Lemun tsami

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Lemun tsami, Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck, wani nau'i ne na kananan bishiyun bishiyu a cikin dangin furenni, Rutaceae, asalinsu daga Kudancin Asiya, a Arewacin gabashin India . 'Ya'yan itãcensa, zagaye suke kamar kwallo.

Ana amfani da 'ya'yan itacen dake da launin rawaya ellipsoidal don abubuwan da ba don dafuwa ba a duk faɗin duniya, da farko don ruwan' ya'yan itacen, wanda ke da amfani iri biyu don sha da wanke abu. Ana kuma amfani da daskararren itace da fata a dafa abinci da yin burodi. Ruwan lemun tsami kusan 5% zuwa 6% citric acid ne, tare da pH na kusan 2.2, suna ba shi dandano mai tsami. Ya banbanta da ɗanɗano ruwan lemun tsami ya sa ya zama babban abin amfani a cikin abubuwan sha da abinci irin su lemonade da lemon meringue kek .

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Lemun tsami na waje da giciye

Ba a san asalin lemun tsami ba, kodayake ana tunanin lemons ya fara girma a Assam (yanki a arewa maso gabashin Indiya ), arewacin Burma ko China . Binciken kwayoyin halittar lemun tsami ya nuna itace hade tsakanin lemu mai zaki (lemon zaki ) da citron . [1]

Lemons entered Europe near southern Italy no later than the second century AD, during the time of Ancient Rome. However, they were not widely cultivated. They were later introduced to Persia and then to Iraq and Egypt around 700 AD. The lemon was first recorded in literature in a 10th-century Arabic treatise on farming, and was also used as an ornamental plant in early Islamic gardens. It was distributed widely throughout the Arab world and the Mediterranean region between 1000 and 1150.

Babban aikin namo lemons a Turai ya fara ne a cikin Genoa a tsakiyar karni na 15. Daga baya aka gabatar da lemun tsami a cikin Amurka a cikin 1493 lokacin da Christopher Columbus ya kawo tsaba a garin Hispaniola a cikin balaguronsa. Kasancewar Spanish a cikin Sabuwar Duniya ya taimaka yada tsaba lemon. Anyi amfani dashi dashi azaman tsire-tsire na ornamental da magani. A ƙarni na 19, an ƙara dasa lemons a Florida da California .

A cikin 1747, gwajin James Lind game da mahaukaciyar teku da ke fama da rashin lafiya ta ƙunshi ƙara ruwan lemun tsami a cikin abincinsu, kodayake ba a san Vitamin C a matsayin muhimmin kayan abinci ba.

Asalin kalmar lemon yana iya zama Gabas ta Tsakiya. Maganar fa, tã daga Tsohon Faransa Limon, sa'an nan Italian limone, daga Larabci laymūn ko līmūn, kuma daga Persian līmūn, a Generic lokaci domin Citrus 'ya'yan itace, wanda yake shi ne cognate na Sanskrit (nimbū, " lemun tsami ").

Iri daban-daban[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Cikakken bayanin hoto na Franz Eugen Köhler .

'Bonnie Brae' yana da kyau, mai santsi, mai kauri-mara fata da kuma marasa iri. Waɗannan waɗannan galibi ana yin girma a cikin San Diego County, Amurka.

'Eureka' yana haɓaka shekara-shekara kuma yalwace. Wannan shi ne ruwan lemo na kankara na yau da kullun, wanda kuma aka sani da '' Shekaru Hudu '( Quater Saisons ) saboda iyawarsa na samar da' ya'yan itace da furanni tare duk shekara. Hakanan ana samun wannan nau'in a matsayin shuka ga abokan cinikin gida. Akwai kuma wani m-fleshed Eureka lemun tsami, tare da kore da kuma rawaya da bambance-bambance fata na waje. [2]

'Femminello St. Teresa', ko 'Sorrento' asalinsu ne ga Italiya. Wannan zakin na 'ya'yan itace yana da yawa a cikin lemun tsami. Wannan shine nau'in girke-girke na al'ada da aka yi amfani da ita wajen yin limoncello .

'Yen Ben' ɗan asalin Australiya ne. Template:Nutritional value

Abinci mai gina jiki da kuma phytochemicals[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Lemun tsami tushe ne mai mahimmanci na bitamin C, yana samar da 64% na Darajar yau da kullun a cikin adadin adadin 100 g (tebur). Sauran abubuwan abinci masu mahimmanci suna da ƙima cikin abun ciki.

