Muhammad Ali Jinnah

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Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Jinnah1945c.jpg
1. Governor-General of Pakistan (en) Fassara

15 ga Augusta, 1947 - 11 Satumba 1948 - Khawaja Nazimuddin (en) Fassara
President of the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan (en) Fassara

11 ga Augusta, 1947 - 11 Satumba 1948 - Liaquat Ali Khan (en) Fassara
Speaker of the National Assembly of Pakistan (en) Fassara

11 ga Augusta, 1947 - 11 Satumba 1948 - Maulvi Tamizuddin Khan (en) Fassara
member of the Central Legislative Assembly (en) Fassara

Rayuwa
Haihuwa Karachi, 25 Disamba 1876
ƙasa Pakistan
British India (en) Fassara
ƙungiyar ƙabila Lohana (en) Fassara
Mutuwa Karachi, 11 Satumba 1948
Makwanci Mazar-e-Quaid (en) Fassara
Yanayin mutuwa Sababi na ainihi (Tibi)
Yan'uwa
Mahaifiya Mitthibai Jinnahbhai
Abokiyar zama Emibai Jinnah (en) Fassara  (1892 -  1893)
Rattanbai Jinnah (en) Fassara  (19 ga Afirilu, 1918 -  20 ga Faburairu, 1929)
Yara
Siblings Fatima Jinnah (en) Fassara
Yan'uwa
Karatu
Makaranta Sindh Madressatul Islam University (en) Fassara
(3 ga Yuli, 1887 - 30 ga Janairu, 1892)
Lincoln's Inn (en) Fassara
(5 ga Yuni, 1893 - 28 ga Afirilu, 1896)
Harsuna Turanci
Urdu
Sana'a
Sana'a ɗan siyasa da barrister (en) Fassara
Imani
Addini Musulunci
Jam'iyar siyasa Indian National Congress (en) Fassara
All India Muslim League (en) Fassara
Muslim League (en) Fassara
IMDb nm0423142
majinnah.com.pk
Jinnah signature.svg
Jinnah a kan wani Iran kudin sufurin hatimi

Muhammad Ali Jinnah, ( Urdu  ; Gujarati  ; 25 Disamba 1876 - 11 Satumba 1948 a Karachi ) ɗan siyasan Pakistan ne. Shine wanda ya kafa ƙasar Pakistan . Bayan raba ƙasar Indiya, ya zama Gwamna-Janar na Pakistan . A matsayin girmamawa, 'yan Pakistan suna kiransa Quaid-e-Azam . bra Quaid-e-Azam jumla ce wacce, a yaren Urdu, take nufin "babban shugaba". Mutane kuma suna kiransa da Baba-I-Quam , wani jumla a cikin yaren Urdu wanda ke nufin "mahaifin al'umma". Ranar haifuwarsa ranar hutu ce a duk fadin kasar Pakistan da ake kira da ranar Pakistan

Farkon rayuwar MA Jinnah[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An haifi Muhammad Ali Jinnah a ranar 25 Disamba 1876 a Karachi a cikin gidan Isma'ilism na Poonja Jinnah. Aljanna. An haife shi a Karachi, birnin Sindh. Sunan mahaifinsa Jinnah Poonja (1857- 1901) kuma sunan mahaifiyarsa Mithibai. Jinnah ita ce babba a cikin yara bakwai na Jinnah Poonja da Mithibai. Iyalinsa sun yi ƙaura zuwa Sindh daga yankin Kathiawar na Gujarat, Indiya.

Sunan haihuwar Jinnah shine Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Daga baya ya canza shi zuwa mafi sauki 'Muhammad Ali Jinnah' ko MA A gida, danginsa suna magana da yaren Gujarati, kuma yaran ma sun zo suna magana da Kutchi da Ingilishi. Ban da Fatima, ba a san komai game da 'yan uwansa ba .

Farkon shekarun aiki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A shekarar 1891 (lokacin yana da shekaru goma sha biyar), Jinnah ya tafi Landan ya yi aiki na wasu shekaru a wani kamfani. A kusan wannan lokacin, mahaifiyarsa ta mutu.

