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Babur
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Babur 14 ga Fabrairu 1483 – 26 ga Disamba 1530; An haifi Zahīr ud-Dīn Muhammad ) shi ne wanda ya kafa daular Mughal a cikin yankin Indiya . Ya kasance zuriyar Timur da Genghis Khan ta hanyar mahaifinsa da mahaifiyarsa bi da bi. [1] [2] An kuma ba shi sunan Firdaws Makani ('Zauna a Aljanna') bayan mutuwarsa .

An haife shi a Andijan a cikin kwarin Fergana (yanzu a Uzbekistan ), Babur shine babban ɗan Umar Shaikh Mirza II (1456-1494, gwamnan Fergana daga 1469 zuwa 1494) kuma babban jikan Timur (1336– 1405). Babur ya hau gadon sarautar Fergana a babban birnin kasar Akhsikath a shekara ta 1494 yana da shekaru goma sha biyu kuma ya fuskanci tawaye. Ya ci Samarkand shekaru biyu bayan haka, amma ya rasa Fergana ba da daɗewa ba. A yunƙurinsa na sake cin Fergana, ya rasa ikon Samarkand. A shekara ta 1501, yunkurinsa na sake kwato yankuna biyu ya ci tura lokacin da yariman Uzbekistan Muhammad Shaybani ya ci nasara da shi kuma ya kafa Khanate na Bukhara .

A cikin 1504, ya ci Kabul, wanda ke ƙarƙashin mulkin Abdur Razaq Mirza, ɗan gado na Ulugh Beg II . Babur ya kulla kawance da sarki Safavid Isma'il na daya kuma ya ci wasu yankuna na Turkestan, ciki har da Samarkand, sai dai ya sake rasa ta da sauran sabbin yankunan da Shaybanid suka mamaye.

Bayan ya rasa Samarkand a karo na uku, Babur ya mayar da hankalinsa ga Indiya kuma ya yi amfani da taimako daga daulolin Safavid da Ottoman makwabta. Ya yi nasara akan Ibrahim Lodi Sultan na Delhi a yakin Panipat na farko a shekara ta 1526 kuma ya kafa daular Mughal . Kafin shan kashi na Lodi a Delhi, Sultanate na Delhi ya kasance mai amfani da karfi, tsawon lokaci a cikin yanayin raguwa.

Masarautar Mewar da ke kusa da kishiya a ƙarƙashin mulkin Rana Sanga tana da burin zama babbar ƙasa a Arewacin Indiya .  </link>[ mafi kyau tushe da ake bukata ] Sanga ya haɗu da dangin Rajput da yawa a karon farko bayan Prithviraj Chauhan kuma ya ci gaba a Babur tare da babbar ƙungiyar Rajputs 100,000, tare da shiga Babur a yakin Khanwa . Babur ya isa Kanwah da sojoji kasa da 10,000. Duk da haka, Sanga ya sha babban kaye saboda ƙwararrun rundunonin da Babur ya yi da kuma yin amfani da foda, musamman maƙarƙashiyar ashana da ƙananan igwa .

Yakin Khanwa ya kasance daya daga cikin fadace-fadacen da suka fi daukar hankali a tarihin Indiya, fiye da yakin Panipat na Farko, domin kashin da aka yi wa Rana Sanga ya kasance ruwan sha a yakin Mughal na Arewacin Indiya.  </link>[ mafi kyau tushe ake bukata ] [3] </link>

A addinance, Babur ya fara rayuwarsa ne a matsayin musulmin sunni na kwarai, amma ya sami gagarumin juyin halitta. Babur ya kasance mai haƙuri yayin da ya ci sabbin yankuna kuma ya girma, ya ba wa sauran addinai damar zama tare cikin lumana a cikin daularsa da kuma a fadarsa. [4] Ya kuma nuna wani abin sha'awa ga tiyoloji, waƙa, labarin ƙasa, tarihi, da ilmin halitta - horon da ya ɗaukaka a kotunsa - wanda ya sa ya kasance da haɗin kai akai-akai da wakilan Timurid Renaissance . Matsayinsa na addini da na falsafa an siffanta su da ɗan adam . [5]

Babur ya yi aure sau da yawa. Daga cikin 'ya'yansa akwai Humayun, Kamran Mirza, Hindal Mirza, Masuma Sultan Begum, da marubucin Gulbadan Begum .

