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Masarautar Oyo

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Masarautar Oyo


Wuri

Babban birni Oyo-Ile (en) Fassara
Yawan mutane
Addini Addinin Yarabawa
Bayanan tarihi
Ƙirƙira 1400
Rushewa 1905

Masarautar Oyo masarautar Yarbawa ce wacce ke gabashin Benin yau da yammacin Najeriya (gami da yankin Kudu maso yamma da kuma yammacin rabin yankin Arewa ta tsakiya). Masarautar Oyo ta zama mafi girma a kasar Yarbawa. Ya kuma tashi ne ta hanyar kwarewar tsari da tsarin mulki na Yarbawa, arziƙin da aka samu daga kasuwanci da kuma mahayan dawakai masu ƙarfi. Masarautar Oyo tana ɗaya daga cikin mahimman jihohin siyasa gabaɗaya a duk Yammacin Afirka daga tsakiyar 7th zuwa ƙarshen karni na 18, [1] mamaye ba kawai a kan mafi yawan sauran masarautun da ke ƙasar Yarbawa ba, har ma da jihohin Afirka na kusa., musamman Masarautar Fon ta Dahomey a Jamhuriyar Benin ta yanzu ta yamma.

Asalin almara[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  Asalin masarautar Oyo ya ta'allaka ne da Oranyan (wanda kuma ake kira Oranmiyan), basaraken ƙarshe na Masarautar Yarbawa ta Ile-Ife ( Ife ). Oranyan ya kulla yarjejeniya tare da dan uwansa don kaddamar da farmaki a kan makwabtansu na arewa saboda cin mutuncin mahaifinsu Oduduwa, Ooni na farko na Ife. A hanyar zuwa yaƙin, ’yan’uwa sun yi faɗa kuma sojojin sun rabu. Oarfin Oranyan yayi ƙanƙanta don yin nasarar kai hari, don haka kuma ya yi ta yawo zuwa gabar kudu har ya isa Bussa. Can babban basaraken yankin ya nishadantar da shi sannan ya samar da wani katon maciji mai dauke da tsafin sihiri hade da makogwaronsa.

Shugaban ya umarci Oranyan da ya bi macijin har sai da ya tsaya a wani wuri har tsawon kwanaki bakwai sannan ya bace a cikin ƙasa. Oranyan ya bi shawarar kuma ya kafa Oyo inda macijin ya tsaya. Ana tuna shafin kamar Ajaka . Oranyan ya sanya Oyo sabuwar masarautarsa kuma ta zama ta farko "oba" (ma'ana 'sarki' ko 'mai mulki' a yaren Yarbanci ) da take da " Alaafin na Oyo " (Alaafin na nufin 'mai gidan sarauta' a Yarbanci). Ya bar duk dukiyar da ya mallaka a cikin Ife kuma ya ba wani sarki damar yin mulkin can. [2]

A wani lokaci, Oyo-ile tana cikin yaƙi da Bariba na Borgu, waɗanda ke son su mallaki sabon garin da har yanzu ake kan gini. Orangun Ajagunla na Ila, babban yayan Oranmiyan, ya kutsa kai tare da mutanensa don taimakawa. Ba da daɗewa ba bayan nasarar yaƙi, Oranmiyan ya sami ɗa, Ajuwon Ajaka; da yawa daga baya Arabambi matar ta haifa daga Tapa ( Nupe ). An yi imanin cewa sunan "Sango" mahaifinsa ne ya ba shi ko kuma ya karɓa ne daga sunan gida na Allah na tsawa. Ko ta yaya gidan sarauta ya keɓe ga Ruhohin aradu (Jakuta) da Yaƙi (Ogun).

Zamanin farko (ƙarni na 12 – 1535)[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Fayil:OyoIle plan bw.gif
Binciken Tsohon Fadar Fadar Oyo

Oranyan, sarki na farko (sarki) na Oyo, sai Oba Ajaka, Alaafin na Oyo suka gaje shi. An cire Ajaka daga mulki, saboda ba shi da halayyar soja ta Yarbawa kuma ya ba wa ƙananan shugabanninsa 'yanci sosai. Bayan haka an ba jagoranci ga ɗan'uwan Ajaka, Shango, wanda daga baya aka mai da shi allahn tsawa da walƙiya. Ajaka ya sake dawowa bayan mutuwar Sango. Ajaka ya sake komawa kan karagar mulki sosai yafi son yaƙi da zalunci. Magajinsa, Kori, ya sami nasarar cinye sauran abin da masana tarihi na gaba za su kira da babban birnin Oyo. [2]

Ibadan[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Zuciyar birnin Oyo ita ce babban birninta a Oyo-Ile (wanda kuma aka sani da Oyo Katunga ko Old Oyo ko Oyo-oro ). [3] Manya-manyan gine-gine biyu a cikin Oyo-Ile sune 'Afin,' ko kuma fadar Oba, da kuma kasuwar sa. Fadar tana tsakiyar gari kusa da kasuwar Oba da ake kira 'Oja-Oba'. Kewayen babban birnin katangar katuwar ƙasa ce don tsaro tare da ƙofofi 17. Mahimmancin manyan gine-ginen biyu (fada da Oja Oba) sun nuna mahimmancin sarki a Oyo.

