Mama Teresa

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Mama Teresa
MotherTeresa 090.jpg
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Skopje, ga Augusta, 26, 1910
ƙasa Albaniya
Indiya
Daular Usmaniyya
Dominion of India (en) Fassara
Mazaunin Skopje
Rathfarnham (en) Fassara
Kolkata
ƙungiyar ƙabila Albanians (en) Fassara
Harshen uwa Albanian (en) Fassara
Mutuwa Kolkata, Satumba 5, 1997
Makwanci Kolkata
Yanayin mutuwa  (heart failure (en) Fassara)
Yan'uwa
Mahaifi Nikollë Bojaxhiu
Karatu
Harsuna Albanian (en) Fassara
Bengali (en) Fassara
Turanci
Harshen Hindu
Serbian (en) Fassara
Sana'a
Sana'a religious sister (en) Fassara
Feast
September 5 (en) Fassara
Imani
Addini Kiristanci
IMDb nm0609336
www.motherteresa.org/
Mother Teresa, signature.svg

Mary Teresa Bojaxhiu (an haifi Anjezë Gonxhe Bojaxhiu, [1][2] Albanian:  ; 26 Agusta 1910   - 5 Satumba 1997), wacce akafi sani a matsayin Mother Teresa da kuma girmama a cikin cocin Katolika a matsayin Saint Teresa na Calcutta,[3] an Albanian[4] - Indian Roman Katolika Nun, da mishan . An haife ta ne a Skopje (yanzu itace babban birnin Arewacin Makedonia ), sannan wani ɓangare na Kosovo Vilayet na Daular Ottoman. Bayan ta zauna a Skopje shekaru goma sha takwas, sai ta ƙaura zuwa Ireland sannan kuma ta tafi Indiya, inda ta zauna mafi yawan rayuwarta.

A 1950, Teresa ta kafa Mishanarai na Tallafawa, a wani taron addini na Roman Katolika wanda ya kai 4,500 na nuns kuma yana aukuwa a kasashe 133 a shekarar 2012. Ikilisiya tana kula da gidaje don mutanen da ke mutuwa ta HIV / AIDS, kuturta da tarin fuka . Hakanan yana gudanar da dafa abinci na dafa abinci, kayan dafa abinci, asibitocin tafi-da-gidanka, shirye-shiryen ba da shawara ga yara da na iyali, harma da marayu da makarantu. Wakilai suna yin alwashi na tsabta, talauci, da biyayya, sannan kuma suna yin alƙawarin hudun - don ba da "yardar rai kyauta ga matalautan matalauta." [5]

Teresa ta samu karramawa da dama, ciki har da 1962 Ramon Magsaysay Peace Prize da kuma 1979 Nobel Peace Prize . Ta kasance sananne a ranar 4 ga Satumbar 2016, kuma ranar tunawa da mutuwarta (5 Satumba) ita ce ranar bikinta .

Wani mutum mai rikitarwa a rayuwarsa da kuma bayan mutuwarta, mutane da yawa suna alfahari da Teresa saboda aikinta na kyautatawa. An yaba mata da yin Allah wadai kan lamurra daban-daban, irin su ra'ayoyinta game da zubar da ciki da hana haihuwa, kuma ana sukar ta da mummunan yanayi a cikin gidajen ta na masu mutuwa. Navin Chawla ne ya rubuta tarihinta wanda aka ba da izini kuma aka buga shi a 1992, kuma ta kasance 'yan fim da sauran littattafai . A 6 Satumba 2017, Teresa da St. Francis Xavier an ba su sunayen abokan tarayya na Archdiocese na Roman Katolika na Calcutta.

Tarihin Rayuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Farkon rayuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Urban stone-and-glass building
Bikin tunawa da mahaifiyar Iyaye Teresa a garin haihuwarta Skopje

An haifi Teresa Anjezë Gonxhe (ko Gonxha) [6] Bojaxhiu ( Albanian:  ; Anjezë ne cognate na "Agnes". Gonxhe yana nufin "furebud" ko "karamar fure" a cikin Albanian ) a ranar 26 Agusta 1910 a cikin dangin Kosovar Albanian a Skopje (yanzu babban birnin Arewacin Makedoniya ), Daular Ottoman . An yi mata baftisma a Skopje, kwana bayan haifuwarta. Daga baya ta yi la’akari da 27 ga Agusta, ranar da aka yi mata baftisma, ‘bikinta na gaskiya’. [7]

Ta kasance ƙaramar yarinyar Nikollë da Dranafile Bojaxhiu (Bernai). Mahaifinta, wanda ke da hannu a cikin siyasar Albaniya a cikin Ottoman Macedonia, ya mutu a shekara ta 1919 lokacin yana dan shekara takwas. [7] [8] Wataƙila ya fito ne daga Prizren, Kosovo, kuma wataƙila mahaifiyarta ta fito ne daga ƙauyen kusa da Gjakova .

Dangane da tarihin daga Joan Graff Clucas, Teresa ta kasance a cikin shekarunta lokacin da labaru game da rayuwar mishaneri da hidimarsu a Bengal ya burge ta ; har ta kai shekara 12, ta hakikance cewa yakamata ta sadaukar da rayuwarta ga addini. Shirin ta ya ƙarfafa a ranar 15 ga Agusta 1928 yayin da tayi addu'a a farfajiyar Madonna na Madina na Vitina-Letnice, inda ta saba yin aikin haji . [9]

Teresa ta bar gida a 1928 yayin da take 18 don shiga Sisters of Loreto a Loreto Abbey a Rathfarnham, Ireland, don koyan Turanci tare da ra'ayin zama mishan; Ingilishi shine harshen koyar da Yan'uwa mata na Loreto a Indiya. Ba ta taɓa ganin mahaifiyarta ko ƙanwarta ba. [10] Iyalinta sun zauna a Skopje har zuwa 1934, lokacin da suka ƙaura zuwa Tirana .

Ta isa Indiya a 1929 , kuma ta fara ta novitiate a Darjeeling, a cikin ƙananan Himalayas, [11] inda ta koya Bengali da kuma koyarwa a St. Teresa ta School dake kusa da Conven dinta. [12] Teresa ta dauki alwashin farko na addini a ranar 24 ga Mayu 1931. Ta zaɓi zama mai suna bayan Thérèse de Lisieux, mai tsaro na mishan na mishan; saboda wata macen zawara a cikin gidan masarautar ta riga ta za i wannan suna, Agnes ya zaɓi yaren rubutun Mutanen Espanya (Teresa). [13]

Teresa ta yi alƙawura a ranar 14 ga Mayu 1937, yayin da take malama a makarantar koyar da adami ta Loreto a , gabashin Calcutta. [7] Ta yi aiki a wurin kusan kusan shekaru ashirin kuma an nada ta a matsayin shugabar mata a shekarar 1944. [14] Duk da cewa Teresa ta ji daɗin koyarwa a makarantar, amma ta damu sosai da talaucin da ke kewaye da ita a Calcutta . Yunwar Bengal na 1943 ya kawo tashin hankali da mutuwa a cikin birni, kuma Ranar Yakin 1946 Kai Tsaye kai tsaye ya fara lokacin tashin hankalin Musulmi da Hindu.

