Mohamed Seghir Boushaki

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Zaben kananan hukumomin Aljeriya na 1919


Election: Municipal councilors in Algeria (en) Fassara
Algerian municipal elections of 1929 (en) Fassara


Election: Municipal councilors in Algeria (en) Fassara
Algerian municipal elections of 1925 (en) Fassara


Election: Municipal councilors in Algeria (en) Fassara
Algerian municipal elections of 1935 (en) Fassara


Election: Municipal councilors in Algeria (en) Fassara
Rayuwa
Cikakken suna محمد الصغير بن محمد بن علي بوسحاقي العيشاوي الزواوي
Haihuwa Thénia, 27 Nuwamba, 1869
ƙasa French Algeria (en) Fassara
Mazauni Thénia
Harshen uwa Abzinanci
Larabci
Mutuwa Thénia, 14 ga Faburairu, 1959
Makwanci Makabartar Thenia
Yanayin mutuwa Sababi na ainihi
Ƴan uwa
Mahaifi Cheikh Mohamed Boushaki
Ƴan uwa
Karatu
Makaranta Zawiyet Sidi Boushaki
Rahmaniyya
Zawiyet Sidi Amar Cherif
Zawiyet Sidi Boumerdassi
Algerian Islamic reference (en) Fassara
Harsuna Larabci
Abzinanci
Faransanci
Malamai Cheikh Mohamed Boushaki (en) Fassara
Sana'a
Sana'a ɗan/'yar siyasa, local politician (en) Fassara, nationalist (en) Fassara, Kamsila da petitioner (en) Fassara
Wurin aiki Thénia, Bouïra (en) Fassara da Aljir
Employers liberal profession (en) Fassara
Muhimman ayyuka Koken 'Yancin Siyasar Aljeriya na 1920
Wanda ya ja hankalinsa Cheikh Mohamed Boushaki (en) Fassara da Khaled el-Hassani ben el-Hachemi (en) Fassara
Mamba Rahmaniyya
Sufiyya
Malikiyya
Ash'ari (en) Fassara
Algerian nationalism (en) Fassara
Fafutuka Algerian nationalism (en) Fassara
Sunan mahaifi Si Moh Esseghir
Imani
Addini Musulunci
Mabiya Sunnah
Jam'iyar siyasa Movement for the Triumph of Democratic Liberties (en) Fassara

Mohamed Seghir Boushaki (larabci: [محمد الصغير بوسحاقي]), (an haife shi 27 ga watan Nuwamban shekara ta alif 1869, a Thénia, Lardin Boumerdès, Kabylie, Algeria; ya mutu a shekara ta alif 1959, a Thenia, Algeria) ɗan siyasar Abzinawa ne na Aljeriya bayan Faransa ta mamaye Algeriya.[1]

Tarihin Rayuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An haifi Mohamed Seghir Boushaki a shekara ta alif 1869, a ƙauyen Thala Oufella (Kabyle: ⵟⵀⴰⵍⴰ O ⵓⴼⴻⵍⵍⴰ) ana kiransa Soumâa (ana kiransa Larabci: الصومعة) saboda kango na Benian ntâa Soumâa.[2]

Wannan tsohuwar katanga ta Berber ta Benian ntâa Soumâa ta Sarki Nubel [fr] ne ya gina ta lokacin da yankin na thenia ya kasance babban birnin Kabylie da Mitidja a Arewacin Afirka a lokacin tsufa.[3]

Kasashen da suka fara daga Oued Boumerdès da Oued Meraldene a yamma zuwa Oued Isser zuwa gabashin ƙauyen "Thala Oufella (Soumâa)" na toabilar "Aïth Aïcha" wanda Mohamed ya kasance Seghir Boushaki kafin Faransa ta mamaye Algeria.[4]

Shekaru biyu kacal da haihuwar Mohamecd Seghir, duk Kabylie sun yi gangami zuwa "Tawayen Mokrani" a ranar 16 ga watan Maris shekarar alif 1871, don korar sojojin mulkin mallaka na Faransa daga filin da tudu.[5]

Bayan kayar da 'yan uwantaka ta Rahmaniya a wannan rikici na Kabyle, an tura shugabannin kabilun zuwa New Caledonia, daga cikinsu Cheikh Boumerdassi da "Ahmed Ben Belkacem" shugaban "Aïth Aïcha" wanda ke kusa da Mohamed Seghir.[6]

