mulki ba wai kawai don shi ne zabin abin da za a iya kira mai martaba ba, amma kuma saboda mutanensa sun yarda da shi. Batun kwance sarauta ko ɓata sunan da dattawan ƙabila suka yi ya zama al'ada gama gari idan sarki ya gaza biyan buƙatu ko tsammanin jama'a.[3]

Jami'an mulkin mallaka na Burtaniya a Kumasi, 1937

Sarakunan gargajiya sun yi fice sosai a tsarin mulkin kai tsaye da hukumomin Burtaniya suka amince da shi don gudanar da mulkin mallaka a Afirka. A cewar Frederick Lugard, mai tsara manufofin, dokar kai-tsaye ba ta da tsada saboda ta rage yawan jami'an Turai a fagen. Ta hanyar barin sarakunan cikin gida suyi amfani da ikon gudanarwa kai tsaye akan mutanen su, za a rage masu adawa da mulkin Turawa daga yawan jama'ar yankin. Manyan, duk da haka, yakamata su karɓi umarni daga shuwagabanninsu na Turai. Tsarin, a cewar Lugard, yana da ƙarin fa'idar wayewa da 'yan ƙasar, saboda ya fallasa sarakunan gargajiya ga fa'idodin ƙungiyar siyasa ta Turai da ɗabi'u. Wannan tsarin "wayewa" duk da cewa, dokar kai tsaye tana da babbar fa'ida ta tabbatar da kiyaye doka da oda.[3]

Amfani da mulkin kai tsaye a cikin Kogin Zinariya ya zama mai mahimmanci, musamman bayan an kawo Asante da Yankin Arewa ƙarƙashin mulkin Burtaniya. Kafin ingantaccen mulkin mallaka na waɗannan yankuna, niyyar Burtaniya ta yi amfani da ƙarfi da yarjejeniyoyi don sarrafa sarakunan Asante da arewa. Da zarar an aiwatar da mulkin kai tsaye, sarakunan sun zama masu alhakin hukumomin mulkin mallaka waɗanda suka goyi bayan su. Ta fuskoki da yawa, sabili da haka, an haɓaka ƙarfin kowane sarki sosai. Kodayake Lugard ya nuna tasirin wayewar kai na mulkin kai tsaye, masu sukar manufofin sun yi iƙirarin cewa an cire asalin shigar jama'a daga tsarin siyasa na gargajiya. Duk da takaddun ka'idoji na nuna bangaranci, mulkin kai tsaye a aikace ya sa shuwagabanni neman izini zuwa Accra (babban birni) maimakon neman shawarar mutanensu ga mutanensu.[3]

Alamar aika wasiƙa tare da hoton Sarauniya Elizabeth ta II, 1953

Shugabanni da dattawa da yawa sun ɗauki kansu a matsayin masu mulkin mallaka. Gabaɗaya kwamishinonin gwamnati ne ke jagorantar majalisunsu, waɗanda galibi suke ba wa sarakuna girmamawa, ado, da kuma kwarjini. Dokar kai tsaye ta kasance tana adana hanyoyin gargajiya da hanyoyin samun iko, amma, kuma ya kasa samar da dama mai ma'ana ga karuwar samari masu ilimi da ke hankoron samun wani ci gaba a cikin kasarsu. Sauran kungiyoyin ba su gamsu ba saboda babu wadataccen hadin kai tsakanin majalisun da gwamnatin tsakiya kuma saboda wasu na ganin cewa shugabannin yankin sun fi karfin kwamishinonin gundumar Burtaniya