Mishan cikin Sadaka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Three-story building with a sign and a statue
Mishanarai na Charity motherhouse a Kolkata

A ranar 10 ga Satumba 1946, Teresa ta sami abin da ta bayyana daga baya a matsayin "kira a cikin kira" lokacin da ta yi tafiya ta jirgin ƙasa zuwa wurin ajiyar kayayyaki na Loreto a Darjeeling daga Calcutta don komawar ta shekara-shekara. "Ya kamata in fita daga cikin tashoshin don taimakon talakawa yayin da nake zaune a cikinsu. Umarni ne. Rashin faɗuwa dã ya kasance yana rushe imani. " Daga baya Joseph Langford ya rubuta, "Ko da yake ba wanda ya san shi a lokacin, 'yar'uwar Teresa ta zama Uwar Teresa".

Ta fara aikin mishan tare da matalauta a cikin 1948, sauya al'ada ta Loreto ta al'ada tare da sari, farin auduga sari tare da shudin iyaka. Teresa ta amince da zama ɗan baƙon Indiya, ta yi watanni da yawa a Patna don karɓar horo na asali a Asibitin Holy Family kuma ta shiga cikin tutocin. Ta kafa makaranta a Motijhil, Kolkata, kafin ta fara kula da matalauta da masu fama da yunwa. A farkon shekarar 1949 wasu gungun matasa mata sun hadar da Teresa a cikin kokarin ta, sannan ta aza harsashin kafa sabuwar kungiyar addini da ke taimaka wa "mafi talauci a cikin matalauta".

Kokarin ta ya ja hankalin jami’an Indiya cikin hanzari, gami da Firayim Minista. Teresa ta rubuta a cikin rubutunta cewa shekarar ta farko tana fama da wahala. Ba tare da samun kuɗin shiga ba, ta roƙi abinci da kayan abinci da ƙwarewar shakku, kadaici da jaraba don dawowa cikin ta'aziyyar rayuwar duniya yayin waɗannan farkon watanni:

Ubangijinmu nason in zama yantattar mai bauta wacce aka lullube cikin talaucin yesu, A yau, na ilimantu da darussa masu kyau. Talaucin talaka dole yayi masu tsanani, sanda nake neman gida nayi tafiya har saida kafafuna sukayi ciwo, nayi tunanin cewa tyaushe ne zasu bar wannan ciwo ga rayuwata, ina neman gida, abinci da lafiya. Sai jindadin loreto yashafe ni, yace kawai ki fadi Kalmar duk wani abu zai zama naki, haka dai mai shafar yacigaba da cewa..., cikin budaddiyar zabi, Dan Allah na kuma dan sona agare ki, na zba inyi komi danke bazan bar wani hawaye ya sauka daga ida nunki ba.

Four nuns in sandals and white-and-blue saris
Mishan Sadaka a saris na gargajiya

A ranar 7 ga Oktoba 1950, Teresa ta sami izini daga Vatican don ikilisiyar diocesan, wanda zai zama mishaneri na Sadaka. A cikin maganganun ta, zai kula da "masu fama da yunwa, tsirara, marasa gida, guragu, makafi, kutare, duk waɗannan mutanen da suke jin ƙin sonsu, marasa ƙauna, waɗanda ba su kula da su ba a duk faɗin jama'a, mutanen da suka zama nauyi ga jama'a kuma kowa ya nisanta dashi ”.

A shekarar 1952, Teresa ta buɗe hospice dinta na farko da taimako jami'ai daga Calcutta. Ta sauya haikalin Hindu da aka yi watsi da ita zuwa Gidan Kalighat na Mutuwa, kyauta ne ga matalauta, ta kuma sanya mata suna Kalighat, Gidan Zuciyar Mai Tsabta (Nirmal Hriday). Wadanda kawo wa gida samu likita da hankali da kuma damar da za su mutu tare da mutunci a cikin daidai da ban-gaskiyarsu: Musulmi suna karanta Kur'ani, 'yan Hindu samu ruwa daga ganges, kuma Katolika samu matsananci unction . "Kyakkyawan mutuwa", in ji Teresa, "don mutane waɗanda suka rayu kamar dabbobi su mutu kamar mala'iku - suna ƙauna da so."

White, older building
Nirmal Hriday, Uwargida na Calcutta na Mama Teresa, a cikin 2007

Ta buɗe ofishi ga waɗanda ke da kuturta, suna kiranta Shanti Nagar (Birnin Zaman Lafiya). Kungiyoyin mishan na Agaji sun kafa cibiyoyin cutar kuturta, a ko'ina cikin Calcutta, suna ba da magunguna, riguna da abinci. Mishan din na Agaji sun karu da yawaitar yara marasa gida; a shekarar 1955 Teresa ta bude Nirmala Shishu Bhavan, Gidan Yaran Yara na Zuciya, a zaman mafaka ga marayu da matasa marasa gida.

Ikilisiyar ta yafara jawo hankalin ma'aikata da gudummawowi, kuma har ya zuwa 1960, sun bude ofisoshin marayu, gidajen marayu da gidajen kuturu a cikin koina na kasar Indiya. Daga nan Teresa ta faɗaɗa ikilisiya a ƙasar waje, ta buɗe gida a Venezuela a shekara ta 1965 tare da ’yan’uwa mata biyar. An bi gidaje a Italiya (Rome), Tanzania da Austria a cikin 1968, kuma a cikin shekarun 1970 ikilisiya ta buɗe gidaje da tushe a Amurka da dama ƙasashe a Asiya, Afirka da Turai.

An kafa mishan na Missionaries of Charity Brothers a shekarar 1963, kuma reshe ne mai dauke da tunani na San’uwa ya biyo baya a shekarar 1976. Lay Katolika da waɗanda ba Katolika ba sun sami rajista a cikin -ungiyar Ma'aikata na Uwar Teresa, Masu aikin Marasa lafiya da wahala, da kuma mishan na Ma'aikatan Sadaka. Da yake amsa buƙatu daga firistoci da yawa, a cikin 1981 Mama Teresa ta kafa kungiyar Corpus Christi Movement na Firistoci tare da Joseph Langford mishaneri na Ubanni a cikin 1984, don haɗu da manufofin sana'a na mishan na ba da agaji tare da kayan aikin rayuwar firistoci. [15]

Ya zuwa 1997, majami'ar Calcutta mai mambobi 13 sun girma zuwa fiye da 'yan'uwa mata 4,000 waɗanda ke kula da marayu, gidajen kula da cutar kanjamau da cibiyoyin bayar da agaji a duk duniya, suna kula da' yan gudun hijirar, makafi, nakasassu, tsofaffi, mashaya giya, gajiyayyu da marasa gida da waɗanda ambaliyar ta shafa, annoba da kuma yunwa. A shekara ta 2007, mishan mishan na Charity ya ƙididdige kimanin 'yan’uwa 450 da ’yan’uwa mata 5,000 a duk duniya, waɗanda ke aiki mishan 600, makarantu da mafaka a cikin ƙasashe 120.