"Ahmed Ben Belkacem", an haife shi a shekarar alif 1837, kuma ɗan Ahmed ne, an tasa keyarsa ƙarƙashin "Lambar 18744".[7]

Iyali[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mohamed Seghir Boushaki ya girma a cikin babban iyali inda babban wansa "Ali Boushaki" (1855-1965) ya kasance abin koyi.[8]

Mahaifinsu "Mohamed Boushaki" (1834-1889), wanda aka fi sani da "Moh Ouaâli" (Larabci: موح واعلي}, yana ɗaya daga cikin waɗanda suka tsira daga balaguron Faransawa zuwa garin Dellys daga 7 zuwa 17 ga watan Mayu shekarar 1844 kuma wanda ya lalace garuruwa da yawa na Kabylie, gami da "Thala Oufella (Soumâa)".[9]

Don haka, kakan Mohamed Seghir, "Ali Boushaki" (1823-1846) wanda ya auri "Khdaouedj Dekkiche" daga ƙauyen Gueraïchene na Souk El-Had, yana ɗaya daga cikin shahidan Kabyle a lokacin yaƙi da Frenchasar Faransa na Kabylie, ya bar nasa ɗa "Moh Ouaâli" maraya.[10]

Kisan gillar da aka yiwa Jacques Leroy de Saint Arnaud ya cika kuma ƙauyen "Thala Oufella (Soumâa)" ya lalace, kaka mai takaba "Khdaouedj Dekkiche" kawai zata iya kiyaye ɗanta "Moh Ouaâli" ta ɗauke shi tare da iyayenta a ƙauyen Gueraïchene (Larabci: إيقرعيشن) a Souk El-Had har zuwa balagarta da sake gina garinsa na asali a cikin "Aïth Aïcha" kabilar.[11]

Bayan dawowarsa zuwa "Thala Oufella" a cikin shekarar 1852 yana da shekara 18, "Mohamed Boushaki (Moh Ouaâli)" ya auri ɗan uwansa "Aïcha Ishak-Boushaki" daga ƙauyen Meraldene wanda ya haifa "Ali Boushaki" a shekarar 1855 sannan kuma daga "Mohamed Seghir Boushaki "a cikin shekarar 1869.[12]

Karatu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mohamed Seghir Boushaki ya fara karatun Alkur'ani ne a cikin Zawiyet Sidi Boushaki da aka sake ginawa a ƙauyen "Thala Oufella" kusa da kabarin kakan kakansa Sidi Boushaki (1394–1453) wanda yana ɗaya daga cikin masanan da masu ilimin tauhidi kafin isowar Ottomans a Aljeriya.[13]

A halin yanzu, filayen tsaunin Dutsen "Aïth Aïcha", arewacin ƙauyen "Thala Oufella", an mallake shi tun farkon shekarar 1871 ta hannun manoman Alsatian da Lorraine waɗanda suka zo daga Faransa don gano garin Ménerville.[14] · .[15]

Don haka, daga 1874 zuwa 1881, Mohamed Seghir ya yi kiwon garken garin tare da dan uwansa Ali da kuma dan uwan ​​nasa yayin da yake ci gaba da karantarwar Musulmi a kauyensu.[16]

Bayan kirkirar ofisoshin Larabawa a Kabylie da kuma kafa rajistar fararen hula da gwamna Louis Tirman ya yi, an jingina sabbin alamomin ga dangin "Aïth Aïcha", kuma an mika wa mazauna kauyukan takardun shaida, wanda ya ba Mohamed damar Seghir Boushaki don ci gaba da karatu a Zawiyet Sidi Boumerdassi da Zawiyet Sidi Amar Cherif, da kuma a Tizi Ouzou a cikin "Zawiya na Sheikh Mohand Ameziane" inda ya saba da yawancin mashahuran masu zuwa na Babban Kabylie.[17]

Karatu mai zurfi da tafsirin da Mohamed Seghir ya karba a cikin Tizi Ouzou Zawiyas, da kuma yawan halartar baƙi na Faransawa, sun ba shi damar yin tsokaci a cikin al'adun Berber-Arab a gefe guda, kuma ya buɗe kan gaskiyar gaskiyar Kasancewar Turawa a Kabylie na wani gabar teku, saboda haka ba shi babban jari mai amfani da harsuna uku don neman tafiyarsa ta siyasa da zamantakewa.[18]