Mamayar Nupe[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Oyo ta zama babbar karfaffiyar ikon ruwa a karshen karni na 14. Fiye da ƙarni ɗaya, ƙasar Yarbawa ta faɗaɗa ta hanyar biyan kuɗin maƙwabta. A lokacin mulkin Onigbogi, Oyo ta sha kashi a hannun sojoji a hannun Nupe wanda Tsoede ya jagoranta. [4] Wani lokaci a kusan 1535, Nupe sun mamaye Oyo kuma suka tilasta wa daularta mai mulki mafaka a masarautar Borgu . [5] Nupe ta kori babban birni, ta lalata Oyo a matsayin ikon yanki har zuwa farkon karni na 17. [6]

Lokacin mulkin mallaka (1608-1800)[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Samfuri:Royal house Yarabawan Oyo sun shiga tsararrun shekaru 80 a matsayin daula da ke gudun hijira bayan da Nupe ta kayar da su. Sun sake kafa Oyo a matsayin mafi karko da fadada fiye da kowane lokaci. Mutane sun ƙirƙiri gwamnatin da ta kafa ikonta a kan babbar daula. [5] A cikin karni na 17, Oyo ta fara dogon layi na girma, ta zama babbar daula. [6] Oyo bata taba mamaye dukkan masu jin yaren Yarbanci ba, amma ita ce masarauta mafi yawan mutane a tarihin Yarbawa. [7]

Sake hukunci da fadadawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Masarautar Oyo da jihohin da ke kewaye da ita, c. 1625.

Babban mabuɗin sake gina Yarbawa na Oyo ya kasance mai ƙarfi sojoji da kuma tsarin mulkin ƙasa. Karɓar hanya daga abokan gaba na Nupe (waɗanda suke kira "Tapa"), Yarbawa sun sake yin yaƙi da makamai da mahayan dawakai. [5] Oba Ofinran, Alaafin na Oyo, ya yi nasarar dawo da asalin yankin Oyo daga Nupe. [4] An gina sabon babban birni, Oyo-Igboho, kuma asalin ya zama ana kiran sa Tsohon Oyo. Oba na gaba, Eguguojo, ya mamaye kusan duk ƙasar Yarbawa. Bayan wannan, Oba Orompoto ya jagoranci kai hare-hare don shafe Nupe don tabbatar da Oyo ba ta sake fuskantar barazanar su ba. A lokacin mulkin Oba Ajiboyede, ya gudanar da bikin Bere na farko, taron bikin murnar zaman lafiya a masarautar. Ana yin bikin akai-akai, zai riƙe mahimmancin gaske tsakanin Yarbawa tun bayan faɗuwar Oyo.

A ƙarƙashin magajinsa, Abipa, Yarbawa sun sake mamaye Oyo-Ile tare da sake gina babban birni na asali. [4] Duk da gazawar yunƙurin mamaye Daular Benin wani lokaci tsakanin 1578 da 1608, Oyo ta ci gaba da faɗaɗa. Yarbawa sun ba da ikon cin gashin kai a kudu maso gabashin birnin Oyo, inda yankunan da ba Yarbawa ba za su iya zama buffa tsakanin Oyo da Imperial Benin. [8] A ƙarshen karni na 16, jihohin Ewe da Aja na Benin na yau suna girmama Oyo. [9]

  • Yaƙe-yaƙe Dahomey

Masarautar Oyo da aka dawo da ita ta fara zuwa kudu tun a shekarar 1682. [10] A ƙarshen fadada aikin soja, iyakokin Oyo zasu isa bakin teku kusan 320 kilometres (200 mi) kudu maso yamma na babban birninta. [11] Ya ɗan fuskanci adawa mai tsanani har zuwa farkon karni na 18. A cikin 1728, Masarautar Oyo ta mamaye Masarautar Dahomey a cikin wani babban kamfen na dakarunta. [12] Jaruman Dahomey, a gefe guda, ba su da mahayan dawakai amma bindigogi da yawa. Bindigar su ta tsoratar da dawakan Oyo dawakai da hana caji. [13] Sojojin Dahomey sun kuma gina katanga kamar ramuka, wanda ya tilasta sojojin Oyo yin yaƙi a matsayin ƙanana. [14] Yaƙin ya ɗauki kwana huɗu, amma Yarabawa sun sami nasara bayan ƙarfafawa sun zo. Dahomey an tilasta shi girmamawa ga Oyo. Yarbawa sun mamaye Dahomey har sau bakwai kafin daga karshe su mallaki karamar masarauta a shekarar 1748. [15]

  • Cin nasara daga baya

Tare da mahayan dawakai, Oyo ta yi kamfen cikin nasara da fatattaka daga nesa. Sojojin Oyo sun sami damar kai farmaki katanga na kariya, amma samar da sojoji ke da wuya, sai suka janye lokacin da kayan suka kare. [16] Oyo ba ta yi amfani da bindiga a cikin manyan nasarorinta ba. Sojoji sun jira har karni na 19 don karban su. A cikin 1764, rundunar haɗin gwiwa ta Akan (Akyem) -Dahomey-Oyo ta karya rundunar Asante . [10] Nasarar kawancen ta bayyana iyakoki tsakanin jihohin makwabta. Oyo ta jagoranci kamfen mai nasara cikin yankin Mahi a arewacin Dahomey a ƙarshen karni na 18. Yarbawa ma sun yi amfani da sojojin ruwan kwarinsu; Misali, sun cimma nasarar toshe jirgin ruwa na Badagri na 1784 tare da rundunar Oyo-Dahomey-Lagos. [17]

Ƙungiya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Da farko, mutane sun maida hankali ne a cikin babban birnin Oyo. Tare da fadada masarauta, Oyo ta sake tsari don inganta kyakkyawan tsarin mallakar ta a ciki da wajen kasar Yarbawa. Ya kasu kashi hudu wanda aka ayyana shi dangane da asalin masarautar. [18] Wadannan layukan sune Metropolitan Oyo, kudu na yankin Yarbawa, hanyar Egbado da Ajaland.