Sadaka ta kasa da kasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Teresa ta ce, "Da jini, Ni dan Albaniya ne. Ta zama ɗan ƙasa, Ba'indiye ne. Ta wurin bangaskiya, ni wata mazhabar Katolika ce. Game da kirana, ni na duniya ce. "Game da zuciyata, gaba daya na daga cikin zuciyar Yesu ne." Luwararru cikin harsuna biyar - Bengali, Albanian, Serbian, Turanci da Hindi - ta yi tafiye-tafiye na lokaci-lokaci a wajen India saboda dalilai na bil adama.

A tsaunin Siege na Beirut a shekarar 1982, Teresa ta ceci yara 37 da aka makale a wani asibiti kafin ta hanyar tsagaita wuta na wucin gadi tsakanin sojojin Isra’ila da masu gwagwarmayar Falasdinawa. Tare da ma'aikatan kungiyar agaji ta Red Cross, ta bi ta yankin yaki zuwa asibiti don kwashe matasa marasa lafiya.

Lokacin da gabashin Turai ta sami karuwa a ƙarshen 1980s, Teresa ta faɗaɗa ƙoƙarinta ga ƙasashen Kwaminisanci waɗanda suka ƙi Mishan Mishan na Sadaka. Ta fara shirye-shirye da dama, ba tare da wata damuwa ba game da matsayinta na hana zubar da ciki da kisan aure: "Babu wanda ya ce menene, ya kamata ka karba shi da murmushi ka yi aikinka." Ta ziyarci Armenia bayan girgizar kasa na 1988 kuma ta sadu da Nikolai Ryzhkov, Shugaban Majalisar Ministocin .

Teresa ta yi tafiya don taimakawa masu fama da yunwa a Habasha, wadanda suka kamu da radadin cutar a Chernobyl da kuma wadanda girgizar ta shafa a Armenia. [16] A 1991, ta koma Albania a karon farko, inda ta buɗe Ofishin mishan na Charity Brothers gida a Tirana .

A shekarar 1996, Teresa ta fara aiki da misalai 517 a cikin kasashe sama da 100. Mishanninta na Rahamar sun karu daga goma sha biyu zuwa dubbai, suna masu hidimar "matalautan matalauta" a cibiyoyi 450 na duniya. An kafa Ofishin mishan na farko na Charity a cikin Amurka a yankin South Bronx na New York City, kuma har ya zuwa shekarar 1984 ikilisiya tana gudanar da rukunoni 19 a cikin ƙasar.

Karayar lafiya da mutuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Teresa ta sami bugun zuciya a Rome a 1983 yayin da ta ke ziyartar Paparoma John Paul II . Bayan harin na biyu a 1989, ta sami na'urar bugun zuciya . A 1991, bayan cutar huhu a Mexico, tana da ƙarin matsalolin zuciya. Kodayake Teresa ta ba da shawarar yin murabus a matsayin shugabar mishan na Sadaka, a cikin wata takaddar sirri da 'yar'uwar ikilisiyar suka zabe ta ta ci gaba kuma ta yarda ta ci gaba.

A watan Afrilun 1996, ta fadi, ta karya kashinta na wuya, kuma bayan wata hudu ta kamu da zazzabin cizon sauro da ciwon zuciya . Kodayake Teresa ta yi aikin tiyata, amma lafiyar ta tana raguwa. A cewar Akbishop na Calcutta Henry Sebastian D’Souza, ya umarci wani firist da ya yi aikin fitarwa (tare da izininsa) lokacin da aka garzaya da ita asibiti da matsalolin bugun zuciya saboda yana tunanin watakila shaidan ne ya same shi. [17]

A ranar 13 Maris 1997 Teresa ta yi murabus a matsayin shugabar Mishan of Charity, kuma ta mutu ne a ranar 5 ga Satumba. Lokacin da ta mutu, mishaneri na Sadaka yana da 'yan'uwa mata sama da 4,000 da kuma ɗan uwan mambobi 300 waɗanda ke aiki a ofisoshi 610 a cikin ƙasashe 123. Waɗannan sun haɗa da baƙi da gidaje ga mutanen da ke ɗauke da kwayar cutar HIV, AIDS, kuturta da tarin fuka, dafaffen dafa abinci, shirye-shiryen kula da yara da na yara, marayu da makarantu. Missionungiyar mishan ta Charan agaji ta taimaka da abokan aikinta waɗanda suka ƙidaya sama da miliyan ɗaya a shekarun 1990.

Teresa ta ajiye a cikin wani akwati da aka bude a St Thomas, Calcutta, tsawon mako guda kafin jana'izarta. Ta samu jana'izar hukuma daga gwamnatin Indiya bisa godiya saboda hidimta wa talakawan dukkan addinai a kasar. Taimakawa ta hanyar firistoci guda biyar, Sakatariyar Kudi ta Kasa Angelo Sodano, wakilin Paparoma, ya yi bikin ƙarshe. Mutuwar Teresa ta kasance makoki a cikin mutane da kuma al'ummomin addini. Firayim Minista na Pakistan Nawaz Sharif ya kira ta "mutum ne da baƙonsa ba kuma wanda ya daɗe yana da babban buri. Tsawon rayuwarta tsawon rai ga kulawa da talakawa, marassa lafiya, da nakasassu na daga cikin mafi girman misalai na bautarmu ga bil'adama. " A cewar tsohon Sakatare Janar na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya Javier Pérez de Cuéllar, "Ita ce Majalisar Dinkin Duniya. Tana da zaman lafiya a duniya. "

Martabawa da karɓuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Indiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gwamnatin Indiya ta fara amincewa da Teresa da farko ne a fiye da kashi ɗaya bisa uku na farkon ƙarni, ta karɓi Padma Shri a 1962 da lambar yabo ta Jawaharlal Nehru don Fahimtar ƙasa da ƙasa a 1969. Daga baya ta sami wasu lambobin yabo na Indiya, wadanda suka hada da Bharat Ratna (lambar yabo mafi girma a Indiya) a 1980. Littafin tarihin Teresa wanda Navin Chawla ya wallafa, a cikin 1992. A cikin Kolkata, wasu 'Hindu bauta mata a matsayin abin bauta.

