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Gandun Daji Na Yankuna masu Zafi

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Gandun Daji Na Yankuna masu Zafi
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na tropical forest (en) Fassara da Dajin ruwan sama
Yankin gandun dajin Amazon a Brazil. A wurare masu zafi rainforests na South America dauke da most bambancin jinsunan a Duniya.[1]
Yankunan yanayi na gandun daji na wurare masu zafi (Af).

Gandun daji,na wurare masu zafi sune gandun dajin da ke faruwa a yankunan dajin yanayi na wurare masu zafi wanda babu lokacin bazara duk watanni suna da matsakaicin hazo.na akalla 60 mm - kuma ana iya kiran shi dausayi mai tsayi dazuzzuka. Ana samun gandun daji na gaskiya a tsakanin digiri 10 Arewa da kudu na mai daidaitawa (duba taswira); su ne wani sa na wurare masu zafi da gandun daji da ya auku wajen a cikin 28-mataki latitudes (a cikin Equatorial zone tsakanin Tropic of Cancer kuma Tropic of Capricorn ). A cikin rabe -raben biome na Asusun Kula da Dabbobi na Duniya, gandun daji na wurare masu zafi sune nau'in gandun daji mai yalwar ruwa mai zafi (ko gandun daji mai zafi) wanda kuma ya haɗa da gandun daji na yanayi mai faɗi .

Karin Bayani[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Dajin ruwan kogin Amazon a Peru

Ana iya rarrabe gandun daji na wurare masu zafi a cikin kalmomi biyu: zafi da rigar zafi. Ma'ana yanayin zafi na wata ya wuce 18 °C (64 °F) a duk watanni na shekara. [2] Matsakaicin ruwan sama na shekara -shekara bai wuce 1,680 millimetres (66 in) kuma yana iya wuce 10 metres (390 in) ko da yake yawanci yana tsakanin 1,750 millimetres (69 in) da 3,000 millimetres (120 in) . Wannan babban hazo sau da yawa yakan haifar da ƙasa mara kyau saboda leaching wato abubuwan da ke narkewa a ƙasa.

Gandun dazuzzuka masu zafi suna nuna ɗimbin halittu. Kusan kashi 40% zuwa 75% na duk nau'ikan halittun 'yan asalin gandun daji ne. Gandun dazuzzukan gida ne na rabin dukkan dabbobi masu rai da tsirrai a doron ƙasa. [3] Za a iya samun kashi biyu bisa uku na duk tsirrai masu furanni a cikin gandun daji. ya kadada na gandun daji na iya ƙunsar nau'ikan kwari iri -iri 42,000, har zuwa bishiyoyi 807 na nau'ikan 313 da nau'ikan tsirrai 1,500 mafi girma. [4] An kira dazuzzukan daji na wurare masu zafi " mafi girman kantin magani na duniya ", saboda an gano sama da kashi ɗaya cikin huɗu na magungunan halitta a cikinsu. [5] Wataƙila za a iya samun miliyoyin nau'in tsirrai, kwari da ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta waɗanda har yanzu ba a gano su a cikin gandun daji na wurare masu zafi ba.

Gandun daji na wurare masu zafi suna daga cikin mawuyancin yanayin muhallin halittu a duniya, saboda rarrabuwa mai yawa sakamakon ayyukan ɗan adam. Rarrabuwa na mazaunin da ke haifar da tsarin ilimin ƙasa kamar volcanism da canjin yanayi ya faru a baya, kuma an gano su a matsayin manyan direbobi na ƙwarewa. Koyaya, lalacewar mazaunin cikin sauri ana tsammanin shine ɗayan manyan abubuwan da ke haifar da gushewar nau'in. An sha fama da gandun daji na wurare masu zafi na gandun daji da tsabtace aikin gona a cikin karni na 20, kuma yankin da gandun daji ke rufe a duniya yana raguwa cikin sauri. [6] [7]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Gandun daji na wurare masu zafi sun wanzu a doron duniya miliyoyin shekaru. Yawancin gandun daji na wurare masu zafi a yau suna kan gutsurarrun curare zamanin Mesozoic na Gondwana .Rabuwa da filin ya haifar da babban rashi na bambancin halittu masu rai yayin da a lokaci guda kuma yanayin bushewar yanayi ya haifar da rarrabuwar dabbobi masu rarrafe. Rarraba ya bar gandun daji na wurare masu zafi waɗanda ke cikin manyan yankuna biyar na duniya: Amurka mai zafi, Afirka, kudu maso gabashin Asiya, Madagascar, da New Guinea, tare da ƙaramin waje a Ostiraliya. Ko yaya, takamaiman asalin gandun dazuzzuka har yanzu ba a tabbatar da shi ba saboda ƙarancin burbushin halittu.

Sauran nau'ikan gandun daji na wurare masu zafi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Dabbobi da yawa na iya bayyana kama da, ko hade ta hanyar ecotones da, gandun daji na wurare masu zafi:

Hillawe Falls a cikin gandun daji na wurare masu zafi na Hawaii a Amurka
Gandun daji na wurare masu zafi
Daintree "gandun daji" a cikin Queensland hakika gandun daji ne na yanayi.