  • Birnin Oyo

Birnin Oyo ya yi daidai, fiye ko lessasa, zuwa jihar Oyo kafin mamayewar Nupe. [18] Wannan shi ne matattarar masarauta, inda Yarbawa ke magana da yarukan Oyo. [8] Metropolitan Oyo an raba shi zuwa larduna shida, tare da uku a gefen yamma na Kogin Ogun da uku zuwa gabashin kogin. Kowane lardi yana ƙarƙashin kulawar gwamnan da Alaafin na Oyo ya nada kai tsaye. [19]

  • Kasar Yarbawa

Fasali na biyu na masarautar ya kunshi garuruwan da ke kusa da Oyo-Ile, waɗanda aka san su a matsayin 'yan uwan juna. [18] Wannan yankin yana huɗu da babban birnin Oyo, kuma mazauna Yarbawa suna magana da yarurruka daban daban da na Oyo. [8] Wadannan jihohin masu fada-aji sun sami jagorancin shugabanninsu, mai taken Obas, [19] wadanda Alaafin na Oyo ya tabbatar da su.

  • Egbado Corridor

Tsarin mulkin na uku shine hanyar Egbado da ke kudu maso yammacin kasar Yarbawa. Egba da Egbado suna zaune wannan yankin, kuma ya ba da tabbacin kasuwancin Oyo da bakin teku. An ba wa rarar Egba da Egbado, kamar takwarorinsu na Yarbawa, su mallaki kansu. Duk da haka, Ajele ya kula dasu. [18] Wadannan wakilai ne wadanda Alaafin na Oyo ya nada domin kula da maslaharsa da kuma lura da kasuwanci. Babban wakilin Oyo a cikin hanyar shine Olu, mai mulkin garin Ilaro. [11]

  • Aja

Ajaland ita ce layin karshe da aka kara wa masarautar. Ya kasance mafi kwanciyar hankali da nesa, kuma ya kasance daidai da barazanar balaguro akan sa. [18] Wannan yankin ya faro ne daga yankunan da ba Yarbawa ba da ke yamma da Hanyar Egbado har zuwa yankin da ake sarrafawa ta Ewe a cikin Togo ta zamani. [8] Wannan yanki, kamar sauran jihohin da ke yankin, an ba su dama ta cin gashin kai muddin ana biyan haraji, ana bin umarni daga Oyo sosai, kuma an ba da dama ga kasuwannin cikin gida ga 'yan kasuwar Oyo. [9] Oyo sau da yawa suna neman haraji a cikin bayi. Manyan hafsoshin sojojin wani lokacin sukan yi yaƙi da wasu mutane don kama bayi saboda wannan dalili. [20] An san Oyo da azabtar da rashin biyayya ta hanyar kashe-kashen jama’ar da suka kuskure, kamar yadda aka yi a Allada a 1698.

Tsarin siyasa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Masarautar Oyo ta haɓaka ingantaccen tsarin siyasa don sarrafa yankunanta. Masana ba su tantance nawa wannan tsarin ya kasance ba kafin mamayewar Nupe. Bayan sake dawowa daga gudun hijira a farkon karni na 17, Oyo ta kasance da kyakkyawar halayyar mayaƙa. An nuna tasirin al'adun Yarbawa mai zafin rai a cikin matsayin da aka sanya akan oba (sarki) da kuma matsayin majalisar sa.

Alaafin Oyo[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Oba (ma'ana 'sarki' a cikin harshen Yarbanci) a Oyo, wanda ake kira da Alaafin na Oyo (Alaafin yana nufin 'mai gidan sarauta' a Yarbanci), shi ne shugaban masarautar kuma mai iko da mutane. [21] Ya kasance mai alhakin kiyayewa raƙuman ruwa daga hari, sasanta rikice-rikicen cikin gida tsakanin masu mulki, da sasantawa tsakanin waɗancan ƙananan sarakunan da jama'arsu. Alaafin na Oyo kuma ana sa ran zai ba wa wadanda ke karkashinsa karramawa da kyaututtuka. A sakamakon haka, duk wasu shugabannin kananan hukumomi sun yi mubaya'a ga Oba tare da sabunta biyayyarsu a bukukuwan shekara-shekara [19] Mafi mahimmancin waɗannan shine bikin Bere, wanda ke nuna shelar samun nasarar mulki ta Alaafin. Bayan bikin Bere, zaman lafiya a ƙasar Yarbawa ya kamata ya ɗauki tsawon shekaru uku. Ba za a iya zubar da sarki ba amma ana iya tilasta shi ya kashe kansa idan ba a son shi kuma. Wannan ya yi ta aika Bashorun (Firayim ministan) zuwa yanzu dai an komai calabash ko tasa na aku 's qwai to shi kuma wuce jumla kin amincewa, da aka sani da Awon Eniyan Koo (watau cikin mutane ƙaryata ka, duniya kuwa ya ƙaryata game da ku kuma alloli sun ƙi ku ma). Bisa ga al'ada, ana sa ran Alaafin ya kashe kansa daga baya bayan haka.