Don tunawa da bikin cikarta shekara 100 da haihuwar ta, gwamnatin Indiya ta bayar da tsabar kudi ₹ 5 na musamman (yawan kudin da Teresa ta samu lokacin da ta je Indiya) a ranar 28 ga Agusta 2010. Shugaba Pratibha Patil ta ce, "Clad cikin fararen sari mai launin shudi, ita da 'yan uwan Mishan na Charity sun zama alamar ta bege ga mutane da yawa - tsofaffi, gajiyayyu, marasa aikin yi, marasa lafiya, marasa lafiya, marasa lafiya. da akayi watsi dau daga iyalansu. "

Ra'ayoyin Indiya akan Teresa ba masu dacewa ba kamar yadda kowane dan kasan ke ganinta. Aroup Chatterjee, likita ne da aka haife shi a Calcutta wanda ya kasance mai fafutuka a cikin tatsuniyar biranen shekaru kusan 1980 kafin ya koma Burtaniya, ya ce "bai ma taɓa ganin wata tsawa ba a cikin waɗannan rukunin gidajen". Binciken nasa, wanda ya hada da tambayoyi sama da 100 tare da masu sa kai, da sanatoci da kuma wasu da suka saba da mishan Mishanai, an bayyana su a cikin littafin 2003 da ke da masaniyar Teresa. Chatterjee ta soki ta game da gabatar da "al'adar wahala" da mummunan gurbata ta Calcutta, yin karin gishiri game da aikin da aka yi mata ta hanyar amfani da kudi da kuma gata a wajen ta. [18] A cewarsa, wasu matsalolin tsabtace tsabta da ya soki (na sake amfani da allura, alal misali) bayan mutuwar Teresa a 1997.

Bikash Ranjan Bhattacharya, mayor na Kolkata daga 2005 zuwa 2010, ya ce "ba ta da wani tasiri a kan talakawa na wannan birni", ta sami lafiya a maimakon ta yi maganin ta kuma ta ba da labarin gari: "Babu shakka akwai talauci a Calcutta, amma ba ta taɓa kasance wani gari na kutare da masu bara ba, kamar yadda UwaTeresa ta gabatar da shi. " A gefen Hindu, Jam'iyyar Bharatiya Janata ta yi karo da Teresa a kan Christian Dalits amma ta yaba mata a cikin mutuwa kuma ta aiko da wakili don yi mata jana'izarta. Ita dai Vishwa Hindu Parishad, ta yi adawa da matakin da gwamnati ta dauka na yi mata jana’iza. Sakatare Giriraj Kishore ta ce "aikinta na farko shine Cocin da hidimar zamantakewa ba ta faru ba", inda ta zarge ta da fifita Kiristoci da kuma yin “baftisma a ɓoye” na masu mutuwa. [19] A wani gaban-shafin, fortnightly frontline ta sallami zargin a matsayin "patently na ƙarya" kuma ya bayyana cewa suna da "yi wani tasiri a kan jama'a ji na ta aikin, musamman a Calcutta". Wanda ya yaba da "kulawa ta rashin son kai", karfin jiki da jaru ntaka, marubucin lambar yabo ya soki kamfen din da Teresa takeyi inkari game da zubar da ciki da kuma ikirarin ta na siyasa. [20]

A watan Fabrairu na shekarar 2015, Mohan Bhagwat, shugaban kungiyar kare hakkin reshen Hindu, Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, ya ce manufar Teresa ita ce "maida mutumin, wanda ake yi masa hidima, ya zama Kirista". Tsohon kakakin kungiyar ta RSS MG Vaidhya ya goyi bayan kimantawar Bhagwat, kuma kungiyar ta zargi kafofin watsa labarai da "gurbata gaskiya game da kalaman Bhagwat". Dan majalisar wakilai na Trinamool Derek O'Brien, shugaban CPI Atul Anjan da kuma babban ministan Delhi Arvind Kejriwal sun nuna rashin amincewarsu da zancen da Bhagwat yayi.

Wani wurin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

President and Mrs. Ronald Reagan with Mother Teresa, standing at a microphone
Shugaba Ronald Reagan ya ba mahaifiyar Teresa kyautar Shugaban Kasa na 'Yanci a yayin bikin Fadar White House kamar yadda Uwargidan Nan Nancy Reagan ke kallo, 20 ga Yuni 1985.

Teresa ta karbi kyautar Ramon Magsaysay Award dan zaman lafiya da fahimtar duniya, an bata ne dan aikinta a South or East Asia, in 1962. Acewar wallafin, "Kungiyar amintattu sun martaba ta dan tausayawan ta akan talaucin wasu kasashe, wnda akan wannan aikin ne ta fara sabon taron addini". A farkon 1970s, ta zama wata gwarzuwa a duniya. shaharar za'a iya dangana shi da Malcolm Muggeridge's 1969 documentary, Something Beautiful for God, da Kuma littafinsa na 1971 mai wannan sunan. Wanda Muggeridge ke kokarin tafiyarr da rayuwarsa tsaftatacciya. Lokacin daukar fim, wani dauka da akayi a yanayin haske mara tasiri. anyi tunanin zai zama anfani ne ga masu aikin.

A kusan wannan lokacin, duniyar Katolika ta fara girmama Teresa a bainar jama'a. Fafaroma Paul VI ya ba ta lambar yabo ta Paparoma John XXIII Pkyautar zaman lafiya a shekara ta 1971, inda ta yaba da aikinta tare da talakawa, nuna irin gudummawar kirista da kokarin tabbatar da zaman lafiya, kuma ta sami kyautar ta Pacem a Terris Award a 1976. [21] Bayan mutuwarta, Teresa ta sami ci gaba cikin sauri a kan hanyar zuwa saint .

Gwamnatoci da kungiyoyin farar hula sun karrama ta, sannan ta nada wani wakilin girmamawa na Umarni na Australiya a 1982 "don hidimtawa al'ummar Australiya da dan adam baki daya". Kasar Burtaniya da Amurka sun ba wasu lambobin yabo masu yawa, wadanda suka kammala a cikin Lamarin Ingantawa a 1983 da zama dan kasa na Amurka mai girmamawa a ranar 16 ga Nuwamba 1996. Kasar Teresa ta kasar Albania ta ba ta lambar Zinare ta Jama'a a 1994, [20] amma karbarta da wannan lamarin da Haitian Legion of Honor ta kasance mai rikitarwa. An soki Teresa da cikakken goyon baya ga Duvaliers da rashawa na 'yan kasuwa irin su Charles Keating da Robert Maxwell ; Ta rubuta wa alkalin shari'ar Keating, inda ta nemi a bashi damar.