Gandun daji na wurare masu zafi na damina suna samun ruwan sama gaba ɗaya tare da lokacin damina mai zafi da lokacin sanyi mai sanyi. Wasu bishiyoyi a cikin waɗannan gandun daji suna zubar da wasu ko duk ganye a lokacin bazara, don haka a wasu lokutan ake kiransu da "gandun daji mai gauraye na wurare masu zafi". Ana samun su a sassan Kudancin Amurka, a Amurka ta Tsakiya da kewayen Caribbean, a Yammacin Afirka ta gabar teku, sassan yankin na Indiya, da kuma yawancin Indochina .

Gandun daji na Montane

Ana samun waɗannan a cikin wuraren tsaunuka masu sanyi da sauyin yanayi, ana kiransu dazuzzukan girgije a tsaunukan da suka fi tsayi. Dangane da latitude, mafi ƙarancin iyakar gandun daji na montane akan manyan tsaunuka yawanci tsakanin 1500 zuwa 2500 m yayin da iyakar babba yawanci daga 2400 zuwa 3300 m.

Ambaliyar dazuzzukan

Ana samun dazuzzukan fadama na ruwan zafi, ko “gandun daji da ambaliyar ruwa”, a cikin kwarin Amazon ( Várzea ) da sauran wurare.

Tsarin gandun daji[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An raba gandun dazuzzuka zuwa sassa daban-daban, ko yadudduka, tare da tsirrai da aka tsara su a cikin tsayin daka daga saman ƙasa zuwa rufi. Kowane Leya wata al'umma ce ta musamman da ke ɗauke da tsirrai da dabbobi daban-daban waɗanda aka saba da su don rayuwa a cikin wannan madaidaicin. Leya mai fitowa kawai ya kebanta da gandun daji na wurare masu zafi, yayin da sauran kuma ana samun su a cikin gandun daji.

Dajin da kasar[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Gorilla mai faɗi ta yamma

Gandun daji, mafi ƙasƙanci, yana karɓar kashi 2% kawai na hasken rana. Shuke -shuke da suka dace da ƙananan haske ne kawai za su iya girma a wannan yankin. A nesa daga bakin kogi, fadama da tsaunuka, inda ake samun gindin ciyawa mai yawa, kasan gandun daji yana da ƙarancin ciyayi saboda ƙarancin shigar hasken rana. Wannan ingantaccen ingancin yana ba da izinin sauƙaƙan motsi na manyan dabbobi kamar: kamar okapi ( Okapia johnstoni ), tapir ( Tapirus sp. ), Sumatran rhinoceros ( Dicerorhinus sumatrensis ), da birai kamar gorilla mai faɗi ta yamma ( Gorilla gorilla ), da kuma yawancin nau'ikan dabbobi masu rarrafe, dabbobi masu rarrafe, da kwari. Har ila yau gandun dajin yana ɗauke da gurɓataccen tsirrai da ƙwayoyin dabbobi, waɗanda ke ɓacewa da sauri, saboda yanayin ɗumi da ɗumi yana haɓaka lalata da sauri. Yawancin nau'ikan fungi da ke girma anan suna taimakawa lalata dabbobi da sharar gida.

Kasan labarin layer[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Layer na ƙasa yana tsakanin alfarwa da gandun daji. Ƙasa gida ce ga tsuntsaye da yawa, ƙananan dabbobi masu shayarwa, kwari, dabbobi masu rarrafe, da masu farauta. Misalai sun haɗa da damisa ( Panthera pardus ), kwaɗi masu guba ( Dendrobates sp.), Coati-wutsiya ( Nasu nasua ), boa constrictor ( Boa constrictor ), da yawancin nau'in Coleoptera . Tsirrai da ke cikin wannan Layer gaba ɗaya sun ƙunshi shuke-shuke masu jure inuwa, ganye, ƙananan bishiyoyi, da manyan kurangar inabi waɗanda ke hawa cikin bishiyoyi don ɗaukar hasken rana. Kusan kashi 5% ne kawai na hasken rana ke karya rufin don isa ga ƙasan da ke haifar da tsirrai na ƙasa da gaske ba sa girma zuwa 3 m (10 ƙafa). A matsayin karbuwa ga waɗannan ƙananan matakan haske, tsire -tsire marasa tushe sau da yawa sun haɓaka manyan ganye. Yawancin tsirrai da za su yi girma zuwa matakin alfarwa suna cikin ƙasa.

