Greenpeace

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Group half.svgGreenpeace
Greenpeace logo.svg
Greenpeace Climate March 2015 Madrid.jpg
Bayanai
Iri international non-governmental organization (en) Fassara, environmental organization (en) Fassara da nonprofit organization (en) Fassara
Masana'anta international governmental or non-governmental organizations (en) Fassara
Ƙasa Jamus
Ideology (en) Fassara environmentalism (en) Fassara, pacifism (en) Fassara da direct action (en) Fassara
Aiki
Member count (en) Fassara 3,200,000 (2017)
Ƙaramar kamfani na
Ma'aikata 2,900
Mulki
Shugaba Bunny McDiarmid (en) Fassara da Jennifer Morgan (en) Fassara
Hedkwata Amsterdam
Tsari a hukumance eingetragener Verein (en) Fassara
Mamallaki na
MV Arctic Sunrise (en) Fassara, Rainbow Warrior III (en) Fassara, MV Sirius (en) Fassara, Argus (en) Fassara da MV Solo (en) Fassara
Greenpeace worldwide.svg
Tarihi
Ƙirƙira 1971
(Don't Make a Wave Committee (en) Fassara)
Wanda ya samar
Founded in Vancouver
Wanda yake bi Don't Make a Wave Committee (en) Fassara
Awards received
Free Your Mind  (1994)
Ozone Award  (1991)

greenpeace.org…


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Greenpeace cibiyar sadarwa ce mai zaman kanta ta duniya. Cibiyar sadarwa ta ƙunshi ƙungiyoyi masu zaman kansu 26 na ƙasa/yanki a cikin ƙasashe sama da 55 a duk faɗin Turai, Amurka, Afirka, Asiya da Pasifik, da kuma ƙungiyar haɗin gwiwa, Greenpeace International, mai tushe a Amsterdam, Netherlands.[1] An kafa Greenpeace a Kanada a cikin 1971 ta Irving da Dorothy Stowe, masu fafutukar kare muhalli baƙi daga Amurka . Greenpeace ta ce manufarta ita ce "tabbatar da ikon duniya don raya rayuwa a cikin dukkan nau'ikanta[2]" kuma ta mai da hankali kan yakin neman zabe a kan batutuwan duniya kamar sauyin yanayi, sare dazuzzuka, kifaye fiye da kifaye, kifin kasuwanci, injiniyan ƙwayoyin halitta, da kuma hana makaman nukiliya. al'amura. Yana amfani da aiki kai tsaye, lobbying, bincike, da muhalli don cimma burin sa. Cibiyar sadarwa ta duniya ba ta karɓar kuɗi daga gwamnatoci,[3] kamfanoni, ko jam'iyyun siyasa, ta dogara da masu goyon baya miliyan uku da tallafin gidauniyar.[4][5] Greenpeace yana da matsayi na ba da shawara na gabaɗaya tare da Majalisar Tattalin Arziƙi da Tattalin Arziƙi na Majalisar Ɗinkin Duniya kuma memba ne mai kafa na Yarjejeniya Takardun Kuɗi na INGO, ƙungiya mai zaman kanta ta ƙasa da ƙasa wacce ke da niyyar haɓaka rikodi da bayyana gaskiya na ƙungiyoyi masu zaman kansu.

An san Greenpeace don ayyukanta na kai tsaye kuma an bayyana shi a matsayin ɗayan ƙungiyoyin muhalli da ake iya gani a duniya. [6] Ya tayar da batutuwan muhalli zuwa ilimin jama'a, [7] kuma ya yi tasiri ga kamfanoni masu zaman kansu da na jama'a. Ƙungiyar ta samu suka; batu ne na buɗaɗɗiyar wasika daga sama da 100 wadanda suka samu lambar yabo ta Nobel suna kira ga Greenpeace da ta kawo karshen yakinta na yaki da kwayoyin halitta (GMOs). Ayyukan kai tsaye na ƙungiyar sun haifar da matakan shari'a a kan masu fafutuka na GreenPeace, kamar tara tara da dakatar da hukunce-hukunce don lalata shirin gwajin alkama da aka gyara da lalata Layi na Nazca, Cibiyar Tarihi ta Majalisar Dinkin Duniya. a Peru. Tare da wasu ƙungiyoyi masu zaman kansu, Greenpeace shine batun binciken da ba daidai ba daga Ofishin Bincike na Tarayyar Amurka tsakanin 2001 da 2005. Babban Sufeto Janar na Ma'aikatar Shari'a ta Amurka ya yanke shawarar cewa "kaɗan ko babu dalili" na binciken kuma ya sa FBI ta ba da bayanan da ba daidai ba da yaudara ga Majalisar Dokokin Amurka.[8][9][10]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Asalin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wurin tsibirin Amchitka a cikin Alaska.
An saukar da na'urar nukiliyar da ta haifar da ƙirƙirar GreenPeace cikin rami ta harbi Cannikin .