Jami'o'i a Indiya da yamma sun ba ta digirin girmamawa. [20] Sauran lambobin yabo na farar hula sun hada da lambar yabo ta Balzan don inganta bil'adama, zaman lafiya da 'yan uwantaka tsakanin al'umma (1978) da Albert Schweitzer International Prize (1975). [22] A watan Afrilun 1976 Teresa ta ziyarci Jami'ar Scranton da ke arewa maso gabashin Pennsylvania, inda ta karbi lambar yabo ta La Storta don Bautar da 'Yan Adam daga shugaban jami'a William J. Byron . Ta kalubalanci masu sauraronta da suka kai 4,500 don suje gidajensu "kusan talakawa a cikin gidanku da makwabta na gida", ciyar da wasu ko kuma kawai yada farin ciki da ƙauna, kuma ya ci gaba da cewa: “Matalauta zasu taimaka mana mu girma cikin tsarkakakku, domin sune Kristi a cikin dabara ce ta wahala ". A watan Agusta 1987 Teresa ta sami likita mai daraja ta digiri na ilimin zamantakewa, don karɓar hidimarta da ma'aikatanta don taimakawa gajiyayyu da marasa lafiya, daga jami'a. Ta yi magana da ɗalibai sama da 4,000 da memba na Diocese of Scranton game da hidimarta ga "matalautan matalauta", tare da gaya masu su "yi ƙananan abubuwa da ƙauna mai girma". Template:External mediaA 1979, Teresa sami kyautar Nobel Peace Prize "akan aikinta da ta gudanar dan kaudar da talauci da damuwa wanda suma ke kao matsala ga zaman lafiya". Ta ki ta amince da taron , tace kudin ta $192,000 a baiwa talakawa dake kasar Indiya tare da cewa lada a duniya suna da amfani ne kawai idan anyi aiki dasu wurin taimakon masu karimin karfi. rewards were important only if they helped her to help the world's ne. When Teresa received the prize she was asked, "What can we do to promote world peace?" She answered, "Go home and love your family." Building on this theme in her Nobel lecture, she said: "Around the world, not only in the poor countries, but I found the poverty of the West so much more difficult to remove. When I pick up a person from the street, hungry, I give him a plate of rice, a piece of bread, I have satisfied. I have removed that hunger. But a person that is shut out, that feels unwanted, unloved, terrified, the person that has been thrown out from society – that poverty is so hurtable Template:Sic and so much, and I find that very difficult." Teresa singled out abortion as "the greatest destroyer of peace today. Because if a mother can kill her own child – what is left for me to kill you and you kill me – there is nothing between."

Barbara Smoker of the secular humanist magazine The Freethinker criticised Teresa after the Peace Prize award, saying that her promotion of Catholic moral teachings on abortion and contraception diverted funds from effective methods to solve India's problems. At the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, Teresa said: "Yet we can destroy this gift of motherhood, especially by the evil of abortion, but also by thinking that other things like jobs or positions are more important than loving."

A lokacin rayuwarta, Teresa tana daga cikin manyan mata 10 da suka fi fice a duk shekara Gallup wanda ya fi cancanta ga maza da mata su jefa kuri'u 18, sun kammala da yawa a 1980 da 1990. [23] A cikin 1999 ta jagoranci jerin jerin mutanen da aka fi so a cikin karni na 20 na Gallup, jefa duk wasu amsoshi da aka ba su ta hanyar iyakokin da yawa, kuma ya kasance na farko a cikin manyan rukunan jama'a banda na matasa. [24] [25]

Suuka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cewar wata takarda daga masana ilimin Kanada Serge Larivée, Geneviève Chénard da Carole Sénéchal, asibitocin Teresa sun karbi miliyoyin daloli a cikin abubuwan gudummawa amma ba su da magani, tsarin bincike, ingantaccen abinci mai gina jiki da isasshen nazari ga waɗanda ke jin ciwo; a cikin ra'ayin masana ilimi guda uku, "Mama Teresa ta yarda cewa mara lafiya dole ne ya sha wahala kamar Kristi a kan gicciye". An ce karin kudin zai iya canza lafiyar marasa galihu na garin ta hanyar samar da cibiyoyin kula da lafiya .

Daya daga cikin wadanda suka fi sukar Teresa ita ce yar jaridar Ingilishi, mai sukar litattafan rubuyoci kuma mai adawa da Christopher Hitchens, mai gabatar da ra’ayin Jaridar Hell's Angel (1994) kuma marubucin labarin Fim The Missionary Position: Mother Teresa in Theory and Practice (1995) wanda ya rubuta a labarin 2003 : "Wannan ya dawo da mu zuwa ga cin hanci da rashawa na majami'a, wanda ke sayar da attajirai ga ma'abuta yayin da suke wa'azin wutar jahannama da tsinkaye ga talaka. [Uwar Teresa] ba abokin talakawa ba ne. Ta kasance aminin talauci . Ta ce wahala wahala ce daga Allah. Ta yi amfani da rayuwarta wajen yin adawa da kawai hanyar magance cutar talauci, wanda shine karfafawa mata da ficewar su daga tsarin dabbobin da aka tilasta mata. " Ya zargi ta da munafinci saboda zabar magani na gaba don yanayin zuciyarta. [26] [27] Hitchens ya ce "niyyarsa ba ta taimaka wa mutane ba", kuma ta yi karya ga masu ba da gudummawa game da yadda ake amfani da gudummawar da suke bayarwa. "Ta hanyar magana da ita ne na gano, kuma ta ba ni tabbacin, ba ta bakin kokarin rage talauci", in ji shi, "tana kokarin fadada yawan mabiya darikar Katolika. Ta ce, 'Ni ba ma'aikacin zamantakewa ba ne. Ba na yi ne saboda wannan dalili. Ina yi domin Kiristi. Ina yi wa cocin. ' [28] Kodayake Hitchens yana tunanin shi ne kawai shaida da Vatican ta kira, an kuma kira Aroup Chatterjee (marubucin Uwar Teresa: Labarin Untold ) don gabatar da hujjoji masu adawa da bugun Teresa da canonization; [29] Vatican ta cire al'ada ta " mai ba da shawarar shaidan ", wanda ya yi aiki da irin wannan manufa.

Kungiyoyin kare hakkin zubar da ciki sun kuma soki matakin Teresa game da zubar da ciki da kuma hana haihuwa.

