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Abokan Duniya

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Abokan Duniya
Bayanai
Gajeren suna FoEI
Iri environmental organization (en) Fassara, non-governmental organization (en) Fassara da nonprofit organization (en) Fassara
Ƙasa Denmark
Aiki
Mamba na European Environmental Bureau (en) Fassara
Ƙaramar kamfani na
Tarihi
Ƙirƙira 1971

foei.org


Abokan Duniya ( FoEI ) cibiyar sadarwar kasa da kasa ce ta kungiyoyin muhalli a cikin kasashe 73. An kafa ƙungiyar a cikin 1969 a San Francisco ta David Brower, Donald Aitken da Gary Soucie bayan Brower ta raba tare da Saliyo Club [1] saboda kyakkyawan tsarin kula da makamashin nukiliya.[2]

Robert Orville Anderson, mai kamfanin mai na Atlantic Richfield ne ya bayar da gudummawar da aka kafa na $500,000 (a cikin USD 2019). Ya zama cibiyar sadarwa ta duniya a cikin 1971 tare da taron wakilai daga ƙasashe huɗu: Amurka, Sweden, Birtaniya da Faransa.[3]

FoEI a halin yanzu yana da sakatariya (wanda yake a Amsterdam, Netherlands ) wanda ke ba da tallafi ga cibiyar sadarwa da manyan yakin da aka amince da shi.[4] Kwamitin zartarwa na zaɓaɓɓun wakilai daga ƙungiyoyin ƙasa ya tsara manufofi da kula da ayyukan sakatariyar. A cikin 2016, an zaɓi ɗan gwagwarmayar Uruguay Karin Nansen don zama shugabar ƙungiyar.[5]

Matsalolin yaƙin neman zaɓe[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Abokan Duniya (International) ƙungiyar memba ce ta ƙasa da ƙasa, tare da membobi waɗanda ke bazu cikin duniya. Shirye-shiryenta na ba da shawara suna mayar da hankali kan batutuwan muhalli, suna nuna yanayin zamantakewa, siyasa da haƙƙin ɗan adam. Reshen ƙasa da ƙasa na Abokan Duniya yana da hedikwata a Amsterdam, Netherlands, saboda dalilai na haraji.[6]

Kamar yadda yake a cikin gidan yanar gizon sa, abubuwan da suka sa a gaba na kamfen na Abokan Duniya a duniya sune: adalcin tattalin arziki da kuma tsayayya da tsarin mulkin neoliberalism ; gandun daji da halittu ; ikon abinci ; da yanayin adalci da makamashi. An saita mahimman abubuwan yaƙin neman zaɓe na FOEI a babban taronta na shekara biyu. Bugu da ƙari, FOEI kuma tana shirin yaƙin neman zaɓe a wasu fagage, kamar kwararowar hamada ; Antarctica ; Maritime, ma'adinai da kuma haƙar masana'antu ; da makamashin nukiliya . [7] A cikin 2016, FOEI kuma ta jagoranci yaƙin neman zaɓe akan cin abinci da kuma samar da nama mai ƙarfi ( Meat Atlas ).

FOEI ta yi iƙirarin cewa ta sami nasara yayin da ta kawar da biliyoyin tallafin masu biyan haraji ga masu gurɓata muhalli, sake fasalin Bankin Duniya don magance matsalolin muhalli da haƙƙin ɗan adam, ta tura muhawara kan ɗumamar yanayi don matsawa Amurka lamba don ƙoƙarin yin mafi kyawun doka mai yiwuwa, dakatar da ƙari. Fiye da madatsun ruwa 150 masu lalata da ayyukan ruwa a duk duniya, an matsa su kuma sun ci nasara kan ƙa'idojin ma'adinai da tankokin mai da kuma hana kifin kifin na ƙasa da ƙasa.[7] [7][8] Masu sukar ta sun yi iƙirarin cewa ƙungiyar tana ƙoƙari ne kawai don samun hankalin kafofin watsa labaru (kamar yadda ta fitar da waƙar "Ƙauna zuwa Duniya"), amma ba ta zauna tare da 'yan gida don magance matsaloli masu rikitarwa, kuma suna hana ci gaba a kasashe masu tasowa. Sun kuma yi suka kan manufofinta na karbar manyan kudade daga kamfanoni da ƙungiyoyin agaji masu alaka da mai da iskar gas.[9]