Zabin Alaafin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

The Oyo Empire was not a purely hereditary monarchy, nor was it an absolute one. The Oyo Mesi selected the Alaafin. He was not always closely related to his predecessor, although he did have to be descended from Oranmiyan, a son of Oduduwa, and to hail from the Ona Isokun ward (which is one of the three royal wards). At the beginning of the Oyo Empire, the Alaafin's eldest son usually succeeded his father upon the throne. This sometimes led the crown prince, known as the Aremo, to hasten the death of his father. In order to prevent this occurrence, it became traditional for the crown prince to be made to commit ritual suicide upon his father's death. Independent of the succession, the Aremo was quite powerful in his own right. For instance, by custom the Alaafin abstained from leaving the palace, except during the important festivals, which in practice curtailed his power. By contrast, the Aremo often left the palace. This led the noted historian S. Johnson to observe: "The father is the king of the palace, and the son the king for the general public". The two councils which checked the Alaafin had a tendency to select a weak Alaafin after the reign of a strong one to keep the office from becoming too powerful.

Ilari[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Alaafin na Oyo ya nada wasu jami'ai na addini da na gwamnati, wadanda galibi babba ne . [22] Waɗannan jami'an an san su da suna ilari ko rabin kawuna, saboda al'adar aske rabin kawunansu da amfani da abin da aka yi imanin cewa sihiri ne a cikinsu. [23] Daruruwan Ilari sun kasu kashi biyu tsakanin maza da mata. Membersananan membobin Ilari sun yi ƙananan ayyuka, yayin da tsofaffi suka yi aiki a matsayin masu gadi ko wani lokacin manzo zuwa wata duniyar ta hanyar sadaukarwa. Lakabinsu da ke da alaƙa da sarki, kamar su oba l'olu ("sarki shi ne babba") ko madarikan ("kar a yi adawa da shi"). Sun ɗauki magoya da ja da kore a matsayin takardun shaida na matsayin su.

Duk kananan kotunan Oyo suna da Ilari wanda ya kasance 'yan leken asiri da masu karbar haraji. [19] Oyo ta nada wadannan ne don su ziyarci wasu lokuta kuma suna zaune a Dahomey da kuma hanyar Egbado Corridor don karbar haraji da kuma leken asirin nasarorin da Dahomey ya samu, ta yadda Alaafin na Oyo zai sami abin yi. [24]

Majalisar[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yayin da Alaafin na Oyo ya kasance mai cikakken iko da mutane, ba a duba ikon sa ba. Oyo Mesi da Yarbawan Duniyar Yarbawa da aka sani da suna Ogboni sun tsare ikon Oba . [22] Oyo Mesi sun yi magana ne don ‘yan siyasa yayin da Ogboni ya yi magana don mutane kuma ikon addini ya goyi bayan su. [25] Alaarfin Alaafin na Oyo dangane da Oyo Mesi da Ogboni ya dogara da halayen kansa da wayewar siyasa.

Oyo Mesi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Oyo Mesi sun kasance manyan kansiloli bakwai na jihar. Sun kafa Majalisar Zabe kuma suna da ikon yin doka. Bashorun ke jagoranta, suna aiki a matsayin firaminista, kuma sun hada da Agbaakin, Samu, Alapini, Laguna, Akiniku da Ashipa, sun wakilci muryar al'umma kuma suna da babban nauyin kare muradun masarautar. . An bukaci Alaafin ya dauki shawara daga wurin su a duk lokacin da wani muhimmin abu da ya shafi jihar ya faru. [26] Kowane sarki yana da aikin jiha na yin sa a kotu kowace safiya da maraice. Kowannensu ma yana da mataimaki wanda za su tura zuwa Alaafin idan ba a iya gujewa rashi. Oyo Mesi ta ci gaba a matsayin binciken ikon Alaafin, yana hana Alaafin zama mai mulkin kama-karya ; sun tilastawa Alaafiyawa da yawa kashe kansu yayin ƙarni na 17 da 18.

Shugaban majalisar Oyo Mesi, da Bashorun, ya nemi shawarar Ifa kafin magajin masarauta don neman yardar daga gumakan. Sabili da haka ana ganin sabbin alloli na Oyo kamar alloli ne suka nada su. Ana ɗauke su a matsayin Ekeji Orisa, ma'ana "mataimakin alloli." Bashorun suna da magana ta karshe game da nadin sabon Alaafin, karfin da yake da shi da na shi kansa sarki. Misali, Bashorun ya tsara bukukuwa da yawa na addini; ya yi wannan ban da kasancewarsa babban kwamandan askarawan soja, wanda ya ba shi babban ikon addini mai zaman kansa.