Rayuwar ruhaniya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Analysing her deeds and achievements, Pope John Paul II said: "Where did Mother Teresa find the strength and perseverance to place herself completely at the service of others? She found it in prayer and in the silent contemplation of Jesus Christ, his Holy Face, his Sacred Heart."[30] Privately, Teresa experienced doubts and struggle in her religious beliefs which lasted nearly 50 years (until the end of her life); according to her postulator, Brian Kolodiejchuk, "She felt no presence of God whatsoever, ... in her heart or in the eucharist".[31] Teresa expressed grave doubts about God's existence and pain over her lack of faith: Template:Quote

Outdoor bas-relief plaque
Plaque wanda aka sadaukar wa mahaifiyar Teresa a Wenceslas Square, Olomouc, Czech Republic

Kolodiejchuk (jami'in da ke da alhakin tattara hujjoji na canonization) ya yi tunanin cewa rashin jin daɗin da wasu ke yi zai iya cewa sunyi akasin fassara tai, amma imanin da ya yi cewa Allah yana aiki da ita bai cika damuwa ba; duk da cewa ta yi niyyar kusanci da Allah, amma ba ta tuhumi kasancewar sa ba. Teresa na iya fuskantar wani abu mai kama da Yesu, wanda ya ce lokacin da aka gicciye shi: " Eli Eli lama sabachthani? " ("Ya Allah, Allahna, don me ka yashe ni?" ). Kolodiejchuk ya zana kwatancen John na 16 na ƙarni na Yahaya na Giciye, wanda ya ambaci kalmar " Duhun Duhun Jiya ". Sauran tsarkaka (ciki har da Teresa mai suna Thérèse na Lisieux, waɗanda suka kira shi "daren rashin kome") sun sami irin wannan goguwar bushewar ruhaniya . [32] A cewar James Langford, wadannan shakku ba su da wata ma'ana kuma ba zai kawo cikas ga canonization ba.

Bayan shekaru goma cikin shakku, Teresa ta bayyana ɗan taƙaitaccen lokacin da sabuwar bangaskiya. Bayan mutuwar Paparoma Pius XII a shekarar 1958, tana yi masa addu'ar bukukuwan a lokacin da aka sami sauki daga "dogon duhu: wannan baƙon wahalar." Koyaya, mako biyar baya bushewar ruhaniyarta ta dawo.

Teresa ta rubuta wasiƙu da yawa ga waɗanda ke ba da tabbaci da kuma manyanta a cikin shekaru 66, musamman ga Calcutta Archbishop Ferdinand Perier da Jesuit firist Celeste van Exem (mashawarcinta na ruhaniya tun samuwar mishan Mishan). Ta nemi a lalata wasiƙun ta, kasancewar ta damu da cewa "mutane za su ƙara yin la'akari da ni - ƙasa da Yesu."

Zane-zanen Semi-girmama na girmama Iya Teresa

Koyaya, an tattara rubutun a cikin Mama Teresa: Kuzo Ku kasance Haske na . Teresa ta rubuta wa Mika'ilu amintacce na ruhaniya Michael van der Peet, “Yesu yana da ƙauna ta musamman a gare ku. Amma ni, shuru da wofi suna da yawa, da na duba ban gani ba - saurara kuma ban ji ba - harshe yana motsawa [cikin addu'a] amma ba ya magana.   . . . Ina so ku yi mini addu'a - cewa na bar Shi ya yi kyauta. "

A Deus Caritas Est (farkon encyclical ), Paparoma Benedict XVI da aka ambata Teresa sau uku da kuma amfani da ita rayuwa don bayyana daya daga cikin encyclical ta babban maki: "A cikin misali na Albarka Teresa na Calcutta da muke da wata hujja hoto da cewa lokaci ya sadaukar Allah cikin addu'o'i bawai kawai baya yanke hukunci daga aiki mai kyau da soyayya ga makwabcinmu amma a zahiri shine tushen wannan aikin. " [33] Ta rubuta, "Ta hanyar addu'o'in tunani ne da karatun ruhi ne kawai zamu iya samar da kyautar addu'a."

Kodayake ba a haɗa da odarta ba tare da umarnin Franciscan, Teresa tana sha'awar Francis na Assisi [34] kuma ta kasance mai tasiri ga ruhaniyar Franciscan. 'Yan uwan Mata da Sadaka suna karanta addu'o'in Saint Francis kowace safiya a Mass a lokacin godiya bayan tarayya, kuma girmamansu ga ma'aikatar da alƙawarin da yawa yayi daidai da nata. Francis ya jaddada talauci, tsabta, biyayya da biyayya ga Kristi. Ya sadaukar da mafi yawan rayuwarsa wajen bautar da talakawa, musamman kutare.

Canonization[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mu'ujiza da beatifaication[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayan Teresa ta mutu a shekara ta 1997, sai Holy Seea fara aiwatar da beatification (na biyu daga uku matakai wajen canonization ) da kuma Kolodiejchuk aka nada postulator da Diocese na Calcutta . Ko da yake ya ce, "Ba mu tabbatar da cewa ta kasance cikakke ko kuma ba ta taɓa yin kuskure ba   ... ", dole ne ya tabbatar da cewa kyawun Teresa jarumi ne. Kolodiejchuk ya gabatar da takardu 76, jimilla shafi 35,000, wadanda suka danganci hirar da shaidu 113 wadanda aka nemi su amsa tambayoyi 263.

Cikakken gilashin tarihin rayuwar mahaifiyar Teresa a Cathedral na Saint Teresa a Prishtinë, Kosovo

A tsari na canonization bukatar takardun na wani mu'ujiza sakamakon daga cẽto na yiwuwa saint. A shekara ta 2002 ne aka gano cewa Vatican ta zama wata mu'ujiza ta warkar da cutar kumburin ciki a cikin mahaifar Monica Besra, wata mace ‘yar Indiya, bayan da aka yi amfani da wani loka dauke da hoton Teresa. A cewar Besra, gwanayen haske da aka samo daga hoton kuma an warkar da cutar kumburin ta; duk da haka, mijinta da wasu ma'aikatanta na kiwon lafiya sun ce magani na yau da kullun ya kawar da cutar. [35] Dr. Ranjan Mustafi, wanda ya fada wa jaridar New York Times cewa ya yi maganin Besra, ya ce cutar ta haifar da cutar tarin fuka: "Wannan ba wani abin al'ajabi bane   . . . Ta dauki magunguna tsawon watanni tara zuwa shekara guda. " [36] A cewar mijin Besra, “Likitoci sun warkar da matata ba kuma ta wata mu’ujiza ba   . . . Wannan mu'ujiza wannan magana ce. " Besra ta ce bayanan likitocin da suka hada da sonogram, magunguna da bayanan likitocin, Sister Betta ta Mishan Matan Sadau ta kwace. A cewar Lokaci, kiran da aka yi wa Sister Betta da ofishin Sister Nirmala (wanda zai gaji Teresa a matsayin shugaban oda) bai amsa wani bayani ba. Jami'ai a Asibitin Balurghat, inda Besra ta nemi magani, sun ce an tilasta masu ne ta hanyar da ta kira magani da ta warke. A cikin watan Fabrairu na 2000, tsohon ministan kiwon lafiya na West Bengal Partho De ya ba da umarnin sake duba bayanan likita na Besra a Sashen Lafiya na Kolkata. A cewar De, babu wani sabon abu game da rashin lafiyarta da magani bisa doguwar jinyarta. Ya ce ya ƙi ba da sunan Vatican na likita wanda zai tabbatar da cewa warkewar Monica Besra ta mu’ujiza ce.

