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OPEC

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OPEC

Bayanai
Gajeren suna OPEC, OPEL, OPEP, OPEP, OPEP, OPEP, OPEP, OPUL, АПЕК, OPEP, ETOP, OPEP, ОПЕК, ОПЕК, ОПЕК, אופ״ק, אָפּע״ק, ოპეკი, МЭЕҰ, 油組, 油组, 油組, ABEP, ONEP, LPEE da ՆԱԵԿ
Iri international organization (en) Fassara, advocacy group (en) Fassara, intergovernmental organization (en) Fassara da cartel (en) Fassara
Masana'anta petroleum industry (en) Fassara
Ƙasa internationality (en) Fassara
Aiki
Kayayyaki
Mulki
Sakatare Haitham al-Ghais (en) Fassara
Hedkwata Innere Stadt (en) Fassara da Vienna
Subdivisions
Mamallaki na
Tarihi
Ƙirƙira 14 Satumba 1960
Founded in Bagdaza

opec.org

Kungiyar Kasashe Masu Fitar da Man Fetur ( OPEC,/ˈoʊ pɛk/OH-pek ) ƙungiya ce ta kasashe 13. An kafa ta a ranar 14 ga watan Satumbar 1960 a Bagadaza ta kasashe biyar na farko (Iran, Iraki, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, da Venezuela), tun a 1965, tana da hedkwata a Vienna, Austria, kodayake Austria ba ta cikin kungiyar OPEC. As of September 2018, da 13 Kasashen membobi sun kai kimanin kashi 44 da 81.5 na yawan man da ake hakowa a duniya kashi dari na arzikin man fetur da aka tabbatar a duniya, wanda ya baiwa kungiyar OPEC babban tasiri kan farashin mai a duniya wanda a baya kungiyar da ake kira "Seven Sisters" na kamfanonin mai na kasa da kasa suka kayyade.

Ofishin ƙasashe masu tattalin arzikin mai wato masu hako mai kenan wato Opec a turance

Kafa OPEC ya kawo sauyi ga ikon mallakar kasa a kan albarkatun kasa, kuma shawarar da kungiyar ta OPEC ta yi ta taka rawar gani a kasuwar man fetur ta duniya da huldar kasa da kasa. Tasirin na iya zama mai ƙarfi musamman lokacin da yaƙe-yaƙe ko rikice-rikicen jama'a ke haifar da tsawaitawa a cikin wadata. A cikin shekarun 1970, takunkumin hako mai ya haifar da tashin gwauron zabi a farashin mai da kuma kudaden shiga da kuma arzikin kungiyar OPEC, wanda hakan ya dade yana haifar da tasiri ga tattalin arzikin duniya. A cikin shekarun 1980, OPEC ta fara tsara manufofin samar da kayayyaki ga kasashe mambobinta; gabaɗaya, idan aka rage abin da ake nufi, farashin mai yana ƙaruwa. Wannan ya faru kwanan nan daga ƙudirin 2008 da 2016 na ƙungiyar don rage yawan abin da aka samu.

Masana tattalin arziki sun bayyana OPEC a matsayin misali na littafin karatu na ƙungiyar da ke ba da haɗin kai don rage gasa a kasuwa, amma wanda tuntubarsa ta sami kariya ta rukunan rigakafi na ƙasa a ƙarƙashin dokokin ƙasa da ƙasa.[1] A shekarun 1960 da 1970, OPEC ta yi nasarar sake fasalin tsarin samar da mai a duniya ta yadda hukumar yanke shawara da mafi yawan ribar ke hannun kasashe masu arzikin man fetur. Tun a shekarun 1980, OPEC ta yi tasiri sosai wajen samar da man fetur a duniya da daidaiton farashinsa, saboda yawan ha’inci da mambobin kungiyar ke yi a kan alkawurran da suka yi wa juna, kuma kamar yadda alkawurran da mambobin kungiyar ke yi na nuna abin da za su yi ko da kuwa babu OPEC.