A cikin 1925 majalisun larduna na sarakuna an kafa su a duk yankuna uku na mulkin mallaka, wani ɓangare don bawa sarakunan cikakken aikin mallaka. An bi wannan motsawar ne a cikin 1927 ta hanyar gabatar da Dokar Gudanar da Nan ƙasar, wanda ya maye gurbin tsari na 1883 wanda ya sanya sarakuna a cikin Coastasar Gold Coast a ƙarƙashin kulawar Burtaniya. Manufar ita ce a bayyana tare da tsara iko da yankunan ikon sarakuna da kansiloli. An bai wa majalisu takamaiman ayyuka a kan rikice-rikicen zaɓe da kuma rashin kujerun sarakuna; an bayyana yadda ake zaben shugabanni; kuma an ayyana ikon alkalai kuma an ba da su. An damka wa kansiloli matsayin ayyana dokar gargajiya a yankunansu (dole ne gwamnati ta amince da shawarar da suka yanke), kuma an baiwa majalisun larduna ikon zama kotunan yanke hukunci game da al'amuran dokar al'ada lokacin da takaddama ta kaure tsakanin sarakuna a wasu mukamai daban-daban. Har zuwa 1939, lokacin da aka zartar da Dokar Baitul Malin 'Yan ƙasar, kodayake, babu tanadi don kasafin kuɗin gida. A cikin 1935 Dokar Hukumomin Nan ƙasar ta haɗu da gwamnatin mulkin mallaka ta tsakiya da ƙananan hukumomi zuwa tsarin mulki ɗaya. Sabbin hukumomi na asali, waɗanda gwamnan ya nada, an ba su iko na ƙananan hukumomi a ƙarƙashin kulawar kwamishinonin lardunan gwamnatin tsakiya, waɗanda suka tabbatar da cewa manufofinsu za su kasance na gwamnatin tsakiya.

A shekarar 1948 yan asalin kasar Ghana sun yanke shawarar yin gwagwarmayar neman yanci.

Majalisun larduna da motsawa don ƙarfafa su ba sanannen abu ba ne. Ko da ta ma'aunin Burtaniya, ba a ba wa sarakuna isasshen ƙarfi don zama ingantattun kayan aiki na mulkin kai tsaye ba. Wasu 'yan Ghana sun yi imanin cewa sake fasalin, ta hanyar ƙaruwa da ikon sarakuna ta hanyar yunƙurin gida, ya ba da izinin mulkin mallaka ya guji motsi zuwa kowane nau'i na shahararren mashahuran gwamnatin mulkin mallaka.

Ci gaban tattalin arziki da zamantakewar al'umma a cikin mulkin mallaka na Burtaniya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Shekarun mulkin Burtaniya na Gold Coast a cikin ƙarni na 20 wani zamani ne na ci gaba mai mahimmancin ci gaban zamantakewar jama'a, tattalin arziki, da ci gaban ilimi. An inganta sadarwa sosai. Misali, layin dogo na Sekondi-Tarkwa, wanda aka fara a shekarar 1898, an tsawaita shi har sai ya hade yawancin mahimman cibiyoyin kasuwanci na kudu, kuma zuwa 1937, akwai tituna na kilomita 9,700. An kuma fara ayyukan sadarwa da gidan waya.

Sabbin amfanin gona suma an gabatar dasu kuma sun sami karbuwa sosai. Bishiyoyin Cacao, waɗanda aka gabatar a cikin 1878, sun kawo amfanin gona na farko ga manoman cikin gida; ya zama babban ginshiƙin tattalin arzikin ƙasa a cikin shekarun 1920 lokacin da cuta ta shafe bishiyoyin Brazil. Noman koko ya kasance mafi yawa a hannun 'yan Afirka. An kirkiro Hukumar Tallace-tallace koko a cikin 1947 don taimakawa manoma da kuma daidaita samar da sayar da amfanin gonar su. A karshen wannan shekarun, Gold Coast na ta fitar da fiye da rabin koko na duniya.

Abubuwan da mulkin mallaka suka samu ya karu daga fitowar katako da zinariya. Zinare, wanda da farko ya kawo Turawa zuwa Gold Coast, ya kasance a hannun 'yan Afirka har zuwa 1890s. Dabarun gargajiya na yin fankoki da hakar ma'adinai, amma, ba da wadataccen fitarwa ba. Ci gaban zamani na hakar ma'adanai ya sanya hakar gwal ya zama wani kamfani ne na ƙetare na ƙasashen waje. Misali, Kamfanin Ashanti Goldfields Corporation, wanda aka shirya shi a shekarar 1897, ya sami rangwamen kusan kilomita murabba'i 160 wanda a ciki za a iya samun kasuwancin zinariya. Kodayake wasu hukumomin kabilun sun ci riba sosai daga ba da gudummawar haƙar ma'adinai, amma kamfanonin haƙar ma'adinai na Turai da gwamnatin mulkin mallaka ne suka tara yawancin arzikin. Kudin shiga daga fitarwa na albarkatun kasa na mulkin mallaka ya inganta kudaden cikin gida a cikin ababen more rayuwa da ayyukan zamantakewa. Tushen tsarin ilimin da ya ci gaba fiye da kowane irin sa a Afirka ta Yamma kuma ya samo asali ne daga kudaden fitarwa na ma'adinai.