Rufin a Cibiyar Binciken Gandun Daji Malaysia

Layer mai rufi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Rufin shine babban sashin dajin, yana yin rufi akan yadudduka biyu da suka rage. Ya ƙunshi yawancin manyan bishiyoyi, yawanci tsayinsu ya kai 30-45 m. Dogayen bishiyoyi masu faffadan ganye suna da manyan tsire-tsire. Ana samun mafi yawan wuraren halittu masu rai a cikin rufin gandun daji, saboda galibi yana tallafawa tarin furannin epiphytes, gami da orchids, bromeliads, mosses da lichens. Waɗannan tsirrai na epiphytic suna haɗe da kututtuka da rassa kuma suna samun ruwa da ma'adanai daga ruwan sama da tarkace waɗanda ke tattara kan tsirrai masu goyan baya. Dabbobi ((Fauna) yayi kama da wanda aka samo a cikin ɓoyayyen ɓoyayyiyar ƙasa, amma ya bambanta. Ana ba da shawarar cewa jimillar wadatattun nau'in arthropod na rufin na wurare masu zafi na iya kaiwa miliyan 20. Sauran nau'ikan da ke rayuwa a cikin wannan ƙirar sun haɗa da nau'ikan avian da yawa irin su hornbill mai launin rawaya-casqued wattled ( Ceratogymna elata ), sunbird mai launin shuɗi ( Anthreptes collaris ), parrot launin toka ( Psitacus erithacus ), keucen-billed toucan ( Ramphastos sulfuratus ), macaw mai launin ja ( Ara macao) ) da kuma sauran dabbobi kamar biri na gizo -gizo ( Ateles sp. ), Babban abin hadiye na Afirka (Papilio antimachus), mai yatsun kafa uku ( Bradypus tridactylus ), kinkajou ( Potos flavus ), da tamandua ( Tamandua tetradactyla ).

Layer ta gaugawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Layer mai fitowa yana ƙunshe da ƙaramin adadi na manyan bishiyoyi, waɗanda ake kira masu fitowa, waɗanda ke girma sama da babban rufin, suna kaiwa tsayin 45-55. m, ko da yake a wasu lokuta wasu nau'ikan tsiro zasu yi girma zuwa 70-80 m tsayi. Wasu misalan masu tasowa sun haɗa da: Balizia elegans, Dipteryx panamensis, Hieronyma alchorneoides, Hymenolobium mesoamericanum, Lecythis ampla da Terminalia oblonga . Waɗannan bishiyoyin suna buƙatar su iya jure yanayin zafi da iska mai ƙarfi da ke faruwa a saman rufin a wasu yankuna. Dabbobi daban-daban na (faunal) da yawa suna zaune a cikin wannan Layer kamar gaggafa mai kambi ( Stephanoaetus coronatus ), sarki colobus ( Colobus polykomos ), da babban fox mai tashi ( Pteropus vampyrus ).

Koyaya, stratification ba koyaushe yake bayyana ba. Gandun daji suna da ƙarfi kuma canje -canje da yawa suna shafar tsarin gandun daji. Bishiyoyin da ke fitowa ko alfarwa suna rushewa, alal misali, suna haifar da gibi. Buɗewa a cikin gandun dajin an yarda da su da mahimmanci don kafawa da haɓaka bishiyoyin dazuzzuka. An kiyasta cewa wataƙila kashi 75% na nau'in bishiyar a tashar Sashen Halittar La Selva, Costa Rica suna dogaro ne da buɗaɗɗen katako don tsiro iri ko don girma fiye da girman tsiro, misali.

Ilimin halittu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yanayi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Gandun daji na wurare masu zafi a Barcelona

Gandun daji na wurare masu zafi suna kusa da kusa da mai daidaitawa, sabili da haka yana da abin da ake kira sauyin yanayi wanda ke da muhimman sigogin yanayi uku: zazzabi, ruwan sama, da tsananin lokacin bazara. Sauran sigogin da ke shafar gandun daji na wurare masu zafi sune tarin carbon dioxide, hasken rana, da wadatar nitrogen. Gaba ɗaya, yanayin yana kunshe da yanayin zafi da yawan ruwan sama na shekara -shekara. Ko yaya, yawan ruwan sama yana canzawa a cikin shekara yana haifar da yanayi mai danshi da bushewa. An rarrabe gandun daji na Tropical da yawan ruwan sama da ake samu a kowace shekara, wanda ya ba da damar masana kimiyyar muhalli su ayyana bambance-bambancen da ke cikin gandun dajin waɗanda suke kama da juna a tsari. Dangane da rarrabuwa na yanayin halittu na wurare masu zafi, ainihin gandun daji na wurare masu zafi suna samun ruwan sama da shekara 2 m da yawan zafin jiki na shekara sama da digiri 24 na Celsius, tare da yuwuwar ƙimar evapotranspiration (PET) na <0.25. Ko yaya, yawancin gandun daji na wurare masu zafi ana iya rarrabe su a matsayin gandun daji mai ɗumi ko rigar, waɗanda suka bambanta dangane da ruwan sama. Ilimin kimiyyar gandun daji na Tropical- kuzari, abun da ke ciki, da aiki- suna kula da canje-canje a yanayi musamman canje-canjen ruwan sama.

Ƙasa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Nau'o'in ƙasa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Nau'o'in ƙasa suna da sauyi sosai a cikin wurare masu zafi kuma sakamakon haɗuwar abubuwa masu yawa kamar yanayi, ciyayi, matsayi na ƙasa, kayan iyaye, da shekarun ƙasa. Yawancin ƙasa na wurare masu zafi ana rarrabe su da muhimmin leshi da ƙarancin abinci mai gina jiki, duk da haka akwai wasu yankuna waɗanda ke ɗauke da ƙasa mai albarka. Ƙasa a cikin gandun daji na wurare masu zafi sun faɗi cikin rarrabuwa guda biyu waɗanda suka haɗa da ultisols da oxisols . Ultisols an san su da yanayi, ƙasa mai launin jan yumɓu, ƙarancin abinci mai muhimmanci kamar alli da potassium. Hakanan, oxisols acidic ne, tsofaffi, yawanci ja ne, mai ɗimbin yawa da narkewa, duk da haka suna da kyau idan aka kwatanta da ultisols. Abun yumɓu na ultisols yana da girma, yana sa ya zama da wahala ruwa ya shiga kuma ya ratsa ta. Launin ja na ƙasa duka sakamakon zafi mai zafi da danshi ke haifar da oxide na baƙin ƙarfe da aluminium, waɗanda basa narkewa cikin ruwa kuma tsire -tsire ba sa ɗaukar su cikin sauƙi.