Babban cikin ɗawainiyar Bashorun shine duk wani muhimmin biki na sama. Wannan duba na addini, da ake gudanarwa a kowace shekara, shine don tantance idan membobin Mesi har yanzu suna goyon bayan Alaafin. Idan majalisar ta yanke hukunci kan rashin amincewar Alaafin, Bashorun sun gabatarwa da Alaafin da wani dunkulen marmara, ko kwai aku, a matsayin alama cewa lallai ne ya kashe kansa. Wannan ita ce kadai hanyar da za a cire Alaafin saboda ba a iya sauke shi bisa doka. Da zarar an ba su calabash ko kwan aku, Alaafin, babban dansa Aremo, da mai ba shi shawara a cikin Oyo Mesi, Asamu, [26] duk sai sun kashe kansu don sabunta gwamnati. An yi bikin kashe kansa a lokacin bikin Sama.

Ogboni[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Oyo Mesi ma ba ta more cikakken iko ba. Yayin da Oyo Mesi ke da tasirin siyasa, Ogboni ya wakilci mashahuran ra'ayin da ke da goyon bayan ikon addini, saboda haka Ogboni na iya daidaita ra'ayoyin Oyo Mesi. Akwai dubawa da daidaito kan ikon Alafin da Oyo Mesi kuma saboda haka babu wanda ya yi girman kai cikakken iko. Ogboni ya kasance babbar kungiyar asiri mai karfi wacce ta kunshi 'yanci na gari wadanda aka ambata da shekarunsu, hikimarsu da mahimmancinsu a cikin al'amuran addini da siyasa. [22] Membobinta suna jin daɗin cikakken iko akan talakawa saboda tashar addininsu. Shaida ga yadda yaduwar makarantar ta kasance kasancewar akwai (kuma har yanzu) shuwagabannin Ogboni a kusan dukkanin kananan kotunan cikin kasar Yarbawa. Ban da aikinsu game da bautar duniya, suna da hakkin yanke hukunci game da duk wani abu da ya shafi zubar da jini. Jagoran Ogboni, Oluwo, yana da cancantar isa kai tsaye zuwa Alaafin na Oyo kan kowane lamari.

Soja[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Akwai babban ƙwarewar ƙwarewa a cikin rundunar masarautar Oyo. [27] Nasarorinta na soja ya kasance saboda yawancin dawakai da kuma jagoranci da ƙarfin gwiwar hafsoshin Oyo da mayaƙa. Saboda babban yankin da take mayar da hankali shi ne arewacin dajin, Oyo ta fi jin daɗin noma kuma don haka ci gaba da ƙaruwa a cikin jama'a. Wannan ya ba da gudummawa ga ikon Oyo don fitar da babbar runduna koyaushe. Hakanan akwai al'adun soja da suka kafu a Oyo inda cin nasara ya zama tilas kuma cin nasara ya ɗauki nauyin kashe kansa. [25] Babu shakka wannan manufar ta-ko-mutuwa ta ba da gudummawa ga tsokanar soja na janar-janar na Oyo.

Sojan doki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Masarautar Oyo ita ce kadai kasar Yarbawa da ta dauki dawakai ; ta yi haka ne saboda yawancin yankunanta yana cikin arewacin savannah . [12] Asali mahayan dawakai suna sabani; duk da haka, Nupe, Borgu da Hausa a cikin yankuna makwabta suma sunyi amfani da mahayan dawakai kuma wataƙila sun samo asalin tarihinsu. [28] Oyo ta iya siyan dawakai daga arewa kuma ta kula dasu a cikin babban birin Oyo saboda 'yanci na ɗan tsako daga tsuntsun tsetse . [29] Sojan doki doguwar hannu ce ta Daular Oyo. Atearshen balaguron ƙarni na 16 da 17 ya ƙunshi sojojin dawakai gaba ɗaya. Akwai nakasu ga wannan. Oyo ba za ta iya kula da dakarunta masu dawakai a kudu ba amma suna iya kai hari yadda suke so. [10]

Sojoji masu dawakai a cikin al'ummomin da suka ci gaba sosai kamar Oyo sun kasu zuwa haske da nauyi. [12] Tã sojan doki a kan ya fi girma shigo da dawakai da aka dauke da makamai nauyi thrusting lances ko māsu da ma tare da takuba . Sojojin dawakai masu haske a kan ƙaramar farar fata 'yan asalin ƙasar suna da makamai da jifa da mashi ko baka. [30]

Antananan yara[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ananan sojoji a yankin da ke kusa da Masarautar Oyo sun kasance iri ɗaya cikin kayan yaƙi da na yaƙi. Duk sojojin ƙanana a yankin sun ɗauki garkuwa, takuba da mashi iri ɗaya ko wata. [10] Garkuwa na da tsayi ƙafa huɗu da faɗi ƙafa biyu kuma an yi ta giwar giwa ko ta sa. [31] Tsawon kafa 3 feet (0.91 m)* takobi mai nauyi shi ne babban makamin yaƙi. Yarabawa da maƙwabta sun yi amfani da mashi sau uku waɗanda za a iya jefa su daidai daga taku 30.

Tsarin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Masarautar Oyo, kamar daulolin da yawa kafinta, sunyi amfani da dakaru na gida da na masu fadada fadada yankunanta. Tsarin rundunar sojan Oyo gabanin masarautarta ta kasance mai sauki kuma tana kusa da gwamnatin tsakiya a cikin babban birinin Oyo. Wannan na iya isa a cikin karni na 15 lokacin da Oyo ke iko da yankin kasar ta kawai, amma don ci gaba da ci gaba da ci gaba, tsarin ya sami canje-canje da yawa.