Yawancin ci gaban tattalin arziki da haɓaka a cikin Gold Coast a farkon ɓangaren wannan ƙarni na yanzu an danganta su ne ga Frederick Gordon Guggisberg, gwamna daga 1919 zuwa 1927. Guggisberg an haife shi a Galt (kusa da Toronto), Kanada, ya shiga rundunar sojojin Burtaniya a 1889. A cikin shekaru goma na farko na karni na 20, yayi aiki a matsayin mai safiyo a cikin kasashen masarautar Burtaniya na Kogin Zinariya da Najeriya, sannan daga baya, a lokacin yakin duniya na daya, yayi aiki a Faransa.

A farkon gwamnan sa na Gold Coast, Guggisberg ya gabatar da wani shiri na cigaban shekaru 10 ga majalisar dokoki. Ya ba da shawarar farko game da inganta harkokin sufuri. Bayan haka, saboda fifikon, inganta abubuwan da aka tsara sun hada da samar da ruwa, magudanan ruwa, ayyukan samar da wutar lantarki, gine-ginen jama'a, inganta gari, makarantu, asibitoci, gidajen yari, layukan sadarwa, da sauran ayyuka. Guggisberg ya kuma kafa burin cika rabin matsayin mulkin mallaka da yan Afirka da zaran sun samu horo. An bayyana shirin nasa a matsayin mafi girman burin da aka gabatar a Afirka ta Yamma har zuwa wannan lokacin. Wani shiri na gwamnan ya haifar da kirkirar tashar jiragen ruwa a Takoradi, wanda daga baya ya zama tashar jirgin ruwa ta farko a Ghana. Kwalejin Achimota, wacce ta haɓaka zuwa ɗayan mafi kyaun makarantun sakandare na ƙasar, ita ma ra'ayin Guggisberg ne.

Lord Listowel yana lura da yara maza masu shekaru huɗu da ke aikin lathe a Cibiyar Horar da Kasuwanci a Tamale, yankunan Arewacin. Wannan Cibiyar ta ba da kwasa-kwasan shekaru huɗu don yara maza da ke barin makarantun tsakiya da karatun maraice ga waɗanda suka tashi daga makarantun tsakiya zuwa masana'antu.

Lokacin auna tasirin tasirin rayuwa a lokacin mulkin mallaka, ƙuntataccen bayyananniyar hangen nesa shine iyakantaccen adadin bayanai masu dacewa da daidaitaccen ma'aunin lafiyar ɗan adam. Hanyoyin ilimin lissafi suna ba da wata hanya don shawo kan iyakoki, kuma suna bayyana canjin lokaci mai tsawo. Baten ya zana abin da ya dade yana gudana wanda ya hada da kwarewar zamanin mulkin mallaka, mulkin mallaka da kuma bayan samun 'yanci. Sakamakon ya nuna cewa ga Ghana, lokacin mulkin mallaka na karni na 20 bai kasance mara kyau ba musamman. Don zama mafi daidaitaccen tsarin rayuwa ya inganta cikin sauri a farkon shekaru goma na karni na 20 lokacin da noman koko ya tashi. Gabaɗaya, aiwatar da tattalin arziƙi da tsarin rayuwa na lokacin mulkin mallaka yana nuna kyakkyawan tarihi fiye da lokacin bayan yancin kai. Ta hanyar ilimantarwa irin ta Biritaniya ne wani sabon mashahurin dan Ghana ya sami dukiya da sha'awar yin gwagwarmayar neman 'yanci. A lokacin shekarun mulkin mallaka, cibiyoyin ilimin kasar sun bunkasa sosai. Tun daga farko a makarantun mishan, a farkon karni na 20 an sami ci gaba sosai a fannoni da dama, kuma, kodayake ayyukan sun ci gaba da shiga, amma gwamnatin ta ci gaba da kara kauna da tallafi. A cikin 1909 gwamnati ta kafa makarantar fasaha da kwalejin horar da malamai a Accra; Ofishin jakadancin ya kafa wasu makarantun sakandare da yawa. Gwamnati a hankali ta kara tallafawa ta kudi don karuwar adadin makarantun jihohi da na mishan. A shekarar 1948 kasar ta bude cibiyar farko ta manyan makarantu, kwalejin jami'a.

