Abderrahmane Boushaki

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Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Abderrahmane Boushaki
Rayuwa
Cikakken suna عبد الرحمان بن علي بن محمد بن علي بوسحاقي
Haihuwa Soumâa da Thénia, 1896
ƙasa Aljeriya
ƙungiyar ƙabila Kabyle people (en) Fassara
Algerians (en) Fassara
Harshen uwa Abzinanci
Larabci
Mutuwa Thénia, Thénia District (en) Fassara da Boumerdès Province (en) Fassara, 1985
Makwanci Makabartar Thenia
Yanayin mutuwa Sababi na ainihi
Yan'uwa
Mahaifi Ali Boushaki
Yara
Yan'uwa
Karatu
Makaranta Zawiyet Sidi Boushaki
Rahmaniyya
Zawiyet Sidi Amar Cherif
Zawiyet Sidi Boumerdassi
Algerian Islamic reference (en) Fassara
Harsuna Larabci
Kabyle (en) Fassara
Faransanci
Sana'a
Sana'a soja da ɗan siyasa
Aikin soja
Fannin soja French Army (en) Fassara
Digiri corporal (en) Fassara
Ya faɗaci Yakin Duniya na I
Algerian War of Independence (en) Fassara
Imani
Addini Musulunci
Mabiya Sunnah
Sunni (en) Fassara
Sufiyya

Abderrahmane Boushaki (Larabci: عبد الرحمان بن علي بوسحاقيAbderrahmane ibn Ali al-Boushaki) (1896 CE - 1985 CE) sojan Aljeriya ne kuma dan siyasa wanda ya halarci Yaƙin Duniya na I, kungiyar gwagwarmayar Aljeriya da barkewar yakin 'yancin kai na Aljeriya.[1][2]

Ilimi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An haifi Boushaki a cikin shekarar alif 1883 a ƙauyen Soumâa kudu da birnin Thenia na yanzu,[3] kimanin kilomita 50 gabas da babban birnin Aljir, kuma danginsa sun fito ne daga masanin tauhidin Malikit Sidi Boushaki (1394-1453), wanda ya kafa Zawiyet Sidi Boushaki a shekara ta 1440 a cikin karni na 15.[4]

Mahaifinsa shi ne Ali Boushaki (1855-1965),[5] Muqaddam na Tariqa Rahmaniyyah a Lower Kabylia, yayin da mahaifiyarsa Lallahoum Ishak Boushaki, zuriya ce kamar mijinta na masanin tauhidi Sidi Boushaki a reshen ƙauyen Meraldene.

Kakansa Mohamed Boushaki (1838-1893), wanda aka fi sani da Moh Ouali, shi ma Muqaddam na Tariqa da kansa da kakansa na uba da na uwa sun kasance limamai musulmi kamar yadda 'yan uwansa suke.[6]

Sannan ya sami ilimin addini bisa ga mahangar Musulunci ta Aljeriya a mazhabobin sufanci guda uku na Zawiyet Sidi Boushaki, Zawiyet Sidi Boumerdassi da Zawiyet Sidi Amar Cherif, da kuma wayewar siyasa bisa akidar kishin kasa ta Aljeriya karkashin jagorancinsa. Kawun mahaifinsa Mohamed Seghir Boushaki (1869-1959).[7][8][9]

Baya ga ayyukansa na ilimi a wannan muhallin Sufi, ya yi aikin noma da kiwo a kusa da kauyukan Meraldene, Tabrahimt, Gueddara, Azela da Mahrane.[10][11][12]

Yaƙin Duniya na I[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tun bayan barkewar Yaƙin Duniya na I an bukaci Boushaki da ya garzaya gaban soja a Faransa tare da gayyatar dubban matasan Aljeriya don shiga yakin da ake yi da Dakarun mulkin mallaka na Jamus domin musanyawa da alkawuran hakkin farar hula da na siyasa wanda zai kasance da aka bai wa ƴan ƙasar Aljeriya idan sun yi nasara.[13][14]