Aiki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bayan shekaru goma na karatun addinin Islama a Great Kabylie, Mohamed Seghir Boushaki ya zauna a ƙauyensa "Thala Oufella (Soumâa)" a cikin 1891 kuma ya fara aiki a harkar noma da kasuwanci.[19]

Ya kware a fannin noman bishiyar carob ta hanyar sakar wata cibiyar sadarwar danyar wake ta sayarwa a cikin jihar da kuma sarrafa shi cikin danko da kuma wake na moro.[20]

Ba da daɗewa ba ya sami shahararrun riba wanda ya ba shi damar yin hayar gida a cikin mulkin mallaka na Faransa na Ménerville (Thénia) da ke iyaka da "Oued Arbia" inda ya yi aure a shekarar 1898 yana da shekara 29 tare da Fatma Cherifi, ɗiyar wani dangi mai arziki da ke zaune kusa da Zawiyet Sidi Amar Cherif a Sidi Daoud tare da Kogin Sebaou.[21]

Mohamed Seghir ya sauya tsarin tattara danyen wake a Kabylie zuwa wani hadadden kawance tsakanin kauyuka ta hanyar aure a tsohuwar Sashin Algiers wanda ya sake hada wilayan Algiers, Boumerdes, Tizi Ouzou, Bouira, Blida da Tipaza.[22]

Yayin da yake kasancewa mai cikakken goyon bayan Sufi Tariqa na Rahmaniyya, ya yawaita zuwa masallatai biyu na Sidi M'hamed Bou Qobrine a Bounouh (Boghni) da Hamma (Algiers), kuma da zaran ya haifi ɗa na farko a shekarar 1907, shi sanya masa suna "M'Hamed Boushaki" don tunawa da masanin ilimin kabyle "M'Hamed Ben Abderrahmane El Azhari".[23]

Babban kasuwancin sa ya ba shi damar halartar kasuwannin mako a duk cikin Kabylie inda ake tattaunawa kan ma'amaloli da yarjejeniyar aure.[24]

Yaƙin Duniya na 1[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Thénia a Yankin Khachna.

Mohamed Seghir Boushaki ya rasa matarsa ​​ta farko "Fatma Cherifi" a shekara ta 1914 jim kadan kafin barkewar yakin duniya na daya lokacin da ya kai shekaru 45, ya bar masa yara marayu da dama a kansa.[25]

Sannan ya sake yin aure da sauri tare da "Khdaouedj Tafat Bouzid" daga ƙauyen "Aïth Thafath" a cikin Chabet el Ameur, wanda ke kula da marayu sannan kuma ta haifa masa wasu sabbin yaran.[26]

Faransawan da suka yi mulkin mallaka, wadanda sojojin Jamus da Stormtrooper suka kewaye shi, sun yi kira ga matasan Aljeriya da ke cikin rukunin dakarunta a cikin babban birni tare da alkawarin ba su a musayar wasu 'yan kasa da ke cikin Aljeriya kuma me zai hana a ba su cikakken' yanci.[27]

Yawancin yara da yawa na Khachna da Great Kabylie an dauke su aiki a gaban Faransa a Turai, daga cikinsu akwai dangin Mohamed Seghir.[28]

Daya daga cikin wadannan sojojin kabyle shine dan dan uwansa "Ali Boushaki", dan dan uwansa "Abderrahmane Boushaki" wanda ya kasance kofur a cikin "runduna ta 1 ta masu sharpshooters ta Algeria" daga shekara ta 1914 zuwa 1918.[29]

Bambancin da kayan adon bayan dawowar dan dan uwan ​​"Abderrahmane Boushaki" wanda aka yanka daga Faransa ya ba shi tare da danginsa da danginsa karin girma a cikin mulkin mallaka na Faransa a Algeria bayan 1918.[30]

Hanyar 'yan bindiga[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mohamed Seghir Boushaki ya fara gwagwarmayar gwagwarmaya a siyasa a matsayin wani bangare na mulkin mallaka na Faransa daga shekarar 1918 zuwa.[31] · .[32]

Manufar siyasa ta Mohamed Seghir ba ta koma Algiers don zama a can ba saboda ana samun jigilar kaya ta layin dogo da ya hada Tizi Ouzou zuwa Algiers wanda aka kammala shi a shekarar 1888 bayan an hade Bouira da Algiers a shekarar 1886.[33]