Babur ya rasu a shekara ta 1530 a Agra kuma Humayun ya gaje shi. An fara binne Babur a Agra, amma kamar yadda ya so, an kwashe gawarsa zuwa Kabul aka sake binne shi. Ya yi matsayi a matsayin gwarzo na kasa a Uzbekistan da Kyrgyzstan . Yawancin waqoqinsa sun zama waqoqin jama’a da suka shahara. Ya rubuta Baburnama a cikin Chaghatai Turkic ; An fassara shi zuwa Farisa a lokacin sarauta (1556-1605) na jikansa, sarki Akbar .

Ẓahīr-ud-Dīn Larabci ne don "Mai Kare Imani" ( Musulunci ), kuma Muhammadu yana girmama Annabin Musulunci . Sufi waliyyai Khwaja Ahrar, wanda shi ne shugaban ruhi na mahaifinsa ya zaɓi sunan Babur. Wahalar furta sunan sojojinsa na Turco-Mongol na Tsakiyar Asiya na iya zama alhakin shaharar laƙabinsa Babur, [6] kuma ya rubuta Baber iri-iri, [19] Babar, [20] da Bābor . Gabaɗaya ana ɗaukar sunan ne dangane da kalmar Farisa babur ( ببر ), ma'ana "damisa" ko "panther". [19] Kalmar ta fito akai-akai a cikin Shahnameh na Ferdowsi kuma an aro a cikin yarukan Turkic na Asiya ta Tsakiya. [20] [7]

Babur Family Tree
Hoton Babur na Karni na 17

Littafin tarihin Babur shine babban tushe don cikakkun bayanai na rayuwarsa. An san su da Baburnama kuma an rubuta su a cikin Chagatai, harshensa na farko, ko da yake, a cewar Dale, "Turkicin nasa ya zama Farisa sosai a cikin tsarin jimla, ilimin halittar jiki ko tsarin kalmomi da ƙamus." An fassara Baburnama zuwa Farisa lokacin mulkin jikan Babur Akbar.

An haifi Babur a ranar 14 ga Fabrairu 1483 a garin Andijan, kwarin Fergana, Uzbekistan ta zamani. Shi ne babban ɗan Umar Shaikh Mirza II, mai mulkin kwarin Fergana, ɗan Abū Sa'īd Mirza (kuma jikan Miran Shah, wanda shi kansa ɗan Timur ne) da matarsa Qutlugh Nigar Khanum, 'yar Yunus. Khan, sarkin Moghulistan (dan zuriyar Genghis Khan ne).

Babur ya fito ne daga kabilar Barlas, wadda ta fito daga Mongol kuma ta rungumi al'adar Turco-Persian Sun kuma musulunta shekaru aru-aru a baya kuma sun zauna a Turkestan da Khorasan .

Baya ga yaren Chaghatai, Babur ya kware sosai a cikin Farisa na gargajiya, yare na manyan Timurid.

Wasu daga cikin dangin Babur, irin su kawunsa Mahmud Khan (Moghul Khan) da Ahmad Khan, sun ci gaba da bayyana a matsayin Mongol, kuma sun ba shi damar yin amfani da sojojinsu na Mongol don taimakawa wajen kwato dukiyarsa a cikin shekaru masu yawa da suka biyo baya.

Don haka, Babur, ko da yake Mongol (ko Moghul a cikin harshen Farisa), ya sami goyon bayansa da yawa daga Turkawa da mutanen Iran na tsakiyar Asiya, kuma sojojinsa sun bambanta a cikin ƙabilancinsu. Ya haɗa da Sarts, Tajik, ƙabilar Afganistan, Larabawa, da Barlas da Chaghatayid Turko-Mongols daga tsakiyar Asiya.

Mai mulkin Asiya ta tsakiya

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A matsayin mai mulkin Fergana

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A shekara ta 1494, Babur ɗan shekara goma sha ɗaya ya zama sarkin Fergana, a ƙasar Uzbekistan ta yau, bayan da Umar Sheikh Mirza ya rasu "yayin da yake kiwon tattabarai a cikin wata kurciya mara kyau wadda ta faɗo cikin rafin da ke ƙarƙashin fadar". A wannan lokacin ne wasu kawunsa guda biyu daga masarautun da ke makwabtaka da su, wadanda ke adawa da mahaifinsa, da kuma wasu gungun manyan mutane masu son kaninsa Jahangir ya zama sarki, suka yi barazanar maye gurbinsa. [6] Kawun nasa sun jajirce wajen yunƙurin kawar da shi daga wannan matsayi da ma sauran dukiyarsa da ke zuwa. Babur dai ya samu nasarar samun sarautar sa musamman saboda taimakon kakarsa Aisan Daulat Begum, duk da cewa an samu wasu sa'a. [6]