Wadannan alkawuran da gwamnatin Aljeriya ta mamaya da Faransawa suka yi wa wadannan matasa shi ne na ba su lada ta hanyar bai wa Aljeriya yancin kai, ko kuma a kalla a daidaita aljeriya da matsugunan kasashen waje wajen hakki da aikin zama dan kasa, duk kuwa da fatawowin da wasu malaman tauhidin Aljeriya suka yi na hana su shiga aikin sojojin Faransa.[15]

Daga nan sai Boushaki ya shiga cikin shekarar 1914 tare da musulmin Aljeriya kusan 173,000 a cikin Sojojin Faransa (80,000 da aka kira da 60,000) a karkashin aikin soja na tilas da aka gabatar a cikin shekarar 1912, wanda ya kasance mai ban sha'awa da farko kuma ya shiga aikin soja na tilas daga shekara ta 1916.[16]

An ba shi aikin soja na 1st Aljeriya 'yan bindiga rejimenti wanda kusan 26,000 suka mutu ko suka ɓace a ƙarshen babban yaƙin.[17][18]

Yayin da yake fafutuka a fagen daga, gwamnatin mulkin mallaka a Aljeriya ta yi wa iyalinsa alkawurran samun fa'idodi kamar su alawus alawus, albashi mai kama da na Faransanci, fansho da alawus-alawus.[19]

Daga baya an ji masa rauni a shekara ta 1916 kuma yankan da aka yi masa ya sa ya samu karin girma zuwa matsayin kofur a cikin sojojin Algerian masu fafutuka har zuwa karshen tashin hankali a Faransa.[20][21]

Sojojin da suka mutu tsakanin shekarar 1914 zuwa 1918[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

'Yan Aljeriya ranar Agusta 1914.

Sojoji da dama da aka tura tare da Abderrahmane Boushaki a yankin Thénia (tsohon Ménerville) sun mutu a yaƙe-yaƙe na Babban Yaƙin tsakanin shekarar 1914 zuwa 1918, don lura da haka:[22]