Kasashen OPEC na yanzu sun hada da Algeria, Angola, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Jamhuriyar Congo, Saudi Arabia, Hadaddiyar Daular Larabawa da Venezuela. A halin da ake ciki, Ecuador, Indonesia da Qatar, sun kasance mambobin kungiyar OPEC. An kafa wata babbar kungiya mai suna OPEC a karshen shekarar 2016 domin samun karin iko kan kasuwar danyen mai ta duniya.[2]

Ƙungiya da tsari[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin jerin matakai a cikin shekarun 1960 da 1970, OPEC ta sake fasalin tsarin samar da mai a duniya don goyon bayan kasashe masu samar da mai da kuma nesanta kansu daga oligopoly na manyan kamfanonin mai na Anglo-American (The Seven Sisters).[3] Haɗin kai tsakanin jihohin da ke hako mai a cikin OPEC, ya sa su sami sauƙi a mayar da haƙon mai zuwa ƙasa da kuma tsara farashin mai don amfanin su ba tare da fuskantar hukunci daga gwamnatoci da kamfanoni na Yamma ba. Kafin kafa kungiyar OPEC, an hukunta daidaikun jihohin da ke hako mai saboda daukar matakin sauya tsarin tafiyar da harkokin hakar mai a iyakokinsu. An tilastawa kasashe ne ta hanyar soji (misali a shekarar 1953, Amurka da Birtaniya sun dauki nauyin juyin mulkin da aka yi wa Mohammad Mosaddegh bayan ya mayar da man fetur din Iran kasa) ko kuma ta fuskar tattalin arziki (misali Seven Sisters sun rage yawan man fetur a wata jiha da ba ta yarda da hakan ba, sannan ta kara habaka samar da mai a wani waje) a lokacin da aka yi abin da ya saba wa muradun ’yan’uwa mata bakwai da gwamnatocinsu.

Ma’anar tsarin da kungiyar ta OPEC ke da shi shi ne cewa tana da muradin gamayya ga mambobinta su takaita wadatar man fetur a duniya domin samun karin farashi. Sai dai babbar matsalar da ke tsakanin kungiyar ta OPEC ita ce ta dace daidaikun mambobin su yi magudin alkawurra da kuma samar da mai gwargwadon iko.

Masanin kimiyyar siyasa Jeff Colgan ya yi zargin cewa OPEC tun a shekarun 1980 ta gaza cimma burinta (iyaka kan samar da mai a duniya, daidaita farashin, da kuma kara yawan kudaden shiga na dogon lokaci). Ya gano cewa membobi sun yaudari kashi 96% na alkawuransu.[4] Matukar dai kasashe mambobin kungiyar sun cika alkawuran da suka dauka, saboda alkawurran sun nuna abin da za su yi ko da kuwa babu OPEC. Babban dalilin da ya sa ake yawan yin magudi shi ne, OPEC ba ta hukunta mambobinta saboda rashin cika alkawuran da suka dauka.

refer to caption
Wakilan taron OPEC a Swissotel, Quito, Ecuador, Disamba 2010.


Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Colgan, Jeff D. (2021), "The Stagnation of OPEC", Partial Hegemony: Oil Politics and International Order, Oxford University Press, pp. 94–118, doi:10.1093/oso/9780197546376.003.0004, ISBN 978-0-19-754637-6
  2. Cohen, Ariel. "OPEC Is Dead, Long Live OPEC+". Forbes. Archived from the original on 2 August 2019. Retrieved 2 August 2019.
  3. Colgan, Jeff D. (2021), "The Rise of OPEC", Partial Hegemony: Oil Politics and International Order, Oxford University Press, pp. 59–93, doi:10.1093/oso/9780197546376.003.0003, ISBN 978-0-19-754637-6
  4. "Statute" (PDF). OPEC. 2012. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 October 2014. Retrieved 12 December 2014.