Eso[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Oyo ta ci gaba da kasancewa da sojoji na kwararru na sojan doki wadanda ake kira Eso, da Esho ko kuma, bisa tsari, Eso na Ikoyi . [32] Waɗannan su ne ƙananan shugabannin yaƙi 70 waɗanda Oyo Mesi ta zaɓa kuma Alaafin na Oyo ya tabbatar da su. An nada Eso don ƙwarewar aikin soja ba tare da la'akari da al'adun gargajiya ba, duk da cewa daulolin Eso suma an san su da zama. Eso sun kasance ƙarƙashin jagorancin Are-Ona-Kakanfo, [25] kuma sun shahara da rayuwa ta hanyar lambar yaƙi wanda ya yi daidai da Latin dictum infra dignitatem .

Shin Ona Kakanfo[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bayan dawowar Oyo daga gudun hijira, aka kafa mukamin Are-Ona-Kakanfo a matsayin babban kwamandan sojoji. [33] An bukace shi da zama a lardin da ke da matukar muhimmanci don sanya ido kan makiya da kuma hana shi kwace mulkin. [25] A lokacin masarautar Oyo, Are-Ona-Kakanfo da kanshi sun yiwa sojojin da ke filin daga dukkan yakin neman zabe.

Sojojin birni[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tun da Are-Ona-Kakanfo ba zai iya zama kusa da babban birni ba, dole ne a yi tsare-tsaren don kare wannan a yayin gaggawa. Bashorun, babban memba na Oyo Mesi ne ya ba da umarni ga sojojin da ke cikin birnin na Oyo. [33] Kamar yadda bayani ya gabata, an raba garin Metropolitan Oyo zuwa larduna shida da aka raba su daidai da kogi. Ta haka aka tara sojojin lardi zuwa rundunoni biyu, karkashin Onikoyi da Okere na gabas da yamma na kogin bi da bi. Knownananan shugabannin yaƙi an san su da Balogun, taken da sojojin da suka gaji jihar Oyo suka gaje shi, wato Ibadan . [34]

Sojojin Rarraba[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Shugabannin kabilu da gwamnonin larduna ne ke da alhakin tara haraji da bayar da gudummawar sojoji a ƙarƙashin janar na cikin gida ga sojojin sarki a lokacin gaggawa. [8] Lokaci-lokaci, ana ba shugabannin da ke ba da fatawa damar kai hari ga maƙwabta koda ba tare da goyon bayan babbar rundunar mulkin mallaka ba. Waɗannan rundunonin ana amfani da su sau da yawa a cikin kamfen na Oyo mai nisa a bakin kogi ko wasu jihohi.

Kasuwanci[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Oyo ta zama masarautar kudu ta kasuwancin Trans-Saharan. An yi musaya da gishiri, fata, dawakai, goro kola, hauren giwa, zane da bayi. [29] Yarabawa na babban birnin Oyo suma sun kware sosai a aikin kere kere da aikin karafa. Baya ga haraji kan kayayyakin kasuwanci da ke shigowa da fita daga masarautar, Oyo ta kasance mai wadata daga harajin da aka sanya wa rarar ta. Haraji akan masarautar Dahomey kadai ya kawo adadin da aka kiyasta akan dalar Amurka dubu 638 a shekara. [27]

Zenith[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Masarautar Oyo da jihohin da ke kewaye c. 1700.

Zuwa 1680, Masarautar Oyo ta fadada fiye da murabba'in kilomita 150,000. [35] Ya kai maɗaukakiyar ƙarfinsa a ƙarni na 18. [9] Duk da rikice-rikicen da aka kirkira, an gudanar da shi tare don son kai. [21] Gwamnati ta sami damar samar da haɗin kai ga yanki mai faɗi ta hanyar haɗakar ikon cin gashin kai da ikon masarauta. [27]

Ba kamar manyan daulolin savannah ba, wanda Oyo ba za a kira shi magaji ba tunda magaji ne na Ife, babu wani abu idan akwai tasirin Musulunci a daular. [18] Sananne ne cewa aƙalla an ajiye wasu jami'ai musulmai a cikin Metropolitan Oyo, [36] kuma mazaje masu iya rubutu da lissafi cikin larabci 'yan kasuwar Faransa sun ba da rahoton su a 1787

Ragewa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sulemanu kulli, a quasi- heraldic alama ce Yoruba Sarauta

Da yawa suna ganin faduwar masarautar Oyo ta fara ne tun a shekarar 1754 tare da dabarun sarauta da juyin mulkin fada da Firaminista Oyo Gaha ya dauki nauyi. Gaha, a kokarinsa na samun cikakken iko, ya hada baki da Oyo Mesi kuma watakila har ila yau Ogboni ya tilasta Alaafiyawa hudu da suka biyo baya don kashe kansu ta hanyar ibada bayan an gabatar da su da alamar kwaron aku. Tsakanin Yuni da Oktoba 1754 kawai, Gaha ya tilasta Alaafins biyu su kashe kansu. [37] Saboda wannan, Alaafin Awonbioju ya kwashe kwanaki 130 a kan karagar mulki, yayin da Alaafin Labisi ya shafe kwanaki 17 kawai a kan karagar. Ba a kawo karshen ha'incin Gaha ba sai a shekarar 1774 a lokacin mulkin Alaafin Abiodun, Alaafin na biyar da ya yi aiki. Daga baya Abiodun ya kashe Gaha amma rashin zaman lafiyar da wadannan dabarun suka haifar ya kara raunana Oyo.