A 1894, Jinnah ya bar aikinsa don karatun aikin lauya . Ya shiga karatun a Lincoln's Inn kuma ya kammala karatu a 1896. Yayin da yake Landan, shi ma ya fara shiga harkokin siyasa. Ya matuƙar yaba da shugabannin siyasa na Indiya Dadabhai Naoroji da Sir Pherozeshah Mehta . A hankali Jinnah yana bunkasa ra'ayin sa na siyasa. Yana tunani a kan layin cewa Indiya ta sami mulkin kai na tsarin mulki.

A wannan lokacin, mahaifinsa ya rasa kasuwancinsa. Wannan ya sanya Aljannah cikin mawuyacin hali. A halin yanzu, ya fara aikin lauya a Mumbai . Ya kuma gina gida a Unguwar Malabar ta Mumbai. Gidan yanzu ana kiransa Gidan Jinnah.

Ya zama babban lauya. A 1908 ya wakilci Bal Gangadhar Tilak, sanannen shugaban Majalisar Dokokin Indiya. Tilak yana fuskantar tuhuma ta tayar da hankali ga Dokar Burtaniya. Jinnah ta ɗaukaka ƙara sosai, amma an tura Tilak gidan yari. Bayan haka ya fidda rai

Shekarun farko a matsayin ɗan siyasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Jinnah ya riga ya shiga Majalisar Dokokin Indiya a 1906 lokacin da ya fara siyasa. Majalisar ta kasance babbar ƙungiyar siyasa a Indiya. Yawancin membobi da shugabannin Nationalan Majalisar Dinkin Duniya na Indiya sun fi son ƙarancin mulkin kai ga Indiya. Jinnah ma sunyi irin wannan ra'ayin. A waccan lokacin, abin koyi shi ne Gopal Krishna Gokhale .

A ranar 25 ga Janairu 1910, Jinnah ya zama memba a cikin Saba'in da mambobi biyu na majalisar dokoki. Ya kasance memba mai aiki a cikin Majalisar. Kamar sauran shugabannin Indiya, Jinnah shima ya goyi bayan Biritaniya a lokacin Yaƙin Duniya na ɗaya.Shugabannin sun goyi bayan Burtaniya suna tunanin cewa bayan yaƙin, Burtaniya zata ba Indiya Greatancin siyasa.

A farkon Jinnah ya nisanci shiga jam'iyyar All India Muslim League, wata kungiyar siyasa ta Indiya. Musulmai sun kafa kungiyar a 1906. A cikin 1913, Jinnah ya zama memba na Leagueungiyar Musulmi. A shekarar 1934, ya zama shugaban hadaddiyar kungiyar Musulmi. Ya taimaka wajen yin yarjejeniya tsakanin Majalisa da ƙungiyar Musulmai (Lucknow Pact a 1916). Yarjejeniyar ta yi kokarin gabatar da hadin kai ga Burtaniya don ba wa Indiya mulkin mallaka a cikin Masarautar Burtaniya. Wannan yayi kama da matsayin mulkin mallaka wanda Kanada, New Zealand da Ostiraliya suke dashi a lokacin.

A shekarar 1918, Jinnah ta sake yin aure. Matarsa ta biyu itace Rattanbai Petit. Tana da shekaru ashirin da huɗu fiye da shi. Ta kasance diyar abokiyar Jinnah Sir Dinshaw Petit 'yar Parsi ce amma rattanbai ta musulunta kafin ta auri Jinnah ta canza sunanta zuwa Maryam. Ma'auratan suna zaune a Bombay (yanzu Mumbai) kuma suna yawan zuwa Turai. A shekarar 1919, matar sa ta haifi ‘ya mace mai suna Dina.

Zuwa 1918, Mohandas Gandhi ya zama ɗaya daga cikin shugabannin Jam'iyyar Congress. Gandhi ya yi jerin gwanon zanga-zanga ba tashin hankali don samun mulkin kai ga Indiya. Jinnah ta dauki wani layi daban. Ya so gwagwarmayar tsarin mulki don samun mulkin kai ga Indiya. Jinnah ya kuma nuna adawa ga goyon bayan Gandhi ga kungiyar Khilafat . A hankali, bambance-bambance da yawa a tsakanin su sun taso. A 1920, Jinnah ya bar jam'iyyar Congress. Ya zama shugaban hadaddiyar kungiyar musulmai. A wannan lokacin, Jinnah ta fito da wani shiri na rage banbance banbancen dake tsakanin Jam’iyyar Congress da kuma Kungiyar Musulmi. Shirin yana da matakai na aiki goma sha huɗu. Sabili da haka, sanannen sanannen littafin Jinnah ne na Maki goma sha huɗu. Amma jam'iyyar Congress ba ta yarda da wadannan ba.