Mai[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A watan Oktoban 2018, an sanar da cewa, Aliko Dangote, hamshaƙin attajirin Afrika, na shirin gina matatar mai na dala biliyan 12 a kan kadada 6,180 na fadama a Najeriya. Wannan zai sa ta zama matatar mai mafi girma a duniya. Nan da shekarar 2022, matatar za ta rika sarrafa gangar danyen mai 650,000 a kullum. Tuni dai Najeriya ta kasance kasa mafi arzikin man fetur a nahiyar Afirka, duk da cewa matatun da ake da su ba su da inganci, don haka ana shigo da mafi yawan man da ake amfani da shi a cikin ƙasar. Domin za a gina matatar mai nisa daga yankin Neja Delta, inda ake hako mafi yawan man Najeriya, za a yi amfani da bututun da ke ƙarƙashin ruwa guda biyu wajen jigilar mai mai nisan mil 240 zuwa matatar mai da ke Legas . Bututun da dama a Najeriya na karkashin tsaro, wasu kuma fusatattun ‘yan kasa da kuma ‘yan kungiyar ‘yan tawaye mai suna Delta Avengers, wadanda ke fusata da gurbatar yanayi da talauci da ke tattare da su da kuma samo asali daga harkar mai. Bugu da kari, da alama wannan matatar man za ta baiwa Dangote damar mallakar man Najeriya.[10]

A ranar 11 ga Disamba, 2018, FOE Afirka ta fara zanga-zangar a wajen wani taron da kamfanin Shell ya shirya. Masu fafutuka sun gano cewa Shell ya taimaka wajen tsara wani yanki na yarjejeniyar yanayi ta Paris a cikin 2015. Shell, kamfanin haƙar mai, ya rinjayi ka'idojin kan alawus-alawus na iskar gas da hani.[11][12][13] A wajen zanga-zangar, Rita Uwaka ta kungiyar FOE reshen Najeriya ta ce: “Kamar wuta ce a doron kasa. Ina wakiltar al'ummomin yankin Neja Delta wadanda wadannan manyan gurbatattun gurbataccen yanayi ke shafa. . . Samun waɗannan manyan masu gurɓatawa sun shigo nan a matsayin waliyyi ba kawai mari ba ne a kan mu a matsayin wakilai na COP . Har ila yau, mari ne a kan Uwar Duniya."[14]

Tsarin hanyar sadarwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ƙungiyar memba a wata ƙasa na iya kiran kanta Abokan Duniya ko kuma daidai da fassarar jumla a cikin harshen ƙasa, misali, Abokan Duniya (US), Abokan Duniya (EWNI) (England Wales da Arewacin Ireland), Amigos de la Tierra (Spain da Argentina). Duk da haka, kusan rabin ƙungiyoyin membobin suna aiki ƙarƙashin sunayensu, wani lokaci suna nuna asali mai zaman kanta da shigar da hanyar sadarwa ta gaba, kamar Pro Natura (Switzerland), Ƙungiyar Koriya ta Ƙwararrun Muhalli, Ayyukan Haƙƙin Muhalli (FOE Nigeria) da WALHI (FOE Indonesia).

Abokan Duniya na Duniya (FoEI) suna goyan bayan wata sakatariya da ke Amsterdam, da kuma kwamitin gudanarwa da aka sani da ExCom. Duk ƙungiyoyin mambobi ne ke zaɓen ExCom a babban taron da ake gudanarwa duk bayan shekaru biyu, kuma ita ce ExCom wacce ke ɗaukar sakatariya.[15] A daidai wannan babban taron, an amince da manufofin gaba ɗaya da ayyukan fifiko.

Baya ga aikin da aka haɗa a matakin FoEI, ƙungiyoyin membobin ƙasa suna da yancin gudanar da nasu kamfen da yin aiki bi- ko da yawa kamar yadda suka ga dama, muddin hakan bai saba wa manufofin da aka amince da su ba a duniya. matakin.[16]

Labarai[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Meat Atlas rahoto ne na shekara-shekara kan hanyoyin da tasirin aikin noma na masana'antu . Littafin ya ƙunshi gajerun kasidu 27 kuma, tare da taimakon jadawali, yana hango gaskiya game da samarwa da cin nama. Abokan Duniya da Gidauniyar Heinrich Böll ne suka buga Meat Atlas tare. [17]

Sanannen magoya baya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Mawaƙin Rock George Harrison ya sami alaƙa da Abokan Duniya bayan halartar zanga-zangar adawa da makaman nukiliya a London a cikin 1980. Ya sadaukar da kundin sa mafi girma na 1989, Mafi kyawun Dokin Duhu, ga Abokan Duniya, a tsakanin sauran ƙungiyoyin muhalli.
  • Jay Kay, frontman na funk/acid jazz group Jamiroquai, an san shi don ba da gudummawar wani ɓangare na ribar da aka samu daga tallace-tallacen album ɗinsa ga Abokan Duniya da Oxfam, a tsakanin sauran abubuwa.
  • Dominique Voynet, wanda ya tsaya takara a zabukan shugaban kasar Faransa a 1995 da 2007 a jam'iyyar "les verts" jam'iyyar Green Party, memba ne.
  • Thom Yorke, jagoran mawaƙin Radiohead, ya goyi bayan kamfen ɗin Abokan Duniya da yawa a bainar jama'a.
  • Mawaƙa na fitattun muryoyin muryoyin akan "Ƙauna Zuwa Duniya" -ciki har da Paul McCartney, Jon Bon Jovi, Sheryl Crow, Fergie, Sean Paul, da Colbie Caillat - sun haɗu da sojoji a kan wannan waƙar pop mai ban sha'awa. Duk abin da aka samu daga kowane siyar da guda ɗaya za a ba da gudummawa ga Abokan Duniya na Amurka da Gidauniyar Majalisar Ɗinkin Duniya.