Shekaru 49 a ƙarshen Yaƙin Duniya na ɗaya tare da yara kusan goma a cikin kulawarsa da alhakinsa, Mohamed Seghir bai iya yunƙurin zama a cikin ƙananan ƙwayoyin Algiers ba ta hanyar ɗaukar kasada na manta kansa da narkewa a cikin cikakkun bayanai game da rayuwar birni mulkin mallaka nesa da tsammanin mutanen ƙauyen Kabylian sun hau kan tsaunukan su kuma suna tunani game da Turawan zama waɗanda suka ɓata musu gonakinsu da makiyayarsu.[34]

Sabon matsayin gatan dan dan uwansa "Abderrahmane Boushaki" a matsayinsa na tsohon soja ya ba wa "Arch of Aïth Aïcha" damar sake gina "Zawiya na Sidi Boushaki", wanda aka lalata a shekarar 1844 a ƙauyen "Thala Oufella (Soumâa)", tare da addu'a daki, makarantar koranta, ginshiki mai kyau, da gida ga malamin kur'ani. Wani magidanci dan kasar Faransa ya tsara Zawiya ta kauye cikin salon Berber-Moorish.[35]

Zuwan attajirin mai gidan "Mohamed Naïth Saïdi" daga yankin Larbaâ Nath Irathen don ya zauna a garin Ménerville (Thenia) na mulkin mallaka ya kasance wani mahimmin juyi a yankin "Aïth Aïcha", saboda ya auri wani dan uwan ​​Mohamed Seghir Boushaki, Kuma ya gina dukkan gundumomi a cikin salon Moorish a tsakiyar wanda aka gina masallaci na farko a Lower Kabylia bayan mulkin mallakar Faransa.[36]

Hakan ya biyo bayan zuwan iyalai da yawa na Kabylian daga Djurdjura, kamar "Redjouani" da "Djennadi", don sasantawa tsakanin baƙi na Turai a Ménerville (Thenia) kuma don haka inganta bayyanar wayewar kai na ƙasa tsakanin Tizi Ouzou da Algiers.[37]

Dokar Jonnart[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Babban labarin: Zaben kananan hukumomin Aljeriya na 1919
Duba kuma: Koken 'Yancin Siyasar Aljeriya na 1920
Theaddamar da tsarin sake tura jama'a, cibiyoyi da zamantakewar jama'a a Kabylie ta asalin mazauna sun sami keta doka ta hanyar Dokar Jonnart da Charles Jonnart ya yi shela a ranar 4 ga watan Fabrairu shekarar 1919 kuma ya ba wa 'yan Aljeriya damar zaɓa da zaɓaɓɓu a majalisun dokokin birni.[38][39]

Don haka, zaɓen birni na farko bayan yaƙin bayan gari ya gudana a Algeria a ranar 30 ga watan Nuwamba shekarar 1919, wanda Mohamed Seghir Boushaki da Sarki Khaled suka halarci.[40][41]

Gwagwarmayar Mohamed Seghir bayan shekara ta 1919 ta ta'allaka ne game da gwagwarmayar halaccin mulkin mallaka, yayin da yake kasancewa mai ƙiyayya ga ikon mallakar ƙasa amma har ila yau yana gwagwarmayar daidaito tsakanin 'yan asalin Algeria da masu mulkin mallaka na Faransa a cikin mawuyacin yanayi.[42][43]

An gudanar da zaben Magajin garin Ménerville (Thenia) da mataimakansa a ranar Lahadi, 7 ga watan Disamba shekarar 1919, a zabukan Karamar Hukumar inda "César Boniface" a matsayin magajin gari, da mataimakansa "Auguste Schneider", "Georges Egrot" Da "Samuel Juvin ", an zabe su duka da kuri'u 23 daga cikin masu jefa kuri'a 24.[44]

An zabi Mohamed Seghir a matsayin kansilan gari mai wakiltar Douar na "Thala Oufella (Soumâa)" a cikin Municipal na Ménerville a cikin ƙungiyar "César Boniface" na tsawon shekaru 5 daga shekarar 1920 zuwa shekarar 1925. Da yawa daga cikin 'yan majalissar Aljeriya sun zauna a zauren Ménerville Town Hall kusa da Mohamed Seghir kuma sun wakilci Douars daban-daban da suka kewaye garin mulkin mallaka.[45]

Shigarwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tun a shekarar 1920, Mohamed Seghir Boushaki tare da Sarki Khaled suka hada dabarun siyasa na kutsawa cikin tsarin mulki da al'adun mulkin mallaka, tare da kariyar da za ta ba su damar zuwa Sashin Algiers ba tare da wata matsala ba don saduwa da manyan masu kishin kasa. gefuna.