A lokacin beatification na Teresa da canonization, Roman Curia (ta Vatican) tayi nazari kuma ba a wallafa sukar rayuwarta da aikinta ba. Hitchens da Chatterjee (marubucin The Final Verdict, wani littafi mai mahimmanci na Teresa) ta yi magana da kotun; a cewar jami'an Vatican, binciken da aka gabatar an bincike ne daga Kungiyar da ke Sanadin Sanadin Waliyyan Waliyyan . Kungiyar ba ta sami wani cikas ba game da canjin magana na Teresa, kuma ta ba da kewar ta a ranar 21 ga Afrilun 1999. Saboda harin da aka kai mata, wasu marubutan Katolika sun kira ta da alamar sabani . Wani kwamiti na daban na likita ya yanke hukuncin cewa mu'ujiza Monica Besra, daya daga cikin ukun da Kolodiejchuk ya dauke, alama ce ta roko na Allah. An kori Teresa a ranar 19 ga Oktoba 2003, kuma Katolika sun san shi da " Masu Albarka ".

Canonization[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A 17 Disamba 2015, offishin yada labarai na Vatican Pope Francis ya gano mu'ujiza na biyu da aka danganta ga Teresa: warkar da mutumin Brazil dauke da brain tumours a 2008.mu'ujizar ta zo cikin gari ne sanda wasu jami'ai dake kula da aiki lokacin shagualan World Youth Day 2013sanda fafaroma ke kasar Brazil awatan Yuli. anyi ta bincike a Brazil daga 19–26 June 2015 wanda daga bisani aka maida zuwa masu aiki na Saints wanda suka bada dokatr cewa cabinciken ya kammalu.

Francis yayi mata canonization, hakan yafaru ne a wani biki a ranar 4 ga Satumbar 2016 a Dandalin St Peter da ke garin Vatican. Dubun-dubatan mutane ne suka halarci bikin, gami da wakilai 15 na gwamnati da kuma mutane 1,500 da ba su da matsuguni daga duk fadin Italiya. An watsa kai tsaye ta hanyar tashar Vatican kuma aka watsa ta yanar gizo; Skopje, garin mahaifar Teresa, ya ba da sanarwar bikin biki na tsawon sati daya. A Indiya, Mishan ɗin Sadarwa ta biki ta Kolkata.

Co-Patron na Calcutta Archdiocese[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A ranar 4 ga Satumba 2017, yayin bikin girmama canonization dinta wata shekara ta 1 da ta cancanta, Sister Mary Prema Pierick, Babban shugaba ta na mishan Ofishin Sadaka, ta ba da sanarwar cewa za a sanya Teresa a matsayin malamar cocin Calcutta Archdiocese yayin bikin Mass a cikin Cathedral na Mafi Girma Rosary a 5.30 pm a 6 Satumba 2017. A ranar 5 ga Satumba 2017, Archbishop Thomas D’Souza, wanda ke zama shugaban Archdiocese na Katolika na Calcutta, ya tabbatar da cewa za a nada Teresa a matsayin mai rikon mukamin Caliota Diocese, tare da Francis Xavier. A 6 Satumba 2017, kusan mutane 500 suka halarci Mass a wani babban coci inda Dominique Gomes, Babban Vicar na gida, karanta dokar da ta kafa ta a matsayin mataimaki na biyu na mai kare tarihi na archdiocese. D’Souza da jakadan Vatican a Indiya, Giambattista Diquattro, sune suka jagoranci wannan bikin kuma suka gabatar da mutum-mutumi na tagulla a cocin Uwa Teresa dauke da yaro.

Cocin Katolika na Roman Katolika ya ba da sanarwar St. Francis Xavier yazama saint na farko na Calcutta a 1986.

Legacy da fitowa a cikin al'adun sanannu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Abun Tunawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Airport terminal, with four trees in the foreground
Tirana International Airport Nënë Tereza

Kayay-yakin tarihi da ake tunawa da Teresa kuma sunanta sunan cocin da yawa. Tana da gine-gine, hanyoyi da kuma gidaje masu suna bayanta, gami da filin jirgin saman Albania na duniya . Ranar Iya Teresa (Dita e Nënë Terezës), 19 ga Oktoba, hutu ne na jama'a a Albania . A shekara ta 2009, an buɗe gidan tunawa da mahaifiyar Teresa a garinsu Skopje, Arewacin Makidoniya . An ba da sunan babban cocin Katolika da ke Pristina, Kosovo don girmamawa. Ginin sa, wanda aka fara a shekarar 2011, ya haifar da muhawara a cikin da'irorin musulmai wadanda suka gan shi a matsayin wanda ya karfafa yawan mabiya darikar Katolika a yankin. Musulmin Kosovo sun yi adawa da wani kudurin kafa wata hanyar tunawa da Teresa a garin Peć (a cewar masu fafutuka, kashi 98 cikin dari) Musulmai sun yi adawa da kafa ta a Kosovo.

Cathedral na Saint Mother Teresa, Prishtinë

Jami'ar Mata ta Uwa Teresa, a Kodaikanal, an kafa ta a 1984 a matsayin jami'ar jama'a ta gwamnatin Tamil Nadu . Mahaifiya Theresa Postgraduate da Cibiyar Nazarin Ilimin Kiwon Lafiya, a Pondicherry, an kafa ta ne a cikin 1999 ta hannun Gwamnatin Puducherry . Kungiyar ba da agaji Sevalaya ce ke tafiyar da Gidan Iyayen Mata na Teresa, tare da samar da 'yan matan marayu da marayu a kusa da kauyen Kasuva da ke Tamil Nadu da abinci, kayan sawa, tsari da ilimi. Yawancin yabo da marubucin tarihin Teresa, Navin Chawla, suka bayyana a jaridu da mujallu na Indiya. Jirgin Ruwa na Indiya sun gabatar da "Mother Express", sabon jirgin kasa mai suna bayan mahaifiyar Mama Teresa, a ranar 26 ga Agusta 2010 don tunawa da karni na haihuwar ta. Gwamnatin Tamil Nadu ta shirya bukukuwan karni na karrama Teresa a ranar 4 ga Disamba 2010 a Chennai wanda babban minista M Karunanidhi ya jagoranta. Farko a kan 5 Satumba 2013, ranar tunawa da ta mutuwa da aka sanya cikin kasa da kasa Rãnar Charity ta Majalisar Dinkin Duniya .