Yawancin yankunan da ke kewaye da masarautarsa, danginsa ne, waɗanda suka kasance zuriyar Timur ko Genghis Khan, kuma suna cikin rikici akai-akai. [6] A lokacin, sarakunan da suka yi gaba da juna suna fada a kan birnin Samarkand daga yamma, wanda dan uwan mahaifinsa ne ke mulki. A cikin 1497, ya kewaye Samarkand tsawon watanni bakwai kafin sami iko akansa. Yana da shekaru goma sha biyar kuma a gare shi yakin neman zabe ya kasance babbar nasara. [6] Babur ya iya rike birnin duk da cewa sojojinsa sun gudu, amma daga baya ya kamu da rashin lafiya. daga cikin manya-manyan mutane da suka fifita dan uwansa, sun kwace masa Fergana. Yana cikin tafiya ya maido da ita, sai ya rasa Samarkand ga wani basarake kishiya, bai bar shi ba. [6] Ya rike Samarkand na tsawon kwanaki 100, kuma ya dauki wannan shan kashi a matsayin babban rashi, inda ya damu da hakan har ma a rayuwarsa bayan ya ci nasara a Indiya. [6]

Tsawon shekaru uku, Babur ya mai da hankali kan gina kakkarfan sojoji, inda ya dauki ma'aikata sosai a tsakanin Tajik na Badakhshan musamman. A cikin 1500-1501, ya sake kewaye Samarkand, kuma hakika ya mamaye birnin a takaice, amma shi kuma babban abokin hamayyarsa Muhammad Shaybani, Khan na Uzbek ya kewaye shi. Lamarin ya kai ga tilas Babar ya ba wa Shaybani ‘yar uwarsa Khanzada aure a matsayin wani bangare na sulhu. Bayan haka ne aka ba Babur da dakarunsa izinin barin garin cikin aminci. Samarkand, sha'awar rayuwarsa ta rayuwa, don haka ya sake ɓacewa. Daga nan ya yi kokarin kwato Fergana, amma ya sha kaye a wurin shi ma, ya tsere da ’yan tsirarun mabiya, ya yi yawo a tsaunukan tsakiyar Asiya ya fake da kabilun tuddai. A shekara ta 1502, ya yi murabus daga dukkan bege na murmurewa Fergana; ba a bar shi da komai ba aka tilasta masa gwada sa’arsa a wani waje. [6] A ƙarshe ya tafi Tashkent, wanda kawun mahaifiyarsa ke mulki, amma ya sami kansa ba tare da maraba a can ba. Babur ya rubuta, "A lokacin zamana a Tashkent, na jimre da talauci da wulakanci. Ba wata ƙasa, ko begen ɗaya!" [6] Saboda haka, a cikin shekaru goma da zama sarkin Fergana, Babur ya sha fama da nasara na gajeren lokaci kuma ba shi da tsari kuma yana gudun hijira, taimakon abokai da manoma.

Tsabar da Babur ya yi a lokacin da yake mulkin Kabul . Kwanan wata 1507/8

Kabul mahaifin Babur Ulugh Beg II ne ke mulkin Kabul, wanda ya mutu ya bar jariri kawai a matsayin magaji. [6] Daga nan sai Mukin Begh ya yi ikirarin cewa birnin, wanda ake ganin shi ne dan kwace, kuma jama'ar yankin suka nuna adawa da shi. A cikin 1504, Babur ya sami damar ketare tsaunukan Hindu Kush masu dusar ƙanƙara kuma ya kama Kabul daga sauran Arghunids, waɗanda aka tilasta musu komawa Kandahar . Da wannan yunƙurin, ya sami sabuwar masarauta, ya sake kafa dukiyarsa kuma zai ci gaba da mulkinta har zuwa 1526. A shekara ta 1505, saboda karancin kudaden shiga da sabuwar masarautan tsaunuka ke samu, Babur ya fara balaguron farko zuwa Indiya; A cikin tarihinsa, ya rubuta, "Burina ga Hindustan ya kasance mai tsayi. A cikin watan Shaban ne, Rana yana cikin Aquarius, mun tashi daga Kabul zuwa Hindustan". Wani ɗan gajeren farmaki ne a kan hanyar Khyber Pass . [6]