Siffofin ƙasa da halayen jiki suna da alaƙa mai ƙarfi da haɓakar ƙasa sama da tsarin gandun daji da juzu'i. Kayayyakin jiki na ƙasa suna sarrafa yawan jujjuyawar itace yayin da kaddarorin sunadarai kamar wadataccen nitrogen da phosphorus ke sarrafa ƙimar girma na gandun daji. Ƙasa na gabas da tsakiyar Amazon da kuma gandun daji na kudu maso gabashin Asiya tsofaffi ne da ma'adinai yayin da ƙasa ta yammacin Amazon (Ecuador da Peru) da yankunan volcanic na Costa Rica matasa ne da ma'adinai. Yawan aiki na farko ko samar da itace ya kasance mafi girma a yammacin Amazon kuma mafi ƙasƙanci a gabashin Amazon wanda ya ƙunshi ƙasa mai ɗimbin yawa da aka ƙira da oxisols. Bugu da ƙari, ƙasa ta Amazonian tana da ɗimbin yawa, yana sa su zama marasa ma'adanai kamar phosphorus, potassium, calcium, da magnesium, waɗanda ke fitowa daga tushen dutsen. Ko yaya, ba duk gandun daji na wurare masu zafi suna faruwa akan ƙasa mara kyau na abinci mai gina jiki ba, amma a kan ambaliyar ruwa mai wadataccen abinci mai gina jiki da ƙasa mai aman wuta a cikin tsaunukan Andean, da kuma yankunan dutsen kudu maso gabashin Asiya, Afirka, da Amurka ta Tsakiya. [8]

Oxisols, marasa haihuwa, yanayi mai zurfi da lecha mai ƙarfi, sun haɓaka akan tsoffin garkuwar Gondwanan . Rushewar kwayan cuta na hana taruwar humus. A taro na baƙin ƙarfe ne da aluminum oxides da laterization aiwatar bada oxisols wani haske ja launi da kuma wani lokacin samar mines a adibas (misali, haƙar ). A kan ƙaramin abu, musamman na asalin dutsen mai fitar da wuta, ƙasa na wurare masu zafi na iya zama mai yawan haihuwa.

Maimaita kayan abinci[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wannan babban ɓarna yana haifar da matakan phosphorus a cikin ƙasa, hazo, matsanancin yanayin zafi da yawan al'ummomin ƙwayoyin cuta. Baya ga ƙwayoyin cuta da sauran ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta, akwai yalwar sauran masu lalata kamar fungi da gandun daji waɗanda ke taimakawa cikin aikin. Sake sarrafa abinci mai gina jiki yana da muhimmanci saboda a ƙarƙashin wadatar albarkatun ƙasa yana sarrafa abubuwan da ke sama da tsarin al'umma na gandun daji na wurare masu zafi. Waɗannan filayen galibi suna da ƙarancin phosphorus, wanda ke hana haɓakar kayan aiki na farko ko ɗaukar carbon. Ƙasa tana ɗauke da ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta kamar ƙwayoyin cuta, waɗanda ke lalata juzu'in ganyaye da sauran kwayoyin halitta zuwa nau'ikan inorganic na carbon da shuke -shuke ke amfani da su ta hanyar wani tsari da ake kira rarrabuwa. Yayin aiwatar da rugujewar al'ummomin ƙwayoyin cuta suna numfashi, suna ɗaukar iskar oxygen da sakin carbon dioxide. Ana iya kimanta ƙimar rarrabuwa ta hanyar auna iskar oxygen. Babban yanayin zafi da hazo yana ƙaruwa da ɓarna, wanda ke ba da damar dattin shuka ya ruɓe cikin sauri a yankuna masu zafi, yana sakin abubuwan gina jiki waɗanda tsirrai ke ɗauka nan da nan ta cikin ruwa ko ƙasa. Yanayin yanayi na numfashi ana sarrafa shi ta faɗuwar ɗanyen ganyaye da hazo, ƙarfin tuƙin yana motsa carbon mai ruɓewa daga datti zuwa ƙasa. Yawan iskar numfashi shine mafi girma a farkon damina saboda damina na baya -bayan nan yana haifar da ɗimbin ganyayyaki don haka mafi yawan adadin kwayoyin halitta ana shiga cikin ƙasa.