A cikin 2012, Teresa ta kasance lamba ta 5 a cikin Babban binciken Indiya na Manyan Yan Indiya .

A ranar 5 ga Satumba 2017, Katolika na St Teresa, cocin Katolika na farko da aka sanya wa sunan girmamawa ga Teresa, an keɓe shi a Kosovo. Cathedral ɗin shima babban cocin Katolika ne na farko na Kosovo.

Tarihai da littattafai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Teresa batun fim din 1969 ne da littafin 1972, Abin Kyau ga Allah, wanda Malcolm Muggeridge ya wallafa . An yi fim ɗin fim ɗin tare da jawo hankalin yammacin duniya ga Mama Teresa.
  • Littattafan Christopher Hitchens na 1994, Mala'ikan Jahannama, ya bayar da hujjar cewa Teresa ta bukaci talakawa da su yarda da makomarsu; Allah yana bayyana masu arziki kamar yadda Allah ya yi musu falala. Wannan ita ce farkon rubutun Hitchens, Matsayin mishan: Uwar Teresa a ka'idodi da Aiki .

Shirye-shiryen talabijin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Geraldine Chaplin ya buga wasan Teresa a cikin Iya Teresa: Da Sunan Rashin Allah, wanda ya karɓi kyautar Fim na Fim a 1997.
  • Olivia Hussey ce ta buga wasan a cikin ministocin gidan talabijin na Italiya na 2003, Mama Teresa na Calcutta . An sake sakewa a cikin 2007, ta sami kyautar CAMIE .
  • Juliet Stevenson ta taka leda a cikin fim din ' The Letters ' na 2014, wanda ya danganta da wasiƙun sa zuwa ga firist ɗin Vatican Celeste van Exem .
  • Uwar Teresa, wacce Cara Francis the FantasyGrandma ke bugawa, ta yi tsegumi kan Sigmund Freud a cikin Epic Rap Battles of Tarihi, jerin wakokin fim din YouTube da Nice Peter da Epic Lloyd suka kirkira. An saki Rap din a YouTube a ranar 22 ga Satumba, 2019.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Abdul Sattar Edhi
  • Albanians
  • Jerin mutanen Albanians
  • Jerin sunayen mata masu lambar yabo ta Nobel
  • Babban Ba’indiye
  • Addinin Katolika na Albania
  • Addinin Katolika na Kosovo
  • Addinin Katolika na Romaniya a Arewacin Makidoniya

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Manik Banerjee (6 September 2017). "Vatican declares Mother Teresa a patron saint of Calcutta". Associated Press, ABC News.com. Archived from the original on 6 September 2017. Retrieved 6 September 2017.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  2. Template:Cite magazine
  3. "Canonisation of Mother Teresa – September 4th". Diocese of Killala. September 2016. Retrieved 4 September 2016. 
  4. shqiptare, bota. "Kur Nënë Tereza vinte në Tiranë/2". 
  5. Muggeridge (1971), chapter 3, "Mother Teresa Speaks", pp. 105, 113
  6. Blessed Are You: Mother Teresa and the Beatitudes, ed. by Eileen Egan and Kathleen Egan, O.S.B., MJF Books: New York, 1992
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 (2002) "Mother Teresa of Calcutta (1910–1997)". Vatican News Service. Retrieved 30 May 2007.
  8. Although some sources state she was 10 when her father died, in an interview with her brother, the Vatican documents her age at the time as "about eight".
  9. Meg Greene, Mother Teresa: A Biography, Greenwood Press, 2004, p. 11.
  10. Sharn, Lori (5 September 1997). "Mother Teresa dies at 87". USA Today. Retrieved 5 September 2016
  11. Clucas (1988), p. 31
  12. Meg Greene, Mother Teresa: A Biography, Greenwood Press, 2004, page 17.
  13. Meg Greene, Mother Teresa: A Biography, Greenwood Press, 2004, page 18.
  14. Meg Greene, Mother Teresa: A Biography, Greenwood Press, 2004, page 25.
  15. The Religious Community of priests founded by Mother Teresa. Missionaries of Charity Fathers
  16. Cooper, Kenneth J. (14 September 1997). "Mother Teresa Laid to Rest After Multi-Faith Tribute". The Washington Post. Retrieved 30 May 2007
  17. Bindra, Satinder (7 September 2001). "Archbishop: Mother Teresa underwent exorcism". CNN Retrieved 30 May 2007.
  18. Chatterjee, Aroup, Introduction to The Final Verdict
  19. A life of selfless caringFrontline (magazine) article.
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 Parvathi Menon Cover story: A life of selfless caring, Frontline, Vol.14 :: No. 19 :: 20 September–3 October 1997
  21. Quad City Times staff (17 October 2005). "Habitat official to receive Pacem in Terris honor". Peace Corps. Retrieved 26 May 2007.
  22. Jones, Alice & Brown, Jonathan (7 March 2007). "Opposites attract? When Robert Maxwell met Mother Teresa". The Independent. Retrieved 25 March 2012.
  23. Frank Newport, David W. Moore, and Lydia Saad (13 December 1999). "Most Admired Men and Women: 1948–1998", The Gallup Organization.
  24. Frank Newport (31 December 1999). "Mother Teresa Voted by American People as Most Admired Person of the Century", The Gallup Organization.
  25. Greatest of the Century Gallup/CNN/USA Today Poll. 20–21 December 1999.
  26. Hitchens (1995), p. 41
  27. cf. Fr. James Martin, SJ, Letter in The New York Review of Books, 19 September 1996 In Defense of Mother Teresa, accessed 2 February 2014
  28. "The Debate over Sainthood" (11 February 2009). CBS News. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
  29. "Less than Miraculous" by Christopher Hitchens, Free Inquiry 24(2), February/March 2004.
  30. John Paul II (20 October 2003). "Address of John Paul II to the Pilgrims Who Had Come To Rome for the Beatification of Mother Teresa". Vatican.va. Retrieved 13 March 2007. 
  31. David Van Biema (23 August 2007). "Mother Teresa's Crisis of Faith". TIME. 
  32. New Book Reveals Mother Teresa's Struggle with Faith Beliefnet, AP 2007
  33. Pope Benedict XVI (25 December 2005). Deus caritas estTemplate:Dead link. (PDF). Vatican City, pp.10. Retrieved 2 August 2007.
  34. "Mother Teresa of Calcutta Pays Tribute to St. Francis of Assisi" on the American Catholic website. Retrieved 30 May 2007.
  35. Orr, David (10 May. 2003). "Medicine cured 'miracle' woman – not Mother Teresa, say doctors". The Telegraph. Retrieved 30 May 2007.
  36. "Her Legacy: Acceptance and Doubts of a Miracle", by David Rohde. The New York Times. 20 October 2003