Babur ya tashi zuwa Hindustan daga Kabul

A cikin wannan shekarar, Babur ya haɗu tare da Sultan Husayn Mirza Bayqarah na Herat, ɗan'uwan Timurid kuma dangi na nesa, a kan abokin gaba ɗaya, Uzbek Shaybani. Duk da haka, wannan harka ba ta faru ba saboda Husayn Mirza ya rasu a shekara ta 1506 kuma 'ya'yansa maza biyu sun hakura zuwa yaki. [6] A maimakon haka Babur ya zauna a Herat bayan 'yan'uwan Mirza biyu sun gayyace shi. Sannan ita ce hedkwatar al'adun kasashen musulmi na gabacin duniya. Ko da yake ya kyamace shi da munanan dabi'u da abubuwan more rayuwa na birnin, [6] ya yi mamakin wadatar ilimi da ke wurin, wanda ya ce "cike da ma'abota ilimi da daidaito". Ya san aikin mawaƙin Chagatai Mir Ali Shir Nava'i, wanda ya ƙarfafa amfani da Chagatai a matsayin harshen adabi . Kwarewar Nava'i game da harshen, wanda aka yarda da shi da kafa shi, na iya yin tasiri ga Babur a shawararsa na amfani da shi don abubuwan tunawa. Ya shafe watanni biyu a can kafin a tilasta masa barin saboda tabarbarewar albarkatun kasa; [8] Daga baya Shaybani ya mamaye shi kuma Mirzas suka gudu. [6] Babur ya zama daya tilo mai mulkin daular Timurid bayan rashin Herat, kuma sarakuna da yawa sun nemi mafaka da shi a Kabul saboda mamayewar Shaybani a yamma. [6] Don haka ya ɗauki lakabin Padshah (sarki) a cikin Timurids-ko da yake wannan laƙabi ba shi da mahimmanci tun lokacin da aka karɓi yawancin ƙasashen kakanninsa, Kabul kanta yana cikin haɗari kuma Shaybani ya ci gaba da zama barazana. [6] Babur ya yi galaba a lokacin da ake iya yin tawaye a Kabul, amma bayan shekaru biyu boren da wasu manyan hafsoshin sojansa suka yi ya kore shi daga Kabul. Da yake tserewa tare da sahabbai kalilan, ba da jimawa ba Babur ya koma birnin, ya sake kwace Kabul, ya kuma dawo da mubaya’ar ‘yan tawaye. A halin yanzu, Shaybani ya sha kaye a hannun Ismail I, Shah na Shia Safavid Farisa, a 1510.

Babur da sauran Timurids sun yi amfani da wannan damar don sake mamaye yankunan kakanninsu. A cikin 'yan shekarun da suka biyo baya, Babur da Shah Ismail sun kulla kawance a yunkurin mamaye sassan tsakiyar Asiya. Domin neman taimakon Ismail, Babur ya ba wa Safawiyawa damar zama suzerain a kansa da mabiyansa. Don haka, a shekara ta 1513, bayan ya bar dan uwansa Nasir Mirza ya mulki Kabul, ya yi nasarar daukar Samarkand a karo na uku; Ya kuma dauki Bokhara amma ya sake rasa duka ga Uzbek. Shah Ismail ya sake haduwa da Babur tare da 'yar uwarsa Khānzāda, wacce aka daure ta kuma aka tilasta mata auren Shaybani da ya rasu kwanan nan. Babur ya koma Kabul bayan shekaru uku a 1514. Shekaru 11 da suka biyo bayan mulkinsa ya shafi tunkarar 'yan tawaye marasa kima daga kabilun Afganistan, manyansa da danginsa, baya ga kai hare-hare a tsaunukan gabashin kasar. Babur ya fara zamanantar da sojojinsa da horas da su duk da cewa a gare shi, lokacin zaman lafiya ne.