Wannan hukumar zaben ta baiwa Mohamed Seghir damar cin gajiyar dama da dama na matsayin kansila na gari kamar samun sassauci don gudanar da gonar hekta 70 da ke kudu maso gabashin birnin Merverville a gefen kauyen "Thala Oufella (Soumâa) "da kuma 'yar tazara daga Oued Isser.

"Sarki Khaled" ya yi amfani da wannan shigarwar da kutsawa ya kuma ziyarci kauyuka da kauyukan Sashin Algiers, kamar yadda kakansa sarki Abdelkader shi ma ya kasance yana wa'azin 'yanci ga' yan Aljeriya fiye da wadanda dokar Jonnart ta bayar.

Yawancin ayyukan siyasa na Mohamed Seghir tare da Sarki Khaled ya ci gaba har zuwa lokacin da wannan mulkin na shekarar 1923 ya yi ƙaura zuwa mulkin Misira zuwa Masar don ƙoƙari ya fusata haɓakar eancin Algeria da Kabyle.

A shekarar 1924, Mohamed Seghir ya sami izini don bude "Moorish Café" a cikin garin Ménerville wanda ke kallon titin Avenue de la Republique, inda dansa M'Hamed Boushaki (1907 - 1995) ya tafi Don yin aiki tare da 'yan uwansa har zuwa barkewar cutar Aljeriya juyin juya halin 'yanci a 1 ga watan Nuwamba shekarar 1954.

Kaɗan kadan Mohamed Seghir ya zama ɓangare na wasan siyasa na mulkin mallaka kuma ya fara sanya coan uwansa da danginsa a cikin ayyukan gudanarwa da sabis a cikin "Canton of Alma (Boudouaou)" da kuma cikin Algiers don ƙarfafa kasancewar Kabyle a babban birnin su lalatar da kakannin kakanni.[46]

Sufanci[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mohamed Seghir Boushaki bai fasa dangantakarsa ta ruhaniya da dangi ba tare da mabiyan Zawiyas Rahmaniyya na Tizi Ouzou wadanda sukan ziyarce shi a gidansa da ke Ménerville, suka yi hanya zuwa "Moorish Café" yayin motsinsu kuma suka zauna kamar shi a cikin Zagaye na 27 na Tizi Ouzou kamar shi a mazaba ta 29 na Alma (Boudouaou).[47]

Yayin bukukuwan addini, ayarin motocin mutane na Kabyle Sufis sun haɗu da ƙauyukan "Aïth Aïcha" da na "Aïth Guechtoula" na Boghni tare da zabura, karatun da intonations duk a hanyar da ta kai kusan kilomita 40. Mahajjata da almajiran Kabyle sun fara daga Zawiyet Sidi Boushaki don isa Bounouh Zaouiya domin yin Maulidin kowace shekara. Bayan haka Mohamed Seghir ya gina gidan fasinjoji na sa kai a "Thala Oufella (Soumâa)" don maraba da wadannan almajiran Sufayen a lokacin da suke yawo a addini.[48]

Ya taba tura dansa "M'Hamed Boushaki" tare da sauran 'yan uwansa don yin karatu a "Boumerdassi Zawiya" kudu da Tidjelabine. A halin yanzu, babban wansa "Ali Boushaki" (1855-1965) ya bi hanyar tauhidi don zama ɗayan muftin na Lower Kabylie bisa ga al'adar Maliki kuma an kira shi Mokaddem na tarika Rahmaniyya a yankin tsakanin Mitidja da Djurdjura , da kuma matsayinsa na Limamin wa'azi a Masallacin Ménerville.[49]

Amincewa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kansila Mohamed Seghir Boushaki ya yi fice daga shekarar 1920 zuwa shekarar 1925 a fagen siyasa, zamantakewa da addinai a yayin aikinsa na siyasa na farko bayan fitar da Dokar Jonnart.[50]