A ƙarshen 1960s, Amurka ta shirya gwajin makamin nukiliya na ƙarƙashin ƙasa na Cannikin a cikin tsibirin Amchitka da ke cikin Alaska mara kwanciyar hankali; tsare-tsaren sun haifar da wasu damuwa game da gwajin da ya haifar da girgizar kasa da haifar da tsunami . Wasu mutane 7,000 [11] sun toshe iyakar Peace Arch Border tsakanin British Columbia da Washington, [12] ɗauke da alamun da ke karanta "Kada ku Yi Wave. Laifinku Ne Idan Laifin Mu Ya Tafi" da "Tsarin Jirgina Ba a Kammala ba." Zanga-zangar dai ba ta hana Amurka tada bam ɗin ba.[13]

Duk da yake babu wata girgizar ƙasa ko tsunami da ta biyo bayan gwajin, ƴan adawa sun karu lokacin da Amurka ta sanar da cewa za su tayar da bam fiye da na farko. Daga cikin abokan adawar akwai Jim Bohlen, wani tsohon soja da ya yi aiki a Sojan Ruwa na Amurka, da Irving Stowe da Dorothy Stowe, wadanda suka zama Quakers kwanan nan.[14]

Sun ji takaicin rashin aiwatar da aikin Saliyo Club Canada, wanda membobinsu ne. Daga Irving Stowe, Jim Bohlen ya koyi wani nau'i na juriya mai wuyar gaske, "shaidawa", inda ake nuna rashin amincewa da ayyukan da ba su dace ba ta hanyar halarta kawai.[15] Matar Jim Bohlen Marie ta zo da ra'ayin tafiya zuwa Amchitka, wanda aka yi wahayi zuwa gare shi ta hanyar tafiye-tafiye na nukiliya na Albert Bigelow a 1958. Tunanin ya ƙare a cikin jarida kuma an haɗa shi da Ƙungiyar Saliyo.[13] Ƙungiyar Saliyo ba ta jin daɗin wannan haɗin gwiwa kuma a cikin 1970 an kafa Kwamitin Kada Ku Yi Wave don zanga-zangar. An gudanar da tarurrukan farko a gidan Shaughnessy na Robert Hunter da matarsa Bobbi Hunter. Daga baya, gidan Stowe a 2775 Courtenay Street ( Vancouver ) ya zama hedkwatar. Kamar yadda Rex Weyler ya sanya shi a cikin tarihin tarihinsa, Greenpeace, a cikin 1969, Irving da Dorothy Stowe's "gida mai natsuwa akan titin Courtenay ba da daɗewa ba zai zama babban cibiya, mahimmancin duniya". An gudanar da wasu tarurrukan Greenpeace na farko a can. An bude ofishi na farko a wani daki na baya, kantuna a kan Cypress da West Broadway kudu maso gabas a Kitsilano, Vancouver. [16] A cikin rabin shekara, Greenpeace ta shiga don raba sararin ofis na sama tare da Ƙungiyar Ƙaddamar da Kare Muhalli a 4th da Maple a Kitsilano .

Irving Stowe ya shirya wani kiɗe-kiɗe na fa'ida (goyan bayan Joan Baez ) wanda ya faru a ranar 16 Oktoba 1970 a Pacific Coliseum a Vancouver.[17] Waƙoƙin ya haifar da tushen kuɗi don yaƙin neman zaɓe na farko na Greenpeace. Amchitka, wasan kwaikwayo na 1970 wanda ya ƙaddamar da Greenpeace GreenPeace ne ya buga shi a cikin Nuwamba 2009 akan CD kuma ana samunsa azaman zazzagewar mp3 ta gidan yanar gizon kiɗan Amchitka. Yin amfani da kuɗin da aka tara tare da wasan kwaikwayo, Kwamitin Kada Ku Yi Wave Kwamitin hayar jirgi, Phyllis Cormack mallakar John Cormack kuma ya yi tafiya. An canza wa jirgin suna Greenpeace don zanga-zangar bayan wa'adin da mai fafutuka Bill Darnell ya yi.[18] Cikakken ma'aikatan sun hada da: Kyaftin John Cormack (mai jirgin ruwa), Jim Bohlen, Bill Darnell, Patrick Moore, Dr Lyle Thurston, Dave Birmingham, Terry A. Simmons, Richard Fineberg, Robert Hunter (dan jarida), Ben Metcalfe (dan jarida), Bob Cummings (dan jarida) da Bob Keziere (mai daukar hoto).

A ranar 15 ga Satumbar 1971, jirgin ya yi tafiya zuwa Amchitka kuma ya fuskanci Jirgin Tsaron Tekun Amurka Confidence wanda ya tilasta wa masu fafutuka komawa baya. Saboda haka da kuma mummunan yanayi da ma'aikatan jirgin suka yanke shawarar komawa Kanada kawai don gano cewa labarin tafiyarsu da kuma bayar da rahoton goyon baya daga ma'aikatan Confidence ya haifar da juyayi ga zanga-zangar. [13] Bayan haka GreenPeace ta yi kokarin zagaya wurin gwajin tare da wasu jiragen ruwa, har sai da Amurka ta tayar da bam din. [13] An soki gwajin maƙamin nukiliya, kuma Amurka ta yanke shawarar cewa ba za ta ci gaba da shirin gwajinta a Amchitka ba.

Waɗanda suka ƙafa da lokacin ƙafa Greenpeace[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Masanin tarihin muhalli Frank Zelko ya bayyana kafa " Kada ku Yi Kwamitin Wave " zuwa 1969 kuma, a cewar Jim Bohlen, ƙungiyar ta ƙarbi sunan "Kada ku Yi Kwamitin Wave" a ranar 28 ga Nuwamba 1969.[19] Dangane da gidan yanar gizon Greenpeace, an kafa kwamitin Karɓar Wave a cikin 1970. Certificate of incorporation of The Don't Make a Wave Committee kwanakin hadewar zuwa biyar na Oktoba 1970. Mai bincike Vanessa Timmer ta yi kwanan watan haɗin gwiwar hukuma zuwa 1971. Ita kanta Greenpeace ta kira tafiyar zanga-zangar 1971 a matsayin "farko". A cewar Patrick Moore, wanda ya kasance memba na farko kuma tun daga lokacin ya nisanta kansa daga Greenpeace, da Rex Weyler, sunan "Kada Ka Yi Kwamitin Wave" an canza shi bisa hukuma zuwa Greenpeace Foundation a 1972. [20] ]

Vanessa Timmer ta kira membobin farko a matsayin "ƙungiyar masu zanga-zangar da ba za ta yiwu ba". Frank Zelko yayi sharhi cewa "ba kamar Abokan Duniya ba, alal misali, wanda ya fito cikakke daga goshin David Brower, Greenpeace ya ci gaba a cikin hanyar juyin halitta. Babu mai kafa guda ɗaya." Ita kanta Greenpeace ta fada a shafinta na yanar gizo cewa "akwai abin dariya cewa a kowace mashaya a Vancouver, British Columbia, za ku iya zama kusa da wanda ya yi ikirarin kafa Greenpeace. A haƙiƙa, babu wanda ya kafa guda ɗaya: suna, ra’ayi, ruhi da dabaru duk za a iya cewa suna da zuriya dabam-dabam.” Patrick Moore ya ce "gaskiya ita ce, Greenpeace koyaushe aiki ne da ake ci gaba, ba wani abu da aka kafa ba kamar ƙasa ko kamfani. Don haka akwai 'yan inuwar launin toka game da wanda zai iya yin da'awar kasancewarsa wanda ya kafa Greenpeace." Daraktan Greenpeace na farko Rex Weyler ya ce a shafinsa na gida cewa masu ciki na Greenpeace sun yi muhawara game da waɗanda suka kafa tun tsakiyar shekarun 1970.

Gidan yanar gizon Greenpeace na yanzu ya lissafa waɗanda suka kafa The Kar Ka Yi Kwamitin Wave kamar Dorothy da Irving Stowe, Marie da Jim