A tsawon wadannan shekarun rayuwar Jinnah ta wahala. Ya mai da hankali kan siyasa ya haifar da rikici a cikin auren Jinnah. Ma'auratan sun rabu a 1927 kuma bayan mummunan rashin lafiya Rattanbai ya mutu.

A wannan lokacin, akwai taron shugabannin Indiya tare da gwamnatin Burtaniya. An gudanar da shi a London kuma an san shi da Taron Taron Zagaye. Jinnah ya soki manufofin Gandhi. Taron ya gaza. Jinnah shima baiyi farin ciki da Kungiyar Musulmai ba. Ya yanke shawarar barin siyasa. Ya sake fara aiki a matsayin lauya a Ingila. Duk tsawon wadannan shekarun, 'yar uwarsa Fatima Jinnah ta kasance mai kula da lamuran Aljannah, a gida da waje. Ta kuma zama mai ba shi shawara na kusa. Ta taimaka masa wajen renon ‘yar Jinnah, Dina Wadia. 'Yar ta auri Neville Wadia, dan Parasi wanda ya musulunta. Jinnah ba ta son wannan auren.

Shugaban kungiyar musulmin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Shugabannin Musulmai da yawa na Indiya kamar Aga Khan III, Coudhary Rahmat Ali da Sir Muhammad Iqbal sun nemi Jinnah da ta dawo Indiya.

Shugabannin ƙungiyar musulmin sun so shi ya jagoranci kungiyar musulmin. Jinnah ta yarda ta dawo Indiya. A shekarar 1934, ya bar Landan ya koma Indiya don sake shirya gasar Musulmai. Amma ba zai iya farfado da martabar jam'iyyar ba har sai bayan zaben 1937 kasancewar Jam’iyyar Musulmi ta lashe kujeru kadan kacal. Koyaya, a wannan lokacin, Firayim Minista na Punjab, Sir Sikandar Hayat Khan, ya taimaka Leagueungiyar. A watan Oktoba 1937, ya yarda da kungiyar Musulmai ta Jinnah ta shiga cikin gwamnatin sa mai karfi. Wannan ana kiransa Yarjejeniyar Jinnah-Sikandar .

Bambance-bambancensa da Jam'iyyar Congress ya ci gaba da zama babba. A shekara ta 1930, wasu shugabannin musulmai kamar Allama Iqbal sun yi ta jayayya game da raba kasar Musulman Indiya. A ƙarshe ya zo ga ƙarshe cewa Hindu da Musulmai ba za su iya zama a cikin ƙasa ɗaya ba. Jinnah kuma ya fara da ra'ayin raba ƙasa da Musulman Indiya. Jinnah da Kungiyar Musulmi sun fara aiki don samun irin wannan kasar ta daban. Sun yi wani shiri game da wannan a cikin 1940 mai suna Resolution na Pakistan . Ana kiran wannan sabuwar ƙasar Pakistan.

A cikin 1941, Jinnah ya kafa wata jarida, mai suna Dawn . Wannan jaridar ta buga ra'ayoyi da tunanin siyasa na Kungiyar Musulmi. A lokacin Yaƙin Duniya na II, Jinnah ya goyi bayan Birtaniyya, kuma ya yi adawa da Quit India motsi na jam'iyyar Congress. A 1944, Gandhi ya yi tattaunawa har sau 14 da Jinnah, amma ba su iya cimma matsaya ba. A wannan lokacin, Kungiyar Musulmi ta kafa gwamnatoci a wasu larduna, kuma sun shiga cikin gwamnatin tsakiya.

Zama Wanda ya kafa Pakistan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayan Yaƙin Duniya na Biyu, Burtaniya ta fara matakai don ba wa Indiya 'yanci. A ranar 16 ga Mayu 1946, Birtaniyya ta sanar da shirin dunkulewar Indiya. Wata daya bayan haka, a ranar 16 ga Yuni 1946 Turawan ingila suka sanar da wani shiri na raba Raj Raj na Burtaniya zuwa ƙasashe biyu, daya na Hindu da daya na Musulmi.