Alakar kasashen waje

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Ganawar Babur da Sultan Ali Mirza kusa da Samarkand

Da yake yunƙurin cinye Uzbek da sake kwato mahaifarsa ta kakanni, Babur ya yi taka tsantsan da abokansu na Ottoman, kuma bai yi ƙoƙari ya kulla dangantakar diflomasiyya da su ba. Ya yi, duk da haka, ya yi amfani da kwamandan masu kulle-kulle Mustafa Rumi da wasu da dama na Ottoman. Daga gare su, ya ɗauki dabarar yin amfani da maƙarƙashiya da igwa a cikin filin (maimakon kawai a cikin kewaye ), wanda ya ba shi muhimmiyar fa'ida a Indiya. [6]

Samuwar Daular Mughal

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Tsabar Babur, bisa ma'aunin Bahlol Lodhi, Qila Agra, AH 936

Babur still wanted to escape from the Uzbeks, and he chose India as a refuge instead of Badakhshan, which was to the north of Kabul. He wrote, "In the presence of such power and potency, we had to think of some place for ourselves and, at this crisis and in the crack of time there was, put a wider space between us and the strong foeman."[6] After his third loss of Samarkand, Babur gave full attention to the conquest of North India, launching a campaign; he reached the Chenab River, now in Pakistan, in 1519. Until 1524, his aim was to only expand his rule to Punjab, mainly to fulfill the legacy of his ancestor Timur, since it used to be part of his empire.[6] At the time parts of North India were part of the Delhi Sultanate, ruled by Ibrahim Lodi of the Lodi dynasty, but the sultanate was crumbling and there were many defectors. Babur received invitations from Daulat Khan Lodi, Governor of Punjab and Ala-ud-Din, uncle of Ibrahim. He sent an ambassador to Ibrahim, claiming himself the rightful heir to the throne, but the ambassador was detained at Lahore, Punjab, and released months later.

Babur a Mughal Dastarkhan a cikin 1507 a cikin wani zane daga c. 1590

Babur ya fara zuwa Lahore a shekara ta 1524 amma ya gano cewa dakarun da Ibrahim Lodi ya aika sun fatattaki Daulat Khan Lodi. Lokacin da Babur ya isa Lahore, sojojin Lodi suka fita, aka fatattake sojojinsa. A mayar da martani, Babur ya kona Lahore na tsawon kwanaki biyu, sannan ya zarce zuwa Dibalpur, inda ya sanya Alam Khan, wani kawun Lodi, dan tawaye, a matsayin gwamna. An yi gaggawar hambarar da Alam Khan ya gudu zuwa Kabul. A mayar da martani, Babur ya ba Alam Khan sojoji wanda daga baya suka shiga tare da Daulat Khan Lodi, kuma tare da sojoji kusan 30,000 suka yiwa Ibrahim Lodi kawanya a Delhi. Cikin sauki Sarkin ya ci nasara ya kori sojojin Alam, kuma Babur ya gane cewa ba zai bar shi ya mamaye Punjab ba.

Yaƙin farko na Panipat

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Mughal bindigogi da sojoji a cikin aiki a lokacin yakin Panipat (1526)

A cikin Nuwamba 1525 Babur ya sami labari a Peshawar cewa Daulat Khan Lodi ya sauya sheka, kuma Babur ya kori Ala-ud-Din. Daga nan Babur ya zarce zuwa Lahore don fuskantar Daulat Khan Lodi, sai kawai ya ga sojojin Daulat sun narke a lokacin da suke gabatowa. Daulat ya mika wuya aka yi masa afuwa. Don haka a cikin makonni uku da tsallaka kogin Indus Babur ya zama gwanin Punjab.

Babur ya yi tafiya zuwa Delhi ta Sirhind. Ya isa Panipat a ranar 20 ga Afrilu 1526 kuma a can ya gamu da babbar runduna ta Ibrahim Lodi mai yawan sojoji kusan 100,000 da giwaye 100. A yakin da aka fara a washegari, Babur ya yi amfani da dabarar Tulugma, inda ya kewaye rundunar Ibrahim Lodi, ya tilasta musu fuskantar harbin bindigogi kai tsaye, tare da tsoratar da giwayen yakinta. Ibrahim Lodi ya rasu a yakin, wanda hakan ya kawo karshen daular Lodi.

  1. Christoph Baumer, The History of Central Asia: The Age of Islam and the Mongols, Bloomsbury Publishing, 2018, p. 47.
  2. Robert L. Canfield, Robert L. (1991).
  3. Wink 2012.
  4. Empty citation (help)
  5. Empty citation (help)
  6. 6.00 6.01 6.02 6.03 6.04 6.05 6.06 6.07 6.08 6.09 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15 6.16 6.17 6.18 Eraly 2007.
  7. Thumb, Albert, Handbuch des Sanskrit, mit Texten und Glossar, German original, ed.
  8. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named perspect