  1. Ahmed Boumachou, an haife shi a ranar 23 ga watan Nuwamba Shekara ta alif 1896, kuma ya rasu a ranar 2 ga watan Satumba shekarar 1918.
  2. Ahmed Mazouz, an haife shi a ranar 24 ga watan Oktoba shekara ta 1896, kuma ya rasu a ranar 11 ga watan Yuni shekarar 1918.
  3. Ali Amraoui, an haife shi a ranar 31 ga watan Janairu shekara ta 1898, kuma ya rasu a ranar 14 ga watan Yuli shekarar 1918.
  4. Ali Bouhedi, wanda ake kyautata zaton an haife shi a shekara ta 1890, kuma ya rasu a ranar 12 ga watan Satumban shekarar 1916.
  5. Ali Mechem, an haife shi a ranar 11 ga watan Janairu shekara ta alif 1897, kuma ya rasu a ranar 16 ga watan Afrilu shekarar 1917.
  6. Ali Mezali, an haife shi a ranar 13 ga watan Mayu shekara ta 1894, kuma ya rasu a ranar 6 ga watan Janairun shekarar 1916.
  7. Amer Takoucht, wanda aka zaci an haife shi a shekara ta 1897, kuma ya mutu a ranar 31 ga watan Agusta shekara ta 1918.
  8. Ameur Belhabchia, wanda ake zaton an haife shi a shekara ta 1888, kuma ya mutu a ranar 12 ga watan Satumba shekara ta 1916.
  9. Hamidah Tirsatine, wanda ake kyautata zaton an haife ta a shekara ta 1894, kuma ta rasu a ranar 8 ga watan Afrilu shekara ta 1919.
  10. Lounès Baki, an haife shi a ranar 17 ga watan Disamba shekara ta 1894, kuma ya mutu a ranar 11 ga watan Maris shekarar 1916.
  11. Mohamed Agha, an haife shi a ranar 26 ga watan Mayu shekara ta 1897, kuma ya rasu a ranar 13 ga watan Mayu shekarar 1919.
  12. Mohamed Agourat, wanda ake kyautata zaton an haife shi a shekara ta 1872, kuma ya rasu a ranar 7 ga watan Nuwamba shekarar ta 1916.
  13. Mohamed Draoui, wanda ake kyautata zaton an haife shi a shekara ta 1897, kuma ya mutu a ranar 20 ga watan Maris shekarar 1919.
  14. Mohamed Firas, wanda ake kyautata zaton an haife shi a shekara ta 1892, kuma ya rasu a ranar 15 ga watan Maris shekarar 1916.
  15. Mohamed Razibaoune, an haife shi a ranar 19 ga watan Disamba shekara ta 1897, kuma ya mutu a ranar 11 ga watan Maris shekarar 1917.
  16. Mohamed Haddad, wanda ake kyautata zaton an haife shi a shekara ta 1890, kuma ya rasu a ranar 22 ga watan Oktoban shekarar 1916.
  17. Mohamed Kordali, wanda ake kyautata zaton an haife shi a shekara ta 1892, kuma ya mutu a ranar 20 ga watan Yuli shekarar 1918.
  18. Mohamed Sida, an haife shi a ranar 4 ga watan Oktoba shekara ta 1897, kuma ya mutu a ranar 29 ga watan Agusta shekara ta 1918.
  19. Mohamed Taghezoult, an haife shi a ranar 20 ga watan Yuni shekara ta 1898, kuma ya mutu a ranar 22 ga watan Fabrairu shekara ta 1919.
  20. Mohamed Talibi, an haife shi a ranar 4 ga watan Fabrairu shekara ta 1898, kuma ya rasu a ranar 14 ga watan Fabrairu shekara ta 1919.
  21. Rabah Amalou, wanda ake kyautata zaton an haife shi a shekara ta 1897, kuma ya rasu a ranar 29 ga watan Oktoba shekara ta 1918.
  22. Rabah Tariket, an haife shi a ranar 1 ga watan Fabrairu shekara ta 1896, kuma ya rasu a ranar 11 ga watan Afrilu shekara ta 1918.
  23. Saïd Younès, an haife shi a ranar 4 ga watan Yuli shekara ta 1897, kuma ya mutu a ranar 14 ga watan Agusta shekara ta 1918.
  24. Slimane Mermat, wanda aka zaci an haife shi a shekara ta 1895, kuma ya mutu a ranar 30 ga watan Mayu shekara ta 1918.

Ƙungiyar Nakasassu da Tsohon Sojoji[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Boushaki ya shiga kungiyar da ake kira Ƙungiyar Nakasassu da Tsohon Sojoji (French: Amicale des Mutilés et Anciens Combattants du Département d'Alger) domin ya kiyaye haƙƙinsa na ɗabi'a da na abin duniya da na marayu da iyayen sauran sojojin Aljeriya waɗanda suka shiga aikin Yaƙin Duniya na I.[23][24]

Ya yi aiki tare da Mohamed Belhocine (1893-1972), tsohon caïd na Béni-Zmenzer a Tizi Ouzou, laftanar, wanda aka yi masa ado da lambar yabo ta soja, Croix de guerre 1914-1918 da Knight na Legion of Honour, don kiyaye muradun mayaƙan da suka fito da rai daga munanan yaƙi.[25][26][27]

Harkar Siyasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Meraldene

Bayan ya dawo daga fagen daga Faransa, Boushaki ya yanke jiki ya kuma shafe shekaru da dama yana fama da tabo na munanan fadan da ke jikinsa.[28][29]