Alaafin Abiodun a lokacin mulkin shi ma ya gudanar da kamfen na rashin nasara a kan Borgu a 1783 [38] da Nupe a 1789, [39] rasa kwatankwacin janar-janar 11 da 13 da mazajen su bi da bi. Daga baya dansa Awole ya kashe Abiodun, wanda daga baya ya hau gadon mahaifinsa.

Abubuwan da suka haifar da ballewar garin Ilorin sun fara ne a shekarar 1793. Ilorin sansanin yaki ne karkashin jagorancin Are-Ona Kakanfo Afonja. Afonja ya shiga takun-saka da Awole lokacin da shi kuma ya umarce shi da ya afkawa gidan Alaafin Abiodun, Iwere-Ile. Afonja, wanda ke daure da rantsuwa kuma yana son kada ya fada cikin la'ana daga Alaafin da ta gabata ya nuna cewa duk wani Aare Ona Kakanfo da ya kai hari Iwere-Ile (mahaifinsa) zai mutu matuka, ya ki bin umarnin. An kuma bayar da wani dalilin a shekarar 1795, lokacin da Awole ya umarci Afonja da ya afkawa garin kasuwar Apomu, wani yanki na Ile-Ife. Duk Alaafins, saboda imanin Yarbawa cewa Ife gida ne na ruhun Yarbawa, a baya an sanya su da rantsuwa cewa ba za su far wa Ife ba. Afonja ya aiwatar da umarnin Awole kuma ya kori Apomu, amma bayan dawowar sojoji daga kamfen din sai ya dunguma zuwa Oyo-Ile babban birnin kasar (wanda ita kanta haramun ce), kuma ya bukaci Awole ya sauka. Awole daga baya ya kashe kansa ta hanyar tsafi.

Bayan rasuwar Awole, akwai masu fafutuka don neman kursiyin daga masu fafutuka da yawa; wasu an ruwaito cewa sun yi kasa da watanni shida a kan karagar mulki; akwai kuma wani lokaci na rikice-rikice na kusan shekaru ashirin inda bangarori daban-daban ba su yarda da dan takara ba. Wannan rashin ikon ya haifar da hawan manyan sojoji da kwamandojin yanki kamar Adegun, da Onikoyi da Solagberu, da Otun Are-Ona Kakanfo. Shehu Alimi, wani basaraken Fulani wanda shi ne shugaban karuwar yawan musulmai a Oyo, shi ma ya hau mulki a wannan lokacin. Waɗannan sabbin abubuwan sun rasa daraja ga ofishin Alaafin saboda rikice-rikicen siyasa daban-daban da kuma rashin ikon hukuma a lokacin; wannan halin ya haifar da Afonja balle Ilorin daga Oyo a 1817 tare da taimakon Musulman Oyo. A cikin 1823, bayan da abokan aikinsa na farko Shehu Alimi da Solagberu suka kashe Afonja (wanda shi kuma ɗan Alimi ya kashe shi), Ilorin ya zama wani ɓangare na Kalifancin Sokoto. A lokacin da Kyaftin Hugh Clapperton ya ziyarci Oyo-Ile a 1825 lokacin mulkin Alaafin Majotu, masarautar ta riga ta kasance cikin yanayi na koma baya. Bangaren Clapperton sun nadar wasu kauyukan Oyo da Fulani na Ilorin suka kona yayin da Majotu kuma ya nemi taimakon sarkin Ingila da Oba na Benin wajen kawar da tawayen Ilorin. Shima Clapperton ya lura da karancin dawakai, duk da cewa Oyo ta shahara da karfin sojan doki; wannan na iya zama yana da nasaba da cewa galibin sojojin daular da kuma mahayan dawakai an ajiye su a Ilorin karkashin umarnin Afonja (kuma daga baya magajin Alimi).

Daga nan sai Ilorin ya kewaye Offa ya fara mamayewa, konawa tare da kwasar ganima a Oyo, daga karshe ya rusa babban birnin Oyo-Ile a 1835.

Rashin Hanyar Egbado[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yayin da Oyo ta tsinke kanta ta hanyar dambarwar siyasa, masu kula da ita suka fara amfani da damar don matsawa ga yanci. Egba, a karkashin jagorancin wani shugaban yaki da ake kira Lishabi, sun yiwa Ilari kisan gilla a yankin su sannan suka fatattaki wata rundunar azaba ta Oyo. [8]

Tawayen Dahomey[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin 1823 Dahomey aka ruwaito ya afkawa kauyukan da suke karkashin kariyar Oyo ga bayi saboda tsananin bukatar da ake musu. Nan da nan Oyo ta bukaci babbar kyauta daga Sarki Gezo saboda kutse ba da izini ba, wanda Gezo ya tura mataimakinsa dan kasar Brazil, Chacha Francisco Félix de Sousa, zuwa Alaafin da ke Oyo don yin sulhu. Tattaunawar sulhun daga baya ta wargaje, daga baya Oyo ta far wa Dahomey. [40] Sojojin Oyo sun ci nasara sosai, wanda ya kawo ƙarshen mulkin Oyo akan Dahomey. [41] Bayan samun 'yancinta, Dahomey ya fara farfaɗo da hanyar. [11]