Mulkin mallaka ya taimaki Birtaniyya a duka Yaƙin Duniya na ɗaya da na Yaƙin Duniya na II. Daga 1914 zuwa 1918, ,ungiyar Kogin Zinariya ta yi aiki da bambanci a cikin yaƙe-yaƙe da sojojin Jamusawa a Kamaru da cikin yaƙin neman zaɓe na Gabashin Afirka. A Yaƙin Duniya na II, dakaru daga yankin Kogin Zinariya sun sami babban daraja bayan manyan ayyuka a wurare kamar Habasha da Burma. A cikin shekaru masu zuwa, duk da haka, matsalolin bayan tashin hankali na hauhawar farashi da rashin kwanciyar hankali ya yi matukar kawo cikas ga gyara ga tsoffin sojoji, wadanda ke kan gaba cikin rashin jin dadi da tashin hankali. Yakinsu na yaƙi da ƙungiyoyin tsoffin sojoji sun faɗaɗa tunaninsu, wanda ya sanya ya zama da wuya a gare su su koma ga ƙasƙantar da kai da matsayin da gwamnatocin mulkin mallaka suka ware wa Afirka.

Kishin Kasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yayin da kasar ta ci gaba ta fuskar tattalin arziki, a hankali hankalin gwamnati ya karkata daga hannun gwamna da jami'ansa zuwa na 'yan Ghana. Canje-canjen ya samo asali ne daga ci gaba sannu a hankali na karfi mai karfi na kishin kasa kuma ya haifar da 'yanci daga karshe. Ci gaban wayewar kai na ƙasa ya hanzarta bayan Yaƙin Duniya na II, lokacin da, ban da tsofaffin masu yi wa ƙasa hidima, wasu gungun maƙwabtan Afirka da 'yan kasuwa da suka fito don ba da tallafi ga burin ƙananan ƙalilan masu ilimi. Da zarar motsi ya fara, al'amuran sun ci gaba cikin sauri-ba koyaushe suna saurin isa don gamsar da shugabannin kasa ba, amma har yanzu a wani saurin da ba mamaki ba kawai ga mulkin mallaka ba amma da yawa daga cikin kasashen Afirka masu ra'ayin mazan jiya ma.

Farkon bayyanuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tun farkon ƙarshen ƙarni na 19, yawancin African Afirka masu ilimi sun ƙara samun tsarin siyasa mara izini wanda ba za a amince da shi ba wanda ya sanya kusan dukkan iko a hannun gwamna ta hanyar nadin mambobin majalisar. A cikin 1890s, wasu membobin mashahuran bakin ruwa sun shirya kansu cikin Kungiyar Kare Hakkokin 'Yan Asalin don nuna rashin amincewarsu da dokar filaye da ke barazanar mallakar filaye na gargajiya. Wannan zanga-zangar ta taimaka wajen kafa harsashin aiwatar da siyasa wanda a karshe zai haifar da 'yanci. A cikin 1920 daya daga cikin membobin Afirka na Majalisar Dokoki, Joseph E. Casely-Hayford, ya kira Babban Taro na Birtaniyya ta Yammacin Afirka, wanda ya aika da wakilai zuwa London don roƙon Ofishin Coan Mulkin mallaka da ya yi la’akari da ƙa’idar zaɓen wakilci. Kungiyar, wacce ta yi ikirarin yin magana da duk kasashen da suka mallaki yankin Afirka ta Yamma, sun wakilci farkon nuna hadin kan siyasa tsakanin masana da masu kishin yankin. Kodayake ba a karɓi wakilan ba a Landan (bisa dalilan da ke wakiltar muradun wani ƙaramin rukuni na 'yan Afirka mazauna birane), ayyukanta sun haifar da babban goyon baya tsakanin fitattun Afirka a gida.

Duk da kiran da suka yi na zabar wakilci sabanin tsarin da gwamnan ya nada mambobin majalisa, wadannan masu kishin kasa sun dage cewa su masu biyayya ne ga masarautar Burtaniya kuma kawai suna neman a tsawaita ayyukan siyasa da zamantakewar Burtaniya ne ga 'yan Afirka. Fitattun shugabannin sun haɗa da Africanus Horton, Jr; J. M. Sarbah; da S. R. B. Attah-Ahoma. Irin waɗannan mutanen sun ba wa ƙungiyar kishin ƙasa dandano mai ɗanɗano wanda zai kasance har zuwa ƙarshen 1940s.