Sannan ya auri Khedauedj Boumerdassi, wanda kakansa Sidi Boumerdassi ya kafa Zawiya na Sidi Boumerdassi, kuma kauyensa Ouled Boumerdès yana da tazarar kilomita kadan daga kauyensa na Soumâa.[30]

A shekara ta 1935, matarsa ​​ta haifi yaro Yahia Boushaki, wanda ya ba shi farin ciki, kuma ya dauki nauyin karantar da shi a kan daidaita Sufanci da kishin kasa na soja mai cin gashin kansa.[31]

Daga nan sai ya yi tafiya tare da dan uwansa daga Meraldene mai suna Aliouat Ishak Boushaki,[32] wanda soja ne a cikin runduna ta 6 ta masu fafutuka ta Aljeriya, tafiya ta siyasa zuwa Thenia, Boudouaou da Algiers a cikin wadannan garuruwa biyu na mulkin mallaka ta hanyar mika iyalansu. daga kauyukan Soumâa da Meraldene zuwa garuruwan Thénia (Ménerville) da Boudouaou (Alma) bi da bi.[33][34]

Kamar wani dan uwansa Rabah Ishak Boushaki shi ma daga Meraldene, wanda soja ne a rukunin manyan bindigogi na farko na Afirka, rabon sa da kuma tsira bayan yakin duniya na 1914-1918 zai zo ne ta hanyar da'awar kare hakkokin ɗan'adam na iyalansu. da na Aljeriya daga gare shi.[35][36][37]

Wani wanda ya tsira daga abokin gaban Bajamushe shi ne Rabah Benzerga, wanda shi ne Sajan a runduna ta farko ta Aljeriya, kuma ta fito daga kauyen Azib-Merabtine kusa da Si Mustapha (tsohon Félix-Faure), wanda gwamnatin mulkin mallaka ta karbe shi. kantin kayan miya a Thénia bayan dawowa daga yakin.[38]

Masallatai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Masallacin El-Feth dake birnin Thenia.

Daya daga cikin manyan sakamakon halartar da dama na 'yan uwa da kuma makwabta Abderrahmane Boushaki a cikin jini haraji a lokacin babban Yaƙin, tare da kusan talatin daga cikinsu sun mutu a matsayin soja shahidai a Faransa, shi ne gina wani masallaci domin musulmi bauta ( ibadah) a garin Thenia na mulkin mallaka.[39][40]

Hakika, zuwan daga Azeffun dan kasuwa Mohamed Naït Saïdi (1900-1981) a kasar Thénia ya sa aka samu damar gina wannan masallaci a 1934 da kuma kewayensa da wani katafaren ginin Islama wanda ya kunshi rijiya, hammam, gidan biredi, wurin kwana na fasinjoji, shaguna da gidajen zama.[41]

Surukin Kofur Boushaki, Imam Ali Boumerdassi, shi ne aka nada shi a matsayin limamin wa'azi na farko a wannan masallacin da ke tsakiyar birnin, kuma magajinsa sun fito daga kauyuka biyu na Soumâa da Meraldene.[42]

Wannan cudanya ta addini da mazauna kauyukan da ke kewaye da su cikin rayuwar ruhi na garuruwan ‘yan mulkin mallaka sannan ya baiwa Abderrahmane Boushaki damar shiga cikin nadin dan uwansa Imam Hamidah Ishak Boushaki a matsayin Bash Hezzab a Djamaa el Kebir a Algiers, da na kaninsa Imam Brahim Boushaki. kamar yadda Hizab kuma a masallacin Safir da ke cikin Casbah na Algiers.[43]

Fasinja na kauyuka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mohamed Deriche

Ba za a iya kafa shirye-shiryen siyasa na kwas din 'yancin kai ba a kan tsarin zamantakewar ƙauyen da ke fama da matsalolin zamantakewa, Boushaki ya yi aiki tare da dan majalisar kawunsa Mohamed Seghir Boushaki tare da Bachagha Mohamed Deriche don kwantar da yankin karkara na Thénia daga fashewa. da laifuka.[44]