Jam'iyyar Congress ta yarda da shirin 16 ga Mayu 1946. Muslimungiyar Musulmi a ƙarƙashin jagorancin Jinnah ta yarda da duka tsare-tsaren. Amma, a ranar 16 ga Agusta 1946, Jinnah ya kuma sanar da Direct Action don samun 'yanci ga Pakistan, wata kasa ta Musulmai ta tsohon British Raj. Bayan zagaye na tattaunawa da yawa, an raba Raj na Birtaniyya (a watan Agusta 1947) zuwa ƙasashe biyu, Indiya da Pakistan. A shekarar 1971, Bangladesh ta sami 'yencin kai daga hannun Pakistan.

Janar-Janar[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tutar Gwamna Janar na Pakistan

An raba Birtaniyar Raj na Indiya zuwa ƙasashe biyu, waɗanda suka haɗa da, India da Pakistan. Jinnah ta zama Gwamna-Janar na farko a Pakistan, 'yar uwarsa Fatimah Jinnah ta zama "Uwar Kasa". Ya kuma zama shugaban majalisar dokokin Pakistan. A cikin wani jawabi ga majalisar da aka kafa a ranar 11 ga watan Agusta 1947, Jinnah ya ba da labarin makomar Pakistan a matsayin ƙasa mara addini. Ya faɗi wannan a cikin kalmomi masu zuwa:

Kuna iya kasancewa cikin kowane addini ko akida - wannan ba shi da nasaba da kasuwancin jihar. Idan lokaci ya yi, Hindu za ta daina zama Hindatu kuma Musulmai za su daina zama Musulmai, ba ta fuskar addini ba, domin wannan imanin mutum ne na kowane mutum, amma a siyasance a matsayinsa na ɗan ƙasa. [1]

Jinnah kuma ya ɗauki nauyin gwamnati kai tsaye. Bayan rabuwa, mummunan rikici tsakanin Musulmai da Hindu ya faru. Irin wannan tashin hankali ya kasance mai tsanani a cikin Punjab da Bengal. Jinnah ta zagaya yankunan tare da shugabannin Hindu daga Indiya don kwantar da hankalin jama'a. Mutane da yawa sun mutu a tashin hankalin. Alkaluman wadanda suka mutu sun banbanta daga mutane dubu dari biyu zuwa sama da miliyan daya. Jinnah tayi bakin ciki kwarai da gaske a duk wadannan abubuwan da suka faru.

Jim kaɗan bayan samun 'yancin kan Indiya da Pakistan, rikici ya ɓarke a Kashmir. Sarkin Kashmir ya yarda ya zama wani yanki na Indiya. amma galibi Musulman Kashmir ba su son wannan. Sun fara fada a Kashmir. Dole ne Indiya ta tura sojojinsa zuwa Kashmir, wanda ya zama wani yanki na Indiya. Indiya ta gabatar da batun ga Majalisar Dinkin Duniya. Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta ba da umarnin a kawo karshen rikicin kuma an yi farin ciki. Wannan matsalar har yanzu tana ci gaba da yin mummunan tasiri a alaƙar Indiya da Pakistan.

Matsayin Jinnah wajen samar da ƙasar Pakistan a matsayin sabuwar kasa yana da matukar muhimmanci. Wannan ya sanya shi shahara sosai a tsakanin mutanen Pakistan. A Gabashin Pakistan (yanzu Bangladesh ), mutane sun yi adawa da ra'ayin Jinnah cewa yaren Urdu ya zama yaren harshe na ƙasa kaɗai.

Mutuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Muhammad Ali ya sha fama da cutar tarin fuka tun farkon shekarun 1940. Hisar uwarsa kawai da wasu fewan kaɗan na kusa da dangin sun san wannan. Bayan raba kasar Indiya da kirkirar kasar Pakistan, ya zama gwamnan janar na Pakistan. Aikinsa ya karu, amma lafiyarsa ta tabarbare. Don samun lafiyarsa, ya kwashe watanni da yawa a gidansa na hutawa na hukuma. Gidan sauran ya kasance a wani wuri mai suna a Ziarat . Jinnah bai iya samun lafiyarsa ba. Ya mutu a ranar 11 Satumba 1948 daga tarin fuka Archived .