Tushen Jijiyoyin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wani fasali na yawancin gandun daji na wurare masu zafi na wurare daban daban shine tushen bishiyoyi. Maimakon shiga cikin zurfin ƙasa mai zurfi, Tushen buttress yana ƙirƙirar cibiyar sadarwa mai ɗorewa a farfajiya don ingantaccen amfani da abubuwan gina jiki a cikin mawuyacin yanayi mai fa'ida da gasa. Yawancin abubuwan gina jiki a cikin ƙasa na gandun daji na wurare masu zafi suna faruwa kusa da farfajiya saboda saurin juyawa da ɓarna na ƙwayoyin cuta da ganye. Saboda wannan, tushen jijiyoyin yana faruwa a farfajiya don bishiyoyin su iya haɓaka haɓakawa da yin gasa tare da saurin ɗaukar sauran bishiyoyi. Waɗannan tushen kuma suna taimakawa haɓakawa da adana ruwa, haɓaka sararin samaniya don musayar gas, da tattara dattin ganye don ƙarin abinci mai gina jiki. Bugu da ƙari, waɗannan tushen suna rage yaƙar ƙasa kuma suna haɓaka ƙimar abinci mai gina jiki yayin ruwan sama mai ƙarfi ta hanyar karkatar da ruwa mai wadataccen abinci mai gina jiki wanda ke gangarowa a cikin akwati zuwa ƙananan gudana yayin da kuma ke aiki a zaman shinge ga kwararar ƙasa. Hakanan, manyan wuraren da waɗannan tushen ke haifar suna ba da goyan baya da kwanciyar hankali ga bishiyoyin gandun daji, waɗanda galibi suna girma zuwa manyan mahimman wurare. Wannan ƙarin kwanciyar hankali yana ba wa waɗannan bishiyoyin damar yin tsayayya da tasirin guguwa mai ƙarfi, don haka rage faruwar bishiyoyin da suka faɗi.

Gandun daji[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Gado shine tsarin muhalli wanda ke canza tsarin al'adun halittu akan lokaci zuwa mafi daidaituwa, tsarin al'umma daban -daban bayan tashin hankali na farko ga al'umma. Hargitsi na farko sau da yawa wani abu ne na halitta ko abin da ɗan adam ya haifar. Hargitsi na halitta sun haɗa da guguwa, fashewar aman wuta, motsi kogi ko wani abu kamar ƙaramin itace da ya faɗi wanda ke haifar da gibi a cikin gandun daji. A cikin gandun daji na wurare masu zafi, waɗannan rikice -rikicen dabi'a an yi rikodin su sosai a cikin burbushin halittu, kuma ana yaba su da ƙarfafawa da ƙima. Ayyukan amfani da ƙasa na ɗan Adam sun haifar da sare bishiyoyi masu yawa. A cikin ƙasashe da yawa na wurare masu zafi irin su Costa Rica an watsar da waɗannan ƙasashen da aka sare dazuka kuma an ba da izinin gandun daji su sake rayuwa ta hanyar maye gurbi. Waɗannan dazuzzukan dazuka na matasa ana kiransu dazuzzukan sakandare ko gandun daji na biyu.

Halittar halittu da ƙwarewa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Matasa orangutan a Bukit Lawang, Sumatra

Gandun dazuzzuka masu zafi suna nuna banbanci iri -iri a cikin tsirrai da dabbobi. Tushen wannan ƙwarewar ta musamman ta kasance shekaru masu bincike da masana kimiyyar muhalli . An ƙirƙiro da ra'ayoyi da yawa don me yasa kuma yadda yanayin zafi zai iya bambanta.

Gasar Interspecific[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Gasar da ba ta dace ba ta samo asali ne daga ɗimbin yawa na nau'in da ke da irin wannan wadatar a cikin wurare masu zafi da ƙarancin albarkatun da ake da su. Dabbobin da suka “rasa” gasar na iya zama ko sun lalace ko nemo wani sabon salo. Gasar kai tsaye galibi tana haifar da wani nau'in ya mamaye wani ta wata fa'ida, a ƙarshe yana fitar da shi daga lalacewa. Raba rarrabuwa shine sauran zaɓi don nau'in. Wannan shine rarrabuwa da raba albarkatun da ake buƙata ta amfani da mazauna daban -daban, tushen abinci, murfi ko bambance -bambancen ɗabi'a. Wani nau'in da ke da kayan abinci iri ɗaya amma lokutan ciyarwa daban -daban shine misalin rarrabuwar kawuna.

Tsarin Pliestocene[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Jürgen Haffer ya haɓaka ka'idar Pleistocene refugia a cikin shekarar 1969 tare da labarinsa Ƙwarewar Tsuntsayen Daji na Amazon . Haffer ya ba da bayanin ƙwararre ne sakamakon rabe-raben gandun dajin da ke rarrabewa ta hanyar shimfidar ciyayi marasa gandun daji a lokacin ƙanƙara na ƙarshe. Ya kira waɗannan facin na yankunan dazuzzukan mafaka kuma a cikin waɗannan facin ƙwararrun allopatric ya faru. Tare da ƙarshen lokacin ƙanƙara da ƙaruwa cikin ɗimbin yanayi, gandun daji ya fara faɗaɗa kuma mafaka sun sake haɗawa. Wannan ka'idar ta zama batun muhawara. Masana kimiyya har yanzu suna da shakku kan ko wannan ka'ida halal ce ko a'a. Shaidar kwayoyin halitta tana nuna ƙwarewa ta faru a wasu takamaiman shekaru miliyan 1-2 da suka gabata, kafin Pleistocene .