Wannan aikin tsaro ya ba da tabbaci a ƙauyukan da ke kusa da Thénia natsuwar mazaunan da hukumomin gudanarwa da shari'a na kotun birni suka tanadar,[45] baya ga tsarin gargajiya na al'ada da dokokin ƙauye.[46]

Amma yanayi mai nauyi da takurawa na mulkin mallaka na Faransa a kan 'yan kasar bai kawar da bukatar da kuma wajabcin kiyaye tsarin sirri don warware matsalolin ƙauye ba, kuma ta haka ne Kofur Boushaki ya shiga cikin inuwa don girmama 'yan fashi da kuma barasa na Aljeriya. wanda ya gudu daga mulkin Faransa saboda dalilai na kishin ƙasa, kamar Mohamed Mechkarini.[47]

Yakin 'Yancin Aljeriya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ferme Gauthier

Alkawarin kafa Kofur Boushaki a juyin juya halin Aljeriya a shekara ta 1954 bai dade ba, kuma ya kasance mai azama sakamakon shirye-shiryen siyasa da soja na dansa Yahia Boushaki domin ya zama jagora mai inganci kuma mai inganci a fagen yaki da sojoji. Sojojin Faransa a yankin Thénia, kuma ta tsawaita a makwabciyar Kabylia da Mitidja.[48][49]

Hakika, wannan tsohon sojan da bai bar gidansa da ke Soumâa ba tun dawowar sa daga Faransa a shekara ta 1919, hakan ya ba shi damar sakar wata hanyar siyasa da ta tayar da kayar baya tare da matasan 'yan gwagwarmaya na Movement for the Triumph of Democratic Liberties (MTLD). da Ƙungiya ta Musamman (OS) waɗanda suka kasance a shirye kuma suka horar da su don wargajewa da kuma kawar da tsarin mulkin mallaka a yankin Thénia da Aljeriya gaba ɗaya.[50][51]

Ta haka ne kauyen Soumâa, ban da batun musulmi da tauhidi, ya zama matattarar mayaka na kungiyar 'yantar da 'yanci ta kasa (FLN) da National Liberation Army (ALN) kamar su Rabah Rahmoune, Ali Touzout, Mohamed Bouchatal, Saïd Baki da sauransu. Mujahid.[52][53]

Wannan yanayi na jin dadi ya koma baya a lokacin da sojojin Faransa na kasa-da-kasa suka yi ruwan bama-bamai a kauyen Soumâa da ke tafe daga Thénia a wajen Tamsaout a ranar 23 ga Afrilu, 1957 sannan suka lalata zawiyet Sidi Boushaki da makabartar malamin tauhidi Sidi Boushaki ta hanyar binne mujahidai a karkashin gwamnatin Masar rushewa.[54]

Duk da cewa Abderrahmane Boushaki ya nunawa sojojin lambar yabo da kofunan sa a matsayinsa na tsohon soja don hana su ruguza kauyen, duk mazaunan da suka hada da tsofaffi da yara, an kori su tare da kebe su a sansanonin SAS na Tidjelabine bayan halakar. daga ƙauyen, kuma wannan tsohon kofur ɗin ya sami kansa a cikin keɓe sansanin taro nesa ba kusa ba da labarin ɗansa Yahia Boushaki da sauran mayaƙan 'yancin kai.[55][56]

Dangane da hanyar sadarwar masu fafutuka da ke aiki a cikin birnin Thénia bayan barnar kauyukan da ke kewaye, kamar Bouzid Boushaki[57][58] wanda aka kama bayan dasa bam a ofishin mawaƙin a wannan birni, an tura su zuwa Ferme. Gauthier yana cikin Souk El Had don azabtar da shi kuma galibi ana kashe shi.[59][60]

Aljeriya mai cin gashin kanta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