Tsarin mulki na 1925, wanda Gordon Guggisberg ya gabatar, ya kirkiro majalisun larduna na manyan sarakuna ga duka amma lardunan arewa na mulkin mallaka. Wadannan kansilolin kuma sun zabi shuwagabanni shida a matsayin wadanda ba na hukuma ba ne a majalisar dokoki. Kodayake sabon kundin tsarin mulki ya bayyana ya amince da tunanin Afirka, amma Guggisberg ya fi damuwa da kare bukatun Burtaniya. Misali, ya samar wa ‘yan Afirka takaitacciyar murya a gwamnatin tsakiya; amma duk da haka, ta hanyar takaita nade-naden ga sarakuna, ya haifar da baraka tsakanin shuwagabannin da kuma wadanda suke da ilimi. Masanan sun yi amannar cewa sarakunan, don neman goyon bayan Birtaniyya, sun ba wa majalisun lardunan fada gaba daya karkashin ikon gwamnati. Zuwa tsakiyar 1930s, koyaya, kusanci tsakanin shugabanni da masu hankali ya fara.

Gaggawa don ƙarin wakilcin da ya dace ya ci gaba. Jaridu mallakin 'yan Afirka kuma ke sarrafa su sun taka rawa wajen tsokanar wannan rashin jin daɗin - an buga shida a cikin 1930s. A sakamakon kiran da aka yi na neman karin wakilci, an kara wasu mambobin Afirka biyu da ba na hukuma ba a Majalisar Zartawa a 1943. Canje-canje a Majalisar Dokoki, duk da haka, dole ne su jira wani yanayi na siyasa daban a London, wanda ya samo asali ne kawai bayan zaɓen bayan gwamnatin Labour ta Burtaniya.

Sabon kundin tsarin mulki na Gold Coast na 1946 (wanda kuma aka sani da kundin tsarin mulki na Burns bayan gwamnan wancan lokacin) ya kasance takarda mai karfin gaske. A karo na farko, an watsar da batun rinjayen hukuma. Majalisar Dokoki yanzu ta kasance daga mambobi shida na zartarwa, mambobi shida da aka zaba, da membobi goma sha takwas da aka zaba. Tsarin mulki na 1946 kuma ya shigar da wakilai daga Asante cikin majalisar a karon farko. Ko da tare da gwamnatin Jam'iyyar Labour da ke kan mulki, amma, Turawan Burtaniya sun ci gaba da kallon yankunan mulkin mallaka a matsayin tushen albarkatun kasa da ake bukata don karfafa gurgunta tattalin arzikinsu. Canjin da zai ba da karfi na gaske a hannun Afirka bai kasance fifiko a tsakanin shugabannin Biritaniya ba har sai bayan tarzoma da sace-sace a Accra da sauran garuruwa da biranen a farkon 1948 kan batun fansho na tsoffin ma’aikata, babban matsayin baƙi a cikin tattalin arziki, ƙarancin gidaje, da sauran korafe-korafen tattalin arziki da siyasa.

Tare da zaɓaɓɓun mambobi cikin mafi rinjaye, Ghana ta kai matakin girma na siyasa wanda babu kamarsa a cikin Afirka ta mulkin mallaka. Tsarin mulki bai ba da, ba, ba da cikakken mulkin kai ba. Ikon zartarwa ya kasance a hannun gwamnan, wanda Majalisar Dokoki ke da alhakin sa. Saboda haka, tsarin mulki, kodayake an gaishe shi da farin ciki a matsayin babban ci gaba, ba da daɗewa ba ya sami matsala. Yaƙin Duniya na II ya ƙare, kuma yawancin tsoffin sojan Gold Coast waɗanda suka yi aiki a balaguron ƙasashen Biritaniya sun koma ƙasar da ke cikin ƙarancin talauci, hauhawar farashi, rashin aikin yi, da ayyukan baƙar fata. A can tsoffin sojoji, tare da abubuwan da ba su da kyau a birane, sun kafa cibiya na rashin gamsuwa cikakke don aiwatar da rikici. Yanzu haka manoma sun hade da su, wadanda suka fusata da tsauraran matakan gwamnati da ake bukata na sare bishiyoyin cacao mai cuta don magance annobar, da kuma wasu da dama wadanda ba su ji dadin cewa karshen yakin ba ya biyo bayan ci gaban tattalin arziki.