Lemun tsami suna da phytochemicals da yawa, gami da polyphenols, terpenes, da tannins . Ruwan lemun tsami ya ƙunshi ɗan citric acid kadan fiye da ruwan lemun tsami (kimanin 47   g / l), kusan sau biyu na citric acid na ruwan 'ya'yan itacen innabi, kuma kusan sau biyar adadin citric acid ɗin da aka samo a cikin ruwan ' ya'yan lemo .

Amfani cikin kayan abinci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ana amfani da ruwan lemun tsami da fata, da kwasfa a cikin abinci da abubuwan sha da yawa. Ana amfani da lemun tsami gaba ɗaya don yin marmalade, lemun tsami curd da Giyan lemun tsami . Ana amfani da yanka lemun tsami da ruwan lemo azaman ado don abinci da abin sha. Lemon zest, grated m fata na 'ya'yan itace, da ake amfani da su kara dandano zuwa gasa kaya, puddings, shinkafa, da kuma sauran jita-jita.

Jus[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ana amfani da ruwan lemun tsami don yin lemonade, abubuwan sha, da kuma hadaddiyar giyar . Ana amfani da marinades ga kifi, inda ta acid kau amines a kifi da mayar da su cikin nonvolatile ammonium salts. A cikin nama, acid din a cikin ruwa yana sanya ruwa mai karfi mai narkewa, yana jan naman, amma low pH ya musanta sunadaran, yana haifar dasu bushewa lokacin dafa shi.   A cikin United Kingdom, ana ƙara ƙara ruwan lemun tsami a cikin pancakes, musamman ranar Talata .

Lemon ruwan 'ya'yan itace aka kuma yi amfani a matsayin gajere hana aifuwa na maza a wasu abinci da ayan oxidize kuma ka kau da launin ruwan kasa, bayan da aka sliced ( enzymatic browning ), kamar apples, ayaba, kuma avocados, inda ta acid denatures da enzymes.

Bawo[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A Marokko, ana adana lemun tsami a cikin kwalba ko ganga na gishiri. Gishirin yana shiga cikin bawon ya yi huɗa, ya yi taushi, yana sasu har su daɗe har abada. Ana amfani da lemun tsami a cikin ire-iren abinci da yawa. Hakanan za'a iya samun lemons da za'a iya samowa a cikin abincin yan' Sicilian, Italiyanci, Girkanci, da Faransanci.

Babban amfani da masana'antu na bawon shine masana'antar pectin - polysaccharide wanda aka yi amfani dashi azaman wakili mai hade, daskararren da sanya abinci ƙarfi da sauran kayayyaki.

Mai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ana samo man lemun tsami daga sel mai dauke da mai a cikin fatar. Na’ura tana fasa sel din, kuma tana amfani da wani ruwa mai narkewa dan fidda mai. Ruwan mai / ruwa sai a tace sannan a raba shi da centrifugation .   [ <span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (November 2019)">Lissafi da ake bukata</span> ]

Ganye[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ana amfani da ganyen bishiyar lemun tsami don yin shayi da kuma shirya dafaffun nama da abincin abincin teku.

Sauran amfani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Masana'anta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Lemun tsami sune tushen kasuwanci na citric acid kafin haɓakar haɓaka aiki-da ƙoshin lafiya .

A matsayin abun tsaftacewa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Za'a iya amfani da ruwan 'ya'yan lemun tsami don tsabta. Ana amfani da lemun tsami a cikin gishiri ko kuma yin garin baking mai ɗan yumbu don gogewa da sanya jan ƙarfe haske. Acid yana narke tarnish, kuma abrasives sun taimaka tsaftacewa. A matsayinka na wakilin tsabtace abinci na cikin gida ruwan 'ya'yan itace na iya deodorize, cire man shafawa, staach stains, da kuma disinfect. Man na lemun tsami kwasfa shima yana da amfani daban-daban. Ana amfani dashi azaman mai tsabtace itace da goge goge, inda ake amfani da kayan da ke da ƙarfi don narke tsohuwar daɓar yatsu, yatsan yatsa, da ƙazanta. Ana kuma amfani da man lemun tsami da man zaitun azaman maganin kashe kwari .

Kamshi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ana iya amfani da man lemun tsami a cikin maganin shafawa . Sanadarin lemun tsami ba shi da tasiri ga tsarin garkuwar jikin dan Adam, amma yana iya ba da gudummawa ga shakatawa.

Sauran[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wani daga cikin gwajin ilimin kimiyya ya ƙunshi haɗawa da wayoyi zuwa lemo da amfani da shi azaman batiri don samar da wutar lantarki. Kodayake ƙananan iko, batirin lemo da yawa na iya ba da ƙaramin agogon dijital. Waɗannan gwaje-gwajen kuma suna aiki tare da wasu 'ya'yan itatuwa da kayan marmari.