1962 Aljeriya ta gudanar da zaben raba gardama na samun 'yancin kai.

Ƙungiyar ƙuri'ar raba gardamar 'yancin kai ta Aljeriya a ranar 1 ga Yuli, 1962 ta ga halartar Abderrahmane tare da mahaifinsa Ali Boushaki [ar] wanda a lokacin yana da shekaru 107.[61][62]

Kuma haka ne Cheikh Ali shi ne shugaban Aljeriya wanda ya ga zuwan Faransawa mazauna bayan tawayen Mokrani ya zauna a Mitidja da Kabylie a 1872 yana dan shekara 17 a duniya bayan haka ya shiga yakin Col des Beni Aicha.

Ga shi kuma a matsayinsa na Mukaddam na Tarika Rahmaniyyah, ya ga dubban Faransawa mazauna kasar da ke barin gidajensu da sana’o’insu da gonakinsu da akwatunansu kawai, kuma hakan ya mayar da Aljeriya ga ‘ya’yanta da ‘yan kasar da aka wawashe dukiyoyinsu tun ranar 5 ga watan Yuli, 1830.

Daga nan sai mahukuntan Aljeriya masu cin gashin kansu suka ba Abderrahmane Boushaki lambar yabo ta hanyar canza sunan Avenue Jean Colonna d'Ornano da sunan dansa Kyaftin Shahid Yahia Boushaki da kuma sanya a wannan babban titi hedkwatar Kasma na National Liberation Front (FLN). jam’iyya.[63]

Daga nan sai lardin Algiers ya canza sunan wata babbar kadara a Bab Ezzouar mai sunan gundumar kuma mai dauke da sunan kwamishinan siyasa Yahia Boushaki.[64]

Dangane da mazauninsa, wani babban gida mai lamba 5, Rue Slimane Ambar a kudancin Thénia, hukumomin juyin juya hali sun ba shi kyautar a gefen ƙauyensa na Soumâa.[65][66]

A gidansa ya karbi manyan jami'ai da shugabannin siyasa da suka ziyarci birnin Thénia wadanda ba su rasa damar da za su ziyarci mahaifin shahid Yahia Boushaki da kuma kanin limamin Brahim Boushaki don sha daga tushen Arch na Béni Aïcha wanda ya jagoranci rubuta sanarwar 1 ga Nuwamba 1954 ta ɗan jarida Mohamed Aïchaoui bayan ƙungiyar 22 da kwamitin juyin juya hali na Haɗin kai da Aiki (CRUA) sun shirya taronsu mai ban sha'awa a gidan Lyes Deriche.[67][68]

Mutuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kmr Djebna El Gharba.

Kofur Boushaki ya rasu a shekara ta 1985 a gidansa da ke Rua Slimane Ambar, kusa da garuruwan Soumâa, Gueddara da Meraldene.[69]

Daga baya aka binne shi kusa da mahaifinsa Muqaddam Ali Boushaki da kawunsa Mohamed Seghir Boushaki a makabartar musulmi ta Thénia da ake kira Djebbana El Ghorba.[70]