Siyasar ƙungiyoyin 'yanci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kodayake kungiyoyin siyasa sun kasance a cikin mulkin mallaka na Burtaniya, Hadaddiyar United Gold Coast (UGCC) ita ce farkon kungiyar kishin kasa da nufin mulkin kai "a cikin mafi karancin lokaci". Wanda aka kafa a watan Agusta 1947 ta byan Afirka masu ilimi waɗanda suka haɗa da JB Danquah, GA Grant (wanda aka sani da Paa Grant), RA Awoonor-Williams, Eric Ato Nkrumah (dukkan lauyoyi ban da Grant, wanda yake ɗan kasuwa ne mai kuɗi), da sauransu, jagorancin kungiyar ta yi kira da a sauya shugabannin da ke Majalisar Dokoki tare da masu ilimi. Ga waɗannan shugabannin siyasa, mulkin gargajiya, wanda aka aiwatar da shi ta hanyar kai tsaye, an gano shi da sha'awar mulkin mallaka da abubuwan da suka gabata. Sun yi imani cewa alhakinsu ne su jagoranci kasarsu cikin sabon zamani. Sun kuma nemi cewa, saboda ilimin da suka yi, gwamnatin mulkin mallaka ta girmama su ta kuma ba su mukami na daukar nauyi. Kamar yadda wani marubuci a kan lokacin ya ruwaito, "Alamomin ci gaba, kimiyya, 'yanci, matasa, duk sun zama alamu wanda sabon jagoranci ya fitar kuma ya karfafa shi." Musamman, shugabancin UGCC ya caccaki gwamnati kan gazawarta na magance matsalolin rashin aikin yi, hauhawar farashi, da rikice-rikicen da suka zo nuna halayen al'umma a ƙarshen yaƙin.

Charles Arden-Clarke, Gwamnan Yankin Gold Coast, yana gaishe da Manyan Yankunan Arewa, 1953

Rashin adawar su ga mulkin mallaka duk da haka, membobin UGCC sun kasance masu ra'ayin mazan jiya ta yadda shugabancin su ba ya neman canji ko juyin juya hali. Wannan wataƙila sakamakon horon da suka samu ne a hanyar Burtaniya ta yin abubuwa. Hanyar da aka gudanar da siyasa a wancan lokacin ita ce canzawa bayan Kwame Nkrumah ya kirkiro Jam'iyarsa ta Taron Jama'a (CPP) a watan Yunin 1949.

An haifi Nkrumah ne a Nkroful a yankin Nzema kuma ya yi karatu a makarantun Katolika a Half Assini da kuma Achimota School. Ya sami ƙarin horo a Amurka a Jami'ar Lincoln da kuma a Jami'ar Pennsylvania. Daga baya, a Landan, Nkrumah ya zama mai aiki a cikin Studentsungiyar Studentsalibai na Afirka ta Yamma da Majalisar Pan-Afrika. Ya kasance ɗayan African Afirka kaɗan da suka halarci Babban Taron Afirka na Biyar wanda aka gudanar a Manchester a cikin 1945. A lokacinsa a Biritaniya, Nkrumah ya san irin fitattun masu adawa da mulkin mallaka da masana kamar Yammacin Indiya George Padmore, da Ba’amurke Ba’amurke W. E. B. Du Bois A shekarar 1947 lokacin da aka kirkiro UGCC a yankin Gold Coast dan adawa da mulkin mallaka, an gayyaci Nkrumah daga Landan don ya zama babban sakataren kungiyar.

Zamanin Nkrumah tare da UGCC ya kasance babban hadari ne. A watan Maris 1948, an kama shi kuma an tsare shi tare da wasu shugabannin UGCC don gwagwarmayar siyasa. An san su da Manyan Shidaa Siyasar Ghana. Daga baya, bayan an gayyaci sauran membobin kungiyar UGCC don ba da shawarwari ga kwamitin Coussey, wanda ke ba gwamnan shawara kan hanyar samun ‘yanci, Nkrumah ya fasa UGCC ya kafa CPP. Sabanin kiran da UGCC ke yi na neman mulkin kai "a cikin mafi karancin lokaci", Nkrumah da CPP sun nemi "gwamnatin kai a yanzu". Shugabannin jam'iyyar, wadanda suka hada da Nkrumah, Kojo Botsio, Komla A. Gbedemah, da gungun galibin matasa masana siyasa da aka fi sani da "Verandah Boys", sun fi bayyana kansu da mutanen da ke aiki fiye da na UGCC da masu hankali.