Za'a iya amfani da ruwan lemun tsami azaman tawada mai sauƙin gani, daga zafin rana.

Horticulture[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Lemun tsami suna buƙatar ƙaramin yanayi na kusan 7 °C (45 °F) , saboda haka ba su da wuya shekara-shekara a cikin yanayin canjin yanayin zafi, amma sai ku zamo masu wahala yayin da suka manyanta. Citrus yana buƙatar ɗan ƙaramin kwalliya ta hanyar yanke rassan da suka cika, tare da mafi girma reshe da aka yanke baya don ƙarfafa haɓaka. A duk tsawon lokacin bazara, nunannun dabaru na ci gaba mai ƙarfi yana tabbatar da ci gaba da alfarwa. Kamar yadda tsire-tsire masu balaga na iya haifar da tsire-tsire waɗanda ba sa so, masu saurin girma da ake kira 'harbe harbe,' ana cire waɗannan daga manyan rassa a ƙasan ko tsakiyar shuka.

A cikin namo a Burtaniya, kayan aikin 'Meyer' da 'Variegata' sun sami lambar yabo ta Royal Horticultural Society 's kyaututtukan gidan gonar Merit (an tabbatar da 2017).

Samarwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Lemo (da lemun tsami) samarwa, 2018

(cikin miliyoyin ton)

Kasar
2018
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3.1
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2.5
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2.5
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2.0
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1.5
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1.1
Duniya
19.4

A cikin 2018, samar da lemun tsami na duniya (hade da limes don bayar da rahoto) shine tan miliyan 19.4. Manyan masana'antun – India, Mexico, China, Argentina, Brazil, da Turkey – sun kasance kashi 65% na abubuwan da aka samar a duniya (tebur).

Madadin lemun tsami[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yawancin tsire-tsire suna da dandano ko ƙanshi mai kama da lemun tsami.

  • Limes, wani 'ya'yan itace mai tsami iri ɗaya ne da aka yi amfani da shi, wanda aka yi kama da lemons
    • Ganyen Kaffir ganye: gama gari ne a yankin gabashin Asiya
  • Wasu tsirarwar tsiran Basil
  • 'Ya'yan itacen Sumac, an yi amfani da su tun kafin lemons inda aka san Turawa
  • Cymbopogon (lemongrass)
  • Lemon balm, mai mint-kamar herbaceous perennial a cikin iyali Lamiaceae
  • Geranium iri biyu masu launi : Pelargonium crispum (lemon geranium) da Pelargonium x melissinum (lemun tsami lemon)
  • Lemon tsami
  • Lemon tsami
  • Wasu cultivars na Mint
  • Magnolia grandiflora furanni itace

Sauran citrus din da ake kira 'lemun tsami'[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Flat lemun tsami, wani hadarin mandarin
  • Meyer lemun tsami, giciye ne tsakanin tsararren cinema da mangwaro / pomelo da aka bambanta da ruwan lemo mai zaki ko mai zaki, mai suna bayan Frank N. Meyer, wanda ya fara gabatar da ita ga Amurka a cikin 1908. Fata mai kauri-fata da kadan kadan mai lemo fiye da lemun Lisbon da Eureka, Meyer lemons na bukatar karin kulawa lokacin jigilar kaya kuma ba a yadu da shi ta kasuwanci. Meyer lemun tsami sau da yawa girma zuwa launin rawaya-orange. Su ne dan kadan more sanyi-jure.
  • Lemun tsami na Ponderosa, mai sanyi-sanyi fiye da lemons na gaske, 'ya'yan itacen suna da kauri da manyan-manya. Binciken kwayoyin halitta ya nuna shi hadadden tsari na citron da pomelo.
  • Ruwan lemo, giciye-mandarin giciye, mai sanyi-sau da yawa ana amfani dashi azaman tushen lemun tsami
  • Lemun tsami mai zaki ko limes mai zaki, gungun mutane hade da lumia (lemun tsami), limetta, da lemun tsami na Palestine . Daga cikinsu akwai lemon tsami (Jaffa), mai kayan pomelo-citron.
  • Lemun tsami, kamar na lemon tsami, kamar citron-mandarin cross

Hoto[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Genetic origin of cultivated citrus determined: Researchers find evidence of origins of orange, lime, lemon, grapefruit, other citrus species", Science Daily, January 26, 2011 (Retrieved February 10, 2017).
  2. Vaiegated pink at the Citrus Variety Collection.