Littafi Mai Tsarki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dutsen wucewa na birnin Thenia.
Taswirar titunan birnin Thénia kafin 1962.
  • Journal officiel de la République française. Lois et décrets. Liste des candidats non classés pour les emplois qu'ils avaient sollicités (in Faransanci). N° 141. Paris: Quai Voltaire. 28 May 1921. p. 72. Citation: p. 41 (6249)
  • L'Algérie mutilée. Amicale des mutilés d'Alger (in Faransanci). N° 99. Alger: Amicale des mutilés du département d'Alger. 1 April 1925. p. 4. Citation: p. 1
  • Journal officiel de l'Algérie. Commission de classement des emplois réservés aux militaires indigènes de l'Algérie (in Faransanci). N° 36. Alger: Gouvernement Général de l’Algérie, Direction de l’Intérieur. 7 September 1928. p. 16. Citation: p. 16 (472)
  • Journal officiel de l'Algérie. Liste des candidats non classés pour les emplois qu’ils avaient sollicités (in Faransanci). N° 31. Alger: Gouvernement Général de l’Algérie, Direction de l’Intérieur. 4 August 1933. p. 20. Citation: p. 17,18 (603-604)
  • Journal officiel de l'Algérie. Commission de classement des emplois réservés aux militaires indigènes de l'Algérie (in Faransanci). N° 31. Alger: Gouvernement Général de l’Algérie, Direction de l’Intérieur. 3 August 1934. p. 16. Citation: p. 15 (597)
  • Journal officiel de l'Algérie. Liste des candidats non classés pour les emplois qu'ils avaient sollicités (in Faransanci). N° 26. Alger: Gouvernement Général de l’Algérie, Direction de l’Intérieur. 28 June 1935. p. 40. Citation: p. 26 (602)
  • La Tranchée. Chronique des Associations (in Faransanci). N° 387. Alger: Amicale des Mutilés et Anciens Combattants du Département d'Alger. 31 December 1937. p. 4. Citation: p. 2