Salon Nkrumah da alkawurran da ya yi sun yi kira kai tsaye ga yawancin ma'aikata, manoma, da matasa waɗanda suka ji shi; ya zama kamar shi ne shugaban ƙasa wanda za su iya mai da hankali ga fatarsa. Ya kuma sami goyon baya daga, tare da wasu, matan kasuwa masu tasiri wadanda, ta hanyar mamayar da suka yi da karamin ciniki, sun kasance tashoshin sadarwa masu tasiri a matakin yanki.

Mafi yawan jama'ar da ake siyasarta, wadanda suka zuga a shekarun bayan yakin ta hanyar jaridu da suka fito fili, sun rabu da shugabannin kabilun da masu fada aji na Anglophile kusan kamar yadda suke daga turawan Ingila ta hanyoyin tattalin arziki, zamantakewa, da kuma ilimi. Wannan mafi rinjayen ya kunshi tsoffin ma'aikata ne, wadanda suka yi karatu wadanda suke da wasu makarantun firamare, 'yan jarida, da malaman makarantar firamare, wadanda dukkansu suka bunkasa dandano na fahimtar jama'a game da dimokiradiyya. Yawancin ma'aikatan masana'antu marasa ilimi amma masu birni sun zama wani ɓangare na ƙungiyar tallafi. Nkrumah was able to appeal to them on their own terms. A watan Yunin 1949, lokacin da aka kafa CPP tare da kyakkyawar manufar neman shugabancin kai tsaye, Nkrumah yana da dimbin mabiya.

Tsarin mulki na 1951 ya samo asali ne daga rahoton Kwamitin Coussey, wanda aka kirkira saboda tashin hankali a Accra da wasu biranen a 1948. Baya ga baiwa Majalisar Zartarwa mafi yawan ministocin Afirka, ta kirkiro taro, rabin zababbun membobinsu zasu fito daga garuruwa da yankunan karkara rabin kuma daga majalisun gargajiyar, gami da, a karon farko, Arewacin Yankuna. Kodayake babban ci gaba ne, har yanzu sabon kundin tsarin mulki ya yi kasa sosai da kiran da CPP ta yi na cikakken mulkin-kai. Ikon zartarwa ya kasance a hannun Birtaniyya, kuma an tsara majalisar dokoki don ba da izinin iko ta hanyar sha'awar gargajiya.

Tare da samun goyan bayan mashahuri, CPP a farkon 1950 ta ƙaddamar da kamfen na "aiki mai kyau", da nufin haifar da yajin aikin gama gari da adawa mai ƙarfi. Lokacin da wasu rikice-rikicen rikice-rikice suka faru, Nkrumah, tare da manyan hadimansa, an hanzarta kama su tare da daure su saboda tawaye. Amma wannan kawai ya ƙara masa daraja a matsayin shugaba kuma gwarzo na dalilin kuma ya ba shi matsayin shahidai. A watan Fabrairun 1951, an yi zaben farko na Majalisar Dokoki a karkashin sabon kundin tsarin mulki. Nkrumah, wanda har yanzu yana kurkuku, ya sami nasara, sannan CPP ta samu gagarumar nasara da kashi biyu bisa uku na kujeru 104.

Gwamnan, Sir Charles Arden-Clarke, ya saki Nkrumah kuma ya gayyace shi ya kafa gwamnati a matsayin "jagoran kasuwancin gwamnati", matsayin da ya yi daidai da na firayim minista. Nkrumah ya karba. Wata muhimmiyar rawa aka wuce akan hanyar samun yanci da mulkin kai. Duk da haka, kodayake CPP ta yarda ta yi aiki a cikin sabon tsarin tsarin mulki, tsarin gwamnati wanda ya kasance a 1951 tabbas ba abin da CPP ta fi so ba. Ma'aikatan tsaro, harkokin waje, kudi, da shari'a har yanzu suna hannun jami'an Burtaniya wadanda ba su da alhakin majalisar dokoki. Har ila yau, ta hanyar samar da wakilci mai yawa na sarakunan gargajiya a Majalisar Dokoki, tsarin mulki ya jaddada rarrabuwar kawuna tsakanin shugabannin siyasa na zamani da shugabannin gargajiya na majalisun sarakuna.

Farkon wa'adin Nkrumah na farko a matsayin "jagoran kasuwancin gwamnati" ya kasance da kyakkyawar fahimta da haɗin gwiwa tare da gwamnan Burtaniya. A cikin 'yan shekarun nan, sannu a hankali gwamnatin ta rikide zuwa cikakken tsarin majalisar dokoki. Canje-canjen sun kasance masu adawa da wasu al'adun gargajiya na Afirka, musamman a Asante da Yankin Arewa. Wannan hamayyar, kodayake, ba ta da wani tasiri ta fuskar ci gaba da kuma ƙaruwa da goyan baya ga ɗayan ra'ayi na hawa-hawa-kai a farkon kwanan wata.

A cikin 1952 an kirkiro matsayin firaminista kuma Majalisar Zartarwa ta zama majalisar minista. Firayim Ministan ya kasance mai daukar nauyin majalisar, wacce ta zabi Firayim Minista Nkrumah. Tsarin mulki na 1954 ya kawo karshen zaben mambobin majalissun da majalisun kabilun suka yi. Majalisar Dokokin ta kara girma, kuma an zabi dukkan mambobi ta hanyar zabe kai tsaye daga mazabu iri daya, na mambobi daya. Tsaro da manufofin kasashen waje ne kawai suka rage a hannun gwamna; an ba majalisar da aka zaba iko da kusan dukkanin al'amuran cikin gida na mulkin mallaka.

CPP ta bi manufofin sanya siyasa, wacce ta gamu da adawa mai tsanani. Jim kadan bayan zaben 1954, aka kafa wata sabuwar jam’iyya, wacce aka kafa ta Asante National Liberation Movement (NLM). NLM sun ba da shawarar tsarin gwamnatin tarayya, tare da haɓaka ƙarfi ga yankuna daban-daban. Shugabannin NLM sun soki CPP saboda abubuwan da ake gani da kama-karya. Sabuwar jam'iyyar ta yi aiki tare da hadin gwiwa tare da wata kungiyar masu ra'ayin yanki, Jam'iyyar Mutanen Arewa. Lokacin da wadannan bangarorin biyu suka fice daga tattaunawa kan sabon kundin tsarin mulki, jam'iyyar CPP ta ji tsoron cewa London na iya daukar wannan rashin hadin kai wata alama ce da ke nuni da cewa mulkin mallaka bai riga ya shirya ba zuwa mataki na gaba na mulkin kai ba.

Mai ba da shawara kan tsarin mulki na Burtaniya, duk da haka, ya goyi bayan matsayin CPP. Gwamnan ya rusa majalisar ne domin ya gwada goyon bayan da jam’iyyar CPP ke nema na samun ‘yanci kai tsaye. Masarautar ta amince ta ba da ‘yancin kai idan har hakan ya samu rinjaye daga kashi biyu cikin uku na sabbin‘ yan majalisar. An sake gudanar da sabon zabe a watan Yulin 1956. A zabukan da aka fafata sosai, jam'iyyar CPP ta sami kashi 57 cikin 100 na kuri'un da aka jefa, amma rarrabuwa tsakanin 'yan adawa ya ba wa CPP duk wata kujera a kudu gami da isassun kujeru a Asante, da Arewacin Yankin, da Trans-Volta Region don rikewa kashi biyu bisa uku na kujeru 104.

Kafin babban zaben watan Yulin 1956 a cikin Kogin Zinariya, an gudanar da yardar rai a karkashin kulawar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya (UN) don yanke shawarar halin da Burtaniya da Togoland na Faransa za su kasance nan gaba. Amintaccen Birtaniyya, ɓangaren yamma na tsohuwar mulkin mallakar Jamusawa, yana da alaƙa da Gold Coast tun 1919 kuma yana da wakilci a majalissarta. Mafi yawan mazaunan Togoland na Burtaniya sun zabi amincewa da haɗin kai da maƙwabtansu na yamma, kuma yankin ya shiga cikin Kogin Zinariya. Duk da haka, akwai adawa mai ƙarfi ga haɗawar daga wasu daga cikin Ewe a kudancin Burtaniya Togoland.

'Yancin kai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A ranar 6 ga Maris 1957, Mulkin mallaka na Kogin Zinariya ya sami 'yanci a matsayin ƙasar Ghana.

Nassoshi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 McLaughlin & Owusu-Ansah (1994), Britain and the Gold Coast: the Early Years
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 McLaughlin & Owusu-Ansah (1994), "The Colonial Era: British Rule of the Gold Coast".
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 McLaughlin & Owusu-Ansah (1994), "Colonial Administration".