Ago d'Oyo[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bayan lalata Oyo-Ile, sai aka matsa babban birnin zuwa kudu, zuwa Ago d'Oyo. Oba Atiba ya nemi kiyaye abin da ya rage na Oyo ta hanyar dorawa Ibadan aikin kare babban birnin daga Ilorin a arewa da arewa maso gabas. [42] Ya kuma yi ƙoƙari ya sa Ijaye su kare Oyo daga yamma da Dahomeans. Cibiyar ikon Yarbawa ta ci gaba zuwa kudu zuwa Ibadan, sansanin yakin Yarbawa wanda kwamandojin Oyo suka kafa a 1830. [12]

Rushewar ƙarshe[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Alaafin Oyo c. 1910

Wasan Atiba ya gaza, kuma Oyo ba ta sake dawo da martabarta a yankin ba. The Oba, in ba haka ba ana kiransa Atiba Atobatele, ya mutu a 1859; Hisansa Adeyemi I, Alaafin na uku da ya yi sarauta a Oyo ta yanzu, ya mutu a 1905. A lokacin mulkin mallaka, Yarabawa sun kasance ɗayan ƙungiyoyin birni a Afirka. Kimanin 22% na yawan jama'a sun zauna a cikin manyan yankuna tare da yawan mutane fiye da 100,000, kuma sama da 50% suna zaune a cikin biranen da ke da mutane 25,000 ko fiye. Lissafin biranen birni a shekarar 1950 ya kusa da na Amurka, ban da Ilorin. Yarbawa suna ci gaba da kasancewa ƙabilun Afirka mafi birni a yau. Manyan biranen zamani sun hada da Oyo, Ibadan, Osogbo, da Ogbomoso, wadanda wasu manyan garuruwa ne da suka bunkasa bayan tsohuwar Oyo ta ruguje. [43]

Ragowar masarautar na ci gaba da kasancewa a matsayin ɗayan jihohin gargajiya na wannan zamani na Nijeriya.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Oyotunji African Village
  • Sarakunan jihar Yarbawa na Oyo
  • Tarihin Najeriya

Bayanan kula[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Easley, Dr. Larry. "The Four Forest States of Africa." Oyo Empire. Southeast Missouri State University, Cape Girardeau. 2 Mar. 2009.
  • Kehnide Salami, Yunusa Ph.D. "The Democratic Structure of Yoruba Political-Cultural Heritage." Department of Philosophy Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife. 29 Apr. 2009.
  • Shillington, Kevin. History of Africa. 2nd ed. New York: Macmillan Limited, 1995
  • Fasanya, Akin (2004). "The Original Religion of the Yorubas". http://www.laits.utexas.edu/africa/2004/database/fasanya.html
  1. Forde,1967,p 36
  2. 2.0 2.1 Stride & Ifeka 1971, p. 291
  3. Goddard 1971, pp. 207–211.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Stride & Ifeka p. 292
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Oliver & Atmore 2001, p. 89.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Thornton 1999, p. 77.
  7. Alpern 1998, p. 37.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 Stride & Ifeka 1971, p. 296.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Stride & Ifeka 1971, p. 293.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 Thornton 1999, p. 79.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 Smith 1989, p. 122.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 Smith 1989, p. 48.
  13. Thornton 1999, p. 82.
  14. Thornton 1999, p. 86.
  15. Alpern 1998, p. 165.
  16. Thornton 1999, p. 97.
  17. Thornton 1999, p. 88.
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 Oliver & Atmore 2001, p. 95.
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 Stride & Ifeka 1971, p. 297.
  20. Alpern 1998, p. 34.
  21. 21.0 21.1 Stride & Ifeka 1971, p. 298.
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 Stride & Ifeka 1971, p. 299.
  23. Smith 1989, p. 12.
  24. Smith 1989, p. 10.
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 Stride & Ifeka 1971, p. 300.
  26. 26.0 26.1 Afolayan, Funso. (2000) "Kingdoms of West Africa", Africa Vol. 1 ed. by Tony Falola, p. 173.
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 Stride & Ifeka 1971, p. 301.
  28. Law 1975, pp. 1–15.
  29. 29.0 29.1 Stride & Ifeka 1971, p. 302.
  30. Smith 1989, p. 50.
  31. Thornton 1999, p. 80.
  32. Smith 1989, p. 56.
  33. 33.0 33.1 Smith 1989, p. 53.
  34. Smith 1989, p. 57.
  35. Thornton 1998, p. 104.
  36. Smith 1989, p. 20.
  37. (PRO:T.70/1523)."Extract of letter of W. Devaynes, Governor of the English fort at Whydah, 22 Oct. 1754, quoted in letter of T. Melvil, Cape Coast Castle, 30 Nov. 1754". Public Records Office, London
  38. (PRO: T.70/1545). "Letter of Lionel Abson, Governor of the English fort at Whydah, 26 Sept. 1783" Public Records Office, London
  39. Dalzel, Archibald. "The History of Dahomy, An Inland Kingdom of Africa" London,1793,p.229
  40. ."Royal Gold Coast Gazette and Commercial Intelligencer" Cape coast, 1822-3
  41. Alpern 1998, p. 166.
  42. Smith 1989, p. 123.
  43. Bascom 1962, pp. 699-709.