Girman mutum[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mazauni[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Gandun daji na wurare masu zafi sun mamaye rayuwar ɗan Adam tsawon shekaru da yawa, tare da kabilun Indiya da yawa a Kudanci da Amurka ta Tsakiya, waɗanda ke cikin 'yan asalin Amurkawa, Kwangiyoyin Kwango a Afirka ta Tsakiya, da kabilu da yawa a Kudu maso Gabashin Asiya, kamar Dayak mutane da mutanen Penan a Borneo . Albarkatun abinci a cikin gandun daji sun bazu sosai saboda ɗimbin ilmin halittu kuma abin da abinci ke da shi ya ta'allaka ne ga alfarwa kuma yana buƙatar kuzari mai yawa don samu. Wasu kungiyoyin na mafarauci-gayya sun maida su ba kome Rainforest a kan wani dalilai na yanayi amma suka zauna da farko a cikin m savanna da kuma bude gandun daji muhallin inda abinci ne yafi m. Sauran mutanen da aka bayyana a matsayin mazauna dazuzzukan daji masu farauta ne waɗanda ke rayuwa da yawa ta hanyar siyar da samfuran gandun daji masu ƙima kamar fata, fuka-fuka, da zuma tare da mutanen aikin gona da ke zaune a wajen dajin.

Mutanen asali[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Membobin wata ƙabila da ba a tuntuɓe ba sun gamu da su a jihar Acre ta Brazil a 2009

Yawancin 'yan asalin ƙasar suna rayuwa a cikin gandun dajin a matsayin masu farauta, ko kuma su cigaba da zama a matsayin ɗan ƙaramin manoma na ɗan lokaci wanda ke ba da babban rabo ta hanyar siyar da samfuran gandun daji masu ƙima kamar fata, fuka-fuka, da zuma tare da mutanen aikin gona da ke zaune a wajen dajin. Jama'a sun zauna a cikin dazuzzukan dubun dubatan shekaru kuma sun kasance ba za a iya samun su ba wanda kwanan nan aka gano wasu kabilu. Waɗannan mutanen 'yan asalin suna fuskantar barazana ƙwarai daga masu aikin katako don neman katako na tsufa kamar Ipe, Cumaru da Wenge, da kuma manoma waɗanda ke neman faɗaɗa ƙasarsu, ga shanu (nama), da waken soya, waɗanda ake amfani da su don ciyar da shanu a cikin Turai da China. [9] [10] A ranar 18 ga Janairun 2007, FUNAI ta kuma ba da rahoton cewa ta tabbatar da kasancewar kabilu 67 da ba a tuntuɓe ba a Brazil, daga 40 a 2005. Da wannan kari, yanzu Brazil ta mamaye tsibirin New Guinea a matsayin kasar da ke da yawan kabilun da ba a tuntube su ba. [11] Lardin Irian Jaya ko Yammacin Papua a tsibirin New Guinea yana da kimanin ƙungiyoyin kabilu 44 da ba a tuntube su ba. [12]

Masu farautar farauta a cikin Basin Kongo a 2014

Mutanen ƙungiyoyin farauta ne waɗanda ke zaune a cikin gandun dajin da ke cikin gandun dajin da ke da ɗan gajeren tsayi (a ƙasa da mita ɗaya da rabi, ko 59 inci, a matsakaita). Daga cikin wannan rukunin akwai mutanen Efe, Aka, Twa, Baka, da Mbuti na Afirka ta Tsakiya. Ko yaya, kalmar pygmy ana ɗaukarta mai daɗi don haka kabilu da yawa sun fi son kada a yi musu lakabi da haka. [13]

Wasu sanannun 'yan asalin Amurkawa, ko Amerindians, sun haɗa da Huaorani, Ya̧nomamö, da Kayapo mutanen Amazon . Tsarin aikin gona na gargajiya da ƙabilu ke yi a cikin Amazon ya dogara ne akan noman guguwa (wanda kuma aka sani da kashe -kashe da ƙonawa ko canza shuki) kuma ana ɗaukarsa tashin hankali. A zahiri, idan ana duban matakin ƙulle -ƙullen mutum ɗaya ana ɗaukar ayyukan noman gargajiya da amfani. Misali, yin amfani da bishiyoyin inuwa da raguwa duk suna taimakawa adana kwayoyin halittar ƙasa, wanda shine mahimmanci wajen kula da haɓakar ƙasa a cikin ƙasa mai tsananin zafi da ƙura.

Akwai bambancin gandun daji a Asiya, gami da mutanen Lumad na Philippines da mutanen Penan da Dayak na Borneo. Dayaks ƙungiya ce mai ban sha'awa musamman saboda an san su da al'adun farautar gargajiya. An buƙaci sabbin kawunan mutane don yin wasu ayyukan ibada kamar Iban "kenyalang" da Kenyah "mamat". Pygmies da ke zaune a kudu maso gabashin Asiya ana kiran su " Negrito ".