Taimakawa ga Babban Tambaya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Daga cikin wadanda suka halarta a ƙaddamar da yakin neman sauyin yanayi na Abokan Duniya (EWNI) Babban Tambaya shine Dokar Jude, [18] Edith Bowman, Siân Lloyd, Ross Burden, David Cameron, David Miliband, Thom Yorke, Stephen Merchant, Michael Eavis, da Emily Eavis.[19]

Ƙungiyoyin membobi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

We are fed up
Mun koshi ! - zanga-zangar: Abokan Duniya Jamus na cikin ƙungiyar haɗin gwiwar da ke shirya zanga-zangar.

[20]

Asiya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Friends of the Earth Japan [ja]
  • Dandalin Indonesiya don Muhalli, Indonesia
  • Ƙungiyar Koriya don Ƙwararrun Muhalli
  • Abokan Duniya Gabas ta Tsakiya
  • Legal Rights and Natural Resources Center - Kasama sa Kalikasan
  • Cibiyar Shari'ar Muhalli, Sri Lanka
  • Sahabat Alam Malaysia

Turai[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Abokan Duniya na Turai, Brussels
  • Abokan Duniya (EWNI), (Ingila, Wales da Arewacin Ireland)
    • Manchester Abokan Duniya
  • Green Action, Croatia
  • Hnutí DUHA, Jamhuriyar Czech
  • Milieudefensie, Netherlands
  • Ƙungiyar Norwegian don Kiyaye Halitta, Norway
  • Abokan Duniya (Malta)
  • NOAH, wanda aka kafa a cikin 1969 a Denmark, ƙungiyar maƙiya ta ƙasa tun 1988, Denmark [2]

Amirka ta Arewa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Oceania[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Abokan Duniya Ostiraliya

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Thomson, Jennifer (2017).
  2. Shellenberger, Michael. "Why Renewables Advocates Protect Fossil Fuel Interests, Not The Climate". Forbes (in Turanci). Retrieved 2019-06-18.
  3. "History". April 2014. Archived from the original on 12 April 2014. Retrieved 25 May 2016.
  4. "Friends of the Earth ticked off over claims in anti-fracking leaflet". The Guardian. 4 January 2017. Retrieved 16 October 2018.
  5. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named nansennewchair
  6. "Our work". www.friendsoftheearth.uk. Friends of the earth UK. Retrieved 16 October 2018.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 "Home - Friends of the earth international". Archived from the original on 25 March 2014. Retrieved 25 May 2016.
  8. Meyer, Jan-Henrik (2014). ""Where do we go from Wyhl?" Transnational Anti-Nuclear Protest targeting European and International Organizations in the 1970s". Historical Social Research. 39 (1): 212–235. doi:10.12759/hsr.39.2014.1.212-235. Retrieved 25 May 2016.
  9. "Home - Friends of the earth international". Archived from the original on 7 March 2014. Retrieved 25 May 2016.
  10. Edozien, Frankie (2018-10-09). "In Nigeria, Plans for the World's Largest Refinery". The New York Times (in Turanci). ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-12-11.
  11. Aronoff, Kate (2018-12-08). "Shell Oil Executive Boasts That His Company Influenced the Paris Agreement". The Intercept (in Turanci). Retrieved 2018-12-11.
  12. "Shell Oil Executive Boasts That His Company Influenced The Paris Agreement". PopularResistance.Org (in Turanci). 11 December 2018. Retrieved 2018-12-11.
  13. "What Shell knew and how it once stalled international climate negotiations". The Ecologist (in Turanci). Retrieved 2018-12-11.
  14. Democracy Now!, Top U.S. & World Headlines — December 11, 2018, archived from the original on 2021-12-11, retrieved 2018-12-11
  15. "International secretariat". Archived from the original on 23 May 2010. Retrieved 25 May 2016.
  16. "Home - Friends of the earth international". Archived from the original on 9 April 2010. Retrieved 25 May 2016.
  17. Meat Atlas, Friends of the Earth, download Meat Atlas as pdf
  18. Radiohead's Thom Yorke to guest-edit Observer Magazine published March 20, 2008.
  19. "Big names back The Big Ask". Friends of the Earth. Retrieved 25 May 2016.
  20. Harry, Bill (2003). The George Harrison Encyclopedia. London: Virgin Books. pp. 28, 85. ISBN 978-0753508220.

Littattafan bibiya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Brian Doherty da Timothy Doyle, Muhalli, Juriya da Haɗin kai. Siyasar Abokan Duniya na Duniya (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2013). [3]
  • Jan-Henrik Meyer, "'A ina za mu je daga Wyhl?' Zanga-zangar Anti-Nuclear ta Juyin Juya Hali da ke niyya ga Ƙungiyoyin Turai da na Duniya a cikin 1970s, " Binciken Tarihi na Zamantakewa 39: 1 (2014): 212-235. [4]

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]