Ta haka ne Mohamed Seghir ya tattara goyon bayan 'yan majalisun Aljeriya da yawa don yin da kuma sanya hannu a "Takardar Namba 30" mai kwanan wata 18 ga watan Yuli shekarar 1920, inda ya yi zanga-zanga tare da takwarorinsa da yawa zuwa Majalisar Dattawa game da tanadin wani kudirin doka da Gwamnatin Faransa game da tsara tsarin Indigénat a Aljeriya da karɓar asalin Aljeriya zuwa haƙƙin siyasa.[51]

Wannan "Takaddama mai lamba 30" ta Mohamed Seghir da abokan aikin sa an binciki ta ne Sanatan Landes na lokacin wanda yake Charles Cadilhon a matsayin mai rubuta rahoton zaman majalisar dattijai a karkashin Jamhuriya ta Uku ta Faransa.[52]

Mohamed Seghir ya yi karatun ta natsu game da yadda ake zartar da shawarwarin kwamitocin koke-koke a karkashin doka ta 100 ta dokokin aikin majalisar dattijan Faransa wanda ya tanadi cewa kowane sanata na iya neman rahoton a bainar jama'a a gaban koke ko wane irin rarrabuwa ne wanda Kwamitin ya ba shi a kan bukatarsa, ya rubuta a rubuce zuwa ga Shugaban Majalisar Dattawan, don a gabatar da wannan rahoton a zaman Majalisar Dattawa. Bayan ƙarewar lokacin da aka tsara don aiwatar da ƙararraki, ƙudurin Kwamitin zai zama na ƙarshe game da buƙatun waɗanda ba batun batun jama'a ba ne kuma za a ambata su a cikin Journal officiel de la République française.[53]

Don haka "Takardar Noma 30" ta kasance kuma an tattauna sosai kafin a buga ta a cikin Jaridar Jaridar 20 watan Mayu shekarar 1921.[54]

"Majalisar dattijai ta Jamhuriya ta Uku" ce ta yi muhawara game da wannan koke ƙarƙashin shugabancin Léon Bourgeois.[55]

Sharuɗɗan ofis[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Dutsen Thala Oufella (Soumâa) in Thenia.
Sharuɗɗan ofis na Mohamed Seghir Boushaki
Ofis Wuri Daga Zuwa Gwamnan Aljeriya
01 Majalisar gari ta Faransa Aljeriya Thenia 30 Nuwamba Nuwamba 1919[56] 3 Mayu 1925[57] Jean-Baptiste Abel
Théodore Steeg
Henri Dubief
02 Majalisar gari ta Faransa Aljeriya Thenia 3 Mayu 1925 1930 Maurice Viollette
Pierre Bordes
03 Majalisar gari ta Faransa Aljeriya Thenia 1935 1939 Georges Le Beau

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Majiya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Dutsen wucewa na garin Thenia.
  • "Pétitions". Sénat: Séance du 18 juillet 1920. Journal officiel de la République française. (in French). N° 73. Paris: Quai Voltaire. 20 May 1921. p. 1172. Citation: p. 1170CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Élections municipales 1925. L'Écho d'Alger. (in French). N° 5689 (14ème Année ed.). Alger: Boulevard Carnot. 6 May 1925. p. 8. Citation: p. 5CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Élections municipales 1925. L'Écho d'Alger. (in French). N° 5691 (14ème Année ed.). Alger: Boulevard Carnot. 8 May 1925. p. 8. Citation: p. 5CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Mandat municipal. L'Écho d'Alger. (in French). N° 6516 (16ème Année ed.). Alger: Boulevard Carnot. 12 August 1927. p. 4. Citation: p. 2CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Élections municipales 1935. L'Écho d'Alger. (in French). N° 9059 (24ème Année ed.). Alger: Boulevard Carnot. 25 May 1935. p. 8. Citation: p. 6CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. "Journal officiel de la République française. Débats parlementaires. Sénat : compte rendu in-extenso". Gallica.bnf.fr. 19 May 1921.
  2. Carette, Ernest (1808–1890) Fonction indéterminée; Warnier, Auguste (1810–1875) Fonction indéterminée (1 January 1846). "Carte de l'Algérie divisée par tribus / par MM. E. Carette et Auguste Warnier ; Membres de la Commission Scientifique de l'Algérie". Gallica.bnf.fr.
  3. "كتاب تاريخ الجزائر العام للشيخ عبد الرحمان الجيلالي". Archive.org. 21 July 2010. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
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