Albarkatu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Abincin da aka noma da kayan yaji[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yam, kofi, cakulan, ayaba, mangoro, gwanda, macadamia, avocado, da rake duk asalinsu sun fito ne daga gandun daji na wurare masu zafi kuma har yanzu galibi ana yin su ne a kan shuka a yankuna waɗanda a da suke dajin farko. A tsakiyar shekarun 1980 da 1990, suna cin tan miliyan 40 na ayaba a duk duniya a kowace shekara, tare da tan miliyan 13 na mangoro. Fitar da kofi na Amurka ta Tsakiya ya kai dala biliyan 3 a 1970. Yawancin bambancin kwayoyin da aka yi amfani da su wajen gujewa barnar da sabbin kwari ke haifarwa har yanzu ana samun su ne daga gandun daji. Gandun daji na wurare masu zafi sun samar da 'ya'yan itatuwa 250 da ake nomawa, idan aka kwatanta da 20 kawai ga gandun daji . Dazuka a cikin New Guinea kadai sun ƙunshi nau'in bishiyoyi 251 tare da 'ya'yan itatuwa masu cin abinci, waɗanda 43 kawai aka kafa a matsayin noman da aka noma a shekarar 1985. [14]

Sabis na yanayin ƙasa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Baya ga amfanin ɗan Adam, gandun daji kuma suna da abubuwan da ba a cirewa waɗanda galibi ana taƙaita su a zaman ayyukan muhalli . Dazuzzukan ruwan sama suna taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen kula da bambancin halittu, keɓewa da adana carbon, ƙa'idojin yanayi na duniya, kula da cututtuka , da tsaba . Rabin ruwan sama da ake samu a yankin Amazon dazuzzukan ke samarwa. Danshi daga cikin gandun daji yana da muhimmanci ga ruwan sama a Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina Yanke daji a yankin gandun daji na Amazon shine ɗayan manyan dalilan da ke haifar da matsanancin fari na 2014-2015 a Brazil Ga shekaru talatin da suka gabata, adadin iskar carbon da ke cike da gandun daji na wurare masu zafi na duniya ya ragu, a cewar wani binciken da aka buga a 2020 a cikin mujallar Nature. A cikin 2019 sun ɗauki iskar carbon mai kashi uku bisa uku fiye da yadda suka samu a shekarun 1990, saboda tsananin zafi, fari da sare itatuwa. Gandun daji na wurare masu zafi na iya zama tushen carbon a cikin 2060s.

Yawon shakatawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tafiya mai ban mamaki don ganin gandun daji na wurare masu zafi a Costa Rica

Duk da mummunan tasirin yawon shakatawa a cikin gandun daji na wurare masu zafi, akwai kuma wasu muhimman sakamako masu kyau.

  • A cikin 'yan shekarun nan yanayin yawon shakatawa a wurare masu zafi ya ƙaru. Yayin da gandun dazuzzuka ke ƙara zama ruwan dare, mutane suna tafiya zuwa ƙasashe waɗanda har yanzu suna da wannan mazaunin daban -daban. Mazauna yankin suna cin gajiyar ƙarin kuɗin shiga da baƙi suka kawo, haka kuma wuraren da ake ganin suna da ban sha'awa ga baƙi galibi ana kiyaye su. Ecotourism na iya zama abin ƙarfafawa don kiyayewa, musamman lokacin da yake haifar da canjin tattalin arziƙi. Ecotourism na iya haɗawa da ayyuka iri-iri ciki har da kallon dabbobi, yawon shakatawa na daji da ma kallon abubuwan al'adu da ƙauyuka na asali. Idan ana yin waɗannan ayyukan daidai, wannan na iya zama da fa'ida ga mazauna gida da na flora da fauna na yanzu.
  • Haɓaka yawon buɗe ido ya haɓaka tattalin arziƙi, yana ba da damar ƙarin kudaden shiga don shiga cikin kare mazaunin. Yawon shakatawa na iya ba da gudummawa kai tsaye ga kiyaye muhimman wurare da mazauninsu. Za a iya amfani da kudaden shiga daga kudaden shiga wurin shakatawa da makamantansu musamman don biyan kariya da gudanar da yankunan da ke da muhalli. Kudaden shiga daga haraji da yawon buɗe ido yana ba da ƙarin ƙarfafawa ga gwamnatoci don ba da gudummawar kudaden shiga don kare gandun daji.
  • Har ila yau, yawon shakatawa yana da yuwuwar haɓaka darajar jama'a game da muhalli da kuma faɗaɗa matsalolin matsalolin muhalli lokacin da yake kusantar da mutane kusa da muhalli. Irin wannan karuwar wayar da kan jama'a na iya haifar da ɗabi'ar da ta dace da muhalli. Yawon shakatawa ya yi tasiri mai kyau kan kokarin kare namun daji da kokarin kariya, musamman a Afirka amma kuma a Kudancin Amurka, Asiya, Australia, da Kudancin Pacific. [15]

Kiyayewa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Barazana[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sare Dazuzzuka[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hakar ma'adinai da hakowa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]
Ok Tedi Mine a kudu maso yammacin Papua New Guinea

Adadin ƙananan ƙarfe ( zinariya, azurfa, coltan ) da burbushin mai ( mai da iskar gas ) suna faruwa a ƙarƙashin gandun daji na duniya. Waɗannan albarkatun suna da muhimmanci ga ƙasashe masu tasowa kuma galibi ana ba da fifikon su don ƙarfafa ci gaban tattalin arziki. Hakar ma'adinai da hakowa na iya buƙatar ci gaban ƙasa mai yawa, wanda ke haifar da sare bishiyoyi kai tsaye. A Ghana, wata ƙasa ta Yammacin Afirka, sare bishiyoyin da aka yi shekaru da yawa na aikin hakar ma'adinai ya bar kusan kashi 12% na asalin dazuzzukan ƙasar. [16]

Juyowa zuwa ƙasar noma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tare da kirkirar aikin gona, mutane sun sami damar share sassan gandun daji don samar da albarkatu, suna mai da shi zuwa filin noma . Irin waɗannan mutane, duk da haka, suna samun abincinsu da farko daga filayen gona da aka share daga cikin gandun daji [17] da farauta da cin abinci a cikin gandun daji don ƙarin wannan. Batun da ke tasowa shine tsakanin manomi mai zaman kansa da ke biya wa iyalinsa bukatun da bukatun duniya baki ɗaya. Wannan batun bai ga ɗan cigaba ba saboda babu wani tsari da aka kafa don duk ɓangarorin da za'a taimaka.

Aikin gona a kan ƙasar dazuzzuka ba tare da wahala ba. Ƙasa dazuzzukan ƙanƙara sau da yawa kuma suna lalacewa da ma'adanai da yawa, kuma ruwan sama mai ƙarfi zai iya hanzarta fitar da abubuwan gina jiki daga yankin da aka share don noman. Mutane irin su Yanomamo na Amazon, suna amfani da aikin kashe-kashe da ƙonawa don shawo kan waɗannan ƙuntatawa da ba su damar shiga cikin zurfin cikin yanayin dazuzzukan daji. Ko yaya, waɗannan ba mazaunan gandun daji ba ne, a maimakon haka suna zaune ne a cikin gonakin da aka share [17] waɗanda ke yin ƙaura zuwa cikin gandun daji. Har zuwa 90% na abincin Yanamomo na yau da kullun ya fito ne daga tsirrai masu noma. [17]

An dauki wani mataki ta hanyar ba da shawarar lokutan faduwa na kasar da ke ba da damar gandun daji na biyu ya yi girma ya cika kasa. Ayyuka masu fa'ida kamar maido da ƙasa da kiyayewa na iya amfanar da ƙaramin manomi kuma ya ba da damar ingantaccen samarwa akan ƙananan filayen ƙasa.

Canjin yanayi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yankuna na wurare masu zafi suna taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen rage gurɓataccen iskar carbon dioxide . Ƙasashe masu zafi (galibi gandun daji na Amazon ) ana kiransu da nutsewar carbon .[ana buƙatar hujja] A matsayin manyan masu rage carbon da iskar gas da na ƙasa da methane, lalata su yana ba da gudummawa ga haɓaka tarkon makamashin duniya, iskar gas.[ana buƙatar hujja] Canjin yanayi ya ba da gudummawa sosai ta hanyar lalata gandun daji. An yi wasan kwaikwayo wanda aka cire duk gandun daji a Afirka. Yin kwaikwaiyo ya nuna karuwar yanayin zafin yanayi ta 2.5 zuwa 5 digiri Celsius.

Kariya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ƙoƙarin karewa da adana wuraren dazuzzukan wurare masu zafi iri -iri ne kuma sun bazu. Tsarin kula da gandun daji na wurare masu zafi ya fito ne daga tsananin kiyaye mazaunin zuwa gano dabarun gudanarwa mai dorewa ga mutanen da ke zaune a cikin gandun daji na wurare masu zafi. Manufofin kasa da kasa sun kuma bullo da wani shirin karfafawa kasuwa da ake kira Rage Rage fitar da hayaki daga gandun dazuzzuka da lalata gandun daji (REDD) don kamfanoni da gwamnatoci su fara fitar da iskar carbon dinsu ta hanyar saka hannun jari na kudi cikin kiyaye gandun dajin.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Why The Amazon Rainforest Is So Rich In Species. ScienceDaily.com (5 December 2005). Retrieved on 28 March 2013.
  2. Woodward, Susan.
  3. The Regents of the University of Michigan.
  4. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Newman, Arnold 2002
  5. The bite that heals Archived 2013-01-17 at the Wayback Machine.
  6. Brazil: Deforestation rises sharply as farmers push into Amazon, The Guardian, 1 September 2008
  7. China is black hole of Asia's deforestation, Asia News, 24 March 2008
  8. Environmental news and information. mongabay.com.
  9. 'They're killing us': world's most endangered tribe cries for help.
  10. Sibaja, Marco (6 June 2012) Brazil's Indigenous Awa Tribe At Risk.
  11. Brazil sees traces of more isolated Amazon tribes.
  12. BBC: First contact with isolated tribes? survivalinternational.org (25 January 2007)
  13. Forest peoples in the central African rain forest: focus on the pygmies. fao.org
  14. Myers, N. (1985).
  15. Fotiou, S. (October 2001).
  16. Ismi, A. (1 October 2003), Canadian mining companies set to destroy Ghana’s forest reserves, Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives Monitor, Ontario, Canada.
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 Walker, Philip L.; Sugiyama, Larry and Chacon, Richard (1998) "Diet, Dental Health, and Cultural Change among Recently Contacted South American Indian Hunter-Horticulturalists", Ch. 17 in Human Dental Development, Morphology, and Pathology.