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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  17. https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k6335699h/f9.zoom
  18. https://www.siv.archives-nationales.culture.gouv.fr/siv/rechercheconsultation/consultation/ir/consultationIR.action?irId=FRAN_IR_051037&udId=cwczeut4k3g--u6qfe0ls997w&details=true&gotoArchivesNums=false&auSeinIR=true
  19. https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k63719824/f2.item.r=Boushaki.zoom
  20. https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k6586446v/f1.item.r=Boushaki.zoom
  21. https://www.france24.com/fr/20140130-premiere-guerre-mondiale-troupes-maghreb-tirailleurs-marocains-algeriens
  22. https://www.siv.archives-nationales.culture.gouv.fr/siv/rechercheconsultation/consultation/ir/consultationIR.action?irId=FRAN_IR_051037&udId=cwczeut4k3g--u6qfe0ls997w&details=true&gotoArchivesNums=false&auSeinIR=true
  23. https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k63719824/f2.item.r=Abderrahmane+Boushaki.zoom
  24. https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k6586446v/f1.item.r=Boushaki.zoom
  25. https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k7600762c/f2.item.r=Mohamed+Belhocine.zoom
  26. https://books.google.dz/books?id=zK-hAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA216
  27. https://books.google.dz/books?id=zK-hAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA318
  28. https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k6586446v/f1.item.r=Boushaki.zoom
  29. https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k5328689k/f17.item.r=Boushaki.zoom
  30. https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k63719824/f2.item.r=Boushaki.zoom
  31. https://abdenour-boushaki.blogspot.com/2019/07/yahia-boushaki.html
  32. https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k5329527f/f26.item.r=Boushaki+Aliouat.zoom
  33. https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k5329088d/f15.item.r=Ishak+Boushaki+Aliouat.zoom
  34. https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k5328689k/f18.item.r=Ishak+Bouslaki.zoom
  35. https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k5329264p/f16.item.r=Boushaki+Meraldene.zoom
  36. https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k65428850/f41.item.r=Boushaki.zoom
  37. https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k64205666/f3.zoom
  38. https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k6475945b/f43.item.r=Benzerga+Rabah.zoom
  39. https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k75849999/f5.item.r=Nait+Saidi+Menerville.zoom
  40. https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k63694564/f2.item.r=Nait+Saidi.zoom
  41. https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k5683376r/f1.item.r=Nait+Saidi.zoom
  42. http://wikimapia.org/9663928/Mosqu%C3%A9e-El-Feth-de-Th%C3%A9nia
  43. https://abdenour-boushaki.blogspot.com/2019/07/brahim-boushaki-arabe-kabyle-o-est-un.html
  44. https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k75826757/f2.item.r=Boushaki+Deriche.zoom
  45. https://wikimapia.org/31089907/Tribunal-de-Th%C3%A9nia
  46. https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bd6t5440400/f4.item.r=Boushaki+Deriche.zoom
  47. https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k75813539/f2.item.r=Mechkarini.zoom
  48. https://www.aps.dz/algerie/135156-le-ministre-des-moudjahidines-presente-ses-condoleances-suite-au-deces-du-moudjahid-rabah-rahmoune
  49. https://www.aps.dz/ar/regions/49053-2017-10-29-11-05-35
  50. https://www.aps.dz/ar/algerie/120842-2022-02-06-15-40-33
  51. https://www.djazairess.com/akhbarelyoum/225204
  52. https://elmaouid.dz/%d9%88%d8%b2%d9%8a%d8%b1-%d8%a7%d9%84%d9%85%d8%ac%d8%a7%d9%87%d8%af%d9%8a%d9%86-%d9%8a%d8%b9%d8%b2%d9%8a-%d9%88%d9%81%d9%8a-%d9%88%d9%81%d8%a7%d8%a9-%d8%a7%d9%84%d9%85%d8%ac%d8%a7%d9%87%d8%af-%d8%b6/
  53. https://bak-press.dz/site/news/s/8725/%D9%88%D9%84%D8%A7%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D8%A8%D9%88%D9%85%D8%B1%D8%AF%D8%A7%D8%B3%3A-%D9%88%D9%81%D8%A7%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A3%D9%85%D9%8A%D9%86-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%88%D9%84%D8%A7%D8%A6%D9%8A-%D9%84%D9%85%D9%86%D8%B8%D9%85%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D8%AC%D8%A7%D9%87%D8%AF%D9%8A%D9%86-%D8%B1%D8%AD%D9%85%D9%88%D9%86-%D8%B1%D8%A7%D8%A8%D8%AD.
  54. https://www.djazairess.com/elmassa/142106
  55. https://www.el-massa.com/dz/%D8%B1%D9%88%D8%A8%D9%88%D8%B1%D8%AA%D8%A7%D8%AC%D8%A7%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D8%B3%D8%AA%D8%B7%D9%84%D8%A7%D8%B9%D8%A7%D8%AA/%D9%85%D8%B1%D9%83%D8%B2-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D8%B9%D8%B0%D9%8A%D8%A8-%C2%AB%D8%BA%D9%88%D8%AA%D9%8A%D9%8A%C2%BB-%D8%B4%D8%A7%D9%87%D8%AF-%D8%B9%D9%84%D9%89-%D9%81%D8%B8%D8%A7%D8%B9%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A7%D8%B3%D8%AA%D8%B9%D9%85%D8%A7%D8%B1
  56. https://www.liberte-algerie.com/centre/boumerdes-la-commune-des-700-martyrs-les-honore-264768
  57. https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bd6t584691c/f3.item.r=Bouzid+Boushaki.zoom
  58. https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bd6t585286x/f2.item.r=Boushaki+Bouzid.zoom
  59. https://www.elwatan.com/regions/kabylie/boumerdes/souk-el-had-boumerdes-haouch-gautier-le-camp-des-supplices-01-11-2021
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  61. https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k9775063h/f5.item.r=Referendum+autodetermination.zoom
  62. https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k9106882j/f19.item.r=Referendum+autodetermination.zoom
  63. https://wikimapia.org/street/17710184/Rue-Yahia-Boushaki
  64. http://wikimapia.org/11918198/Lotissement-Yahia-Boushaki-I
  65. http://wikimapia.org/street/17710197/Rue-Slimane-Ambar
  66. https://www.djazairess.com/fr/lequotidien/8349
  67. https://www.djazairess.com/fr/lexpression/69168
  68. https://www.djazairess.com/fr/lexpression/350050
  69. https://wikimapia.org/31120110/Montagne-Gueddara-de-Th%C3%A9nia
  70. https://wikimapia.org/16243853/Cimeti%C3%A8re-Musulman-El-Ghorba-de-Th%C3%A9nia