Ra'ayoyin zamani game da Aljannah[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A 'yan shekarun nan, wasu malamai sun ba da wasu sabbin ra'ayoyi game da ayyukan Aljannah. Jinnah ya nuna sha'awar cewa wasu daga cikin mafi rinjayen sarakunan Hindu su shiga Pakistan. Waɗannan malamai suna jayayya cewa wannan ra'ayin ya saba wa ra'ayin Jinnah cewa Hindu da Musulmi ba za su iya zama tare ba.

Wasu masana tarihi kamar HM Seervai da Ayesha Jalal sunce Jinnah na son duniyan Kudancin Asiya. Ya buƙaci a ware wa Musulmai kasa ta daban kasancewar shugabannin Majalisar ba sa son raba madafan iko da ƙungiyar Musulman.

Kwanan nan, shugabannin Indiya waɗanda ke cikin Bhartiya Janta Party, kamar Lal Krishna Advani da Jaswant Singh sun yaba wa Jinnah. An kori Jaswant Singh daga jam'iyyar ne saboda ya yabi Jinnah a littafinsa mai suna 'Jinnah- India, Partition and Independence'.

Tunawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Al'umma da mutane sunyi abubuwa da yawa don tunawa da Aljannah. A Pakistan ana kiransa Quaid-e-Azam. Hotunan sa sun bayyana a takardun kuɗi da yawa na Pakistan. An sanya sunan filin jirgin saman Karachi ne a bayansa. A shekarar 1998 wata sabuwar jami’a a Karachi aka sanya mata suna Jami’ar Mohammad Ali Jinnah . Wata jami'a a cikin Islamabad an sanya mata sunan jami'ar Quad-e-Azam

Sauran wurare da cibiyoyi da yawa suna ɗauke da sunansa a Pakistan da sauran wurare. Misali, a kasar Turkiya, ana kiran sunan titi mai girma sosai da sunan sa. A Iran, daya daga cikin manyan hanyoyin babban birninta Tehran yana dauke da sunansa kuma a zauren Mumbai an sanya masa zauren jama'a a bayansa.

Littattafai da yawa, fina-finai da shirye-shiryen TV suna ba da labari game da rayuwa da aikin Aljannah, gami da fim din da ya shafi rayuwar mutum, Jinnah .

Shahararrun maganganu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • "Tare da imani, horo da sadaukar da kai ga aiki, babu wani abu mai amfani da ba za ku iya cimma ba."
  • "Kuyi tunani sau 100 kafin ku yanke shawara, Amma da zarar an yanke wannan shawarar, ku tsaya a matsayin mutum daya."
  • "Rashin nasara kalma ce wacce ban sani ba."
  • "Babu wata al'umma da za ta hau zuwa daukaka har sai matanku suna gefe da kai."
  • "Tsammani mafi kyau, Ka shirya ma mafi munin."
  • "Babu wata gwagwarmaya da za ta taba yin nasara ba tare da mata sun shiga kafada da kafada da maza ba."
  • "Dole ne ku tsaya tsayin daka kan ci gaban da kuma kula da dimokradiyya ta Musulunci, adalci na zamantakewar Musulunci da daidaito na maza a kasar ku."
  • "Addinin Islama yana fatan kowane Musulmi ya yi wannan aikin, kuma idan muka fahimci nauyin da ke kanmu lokaci zai zo nan ba da daɗewa ba da za mu tabbatar da kanmu cewa ya cancanci abin da ya gabata.
  • "Wannan 'yanci ba zai taɓa samun wata al'umma ba tare da wahala da sadaukarwa ba sakamakon kyakkyawan abin da ya faru a wannan yankin na baya-bayan nan."
  • "Mun kasance masu cutar da munanan al'adu. Laifi ne ga bil'adama cewa an rufe matanmu a cikin bango hudu na gidajen a matsayin fursunoni. Babu takunkumi a ko'ina don mummunan halin da matanmu suke ciki. "
  • "Pakistan ba wai kawai tana nufin 'yanci da' yanci ba ne amma Akidar Musulmai wanda ya kamata a kiyaye, wanda dole ne ya zo mana a matsayin kyauta mai daraja da taska wanda kuma, muna fatan sauran za su raba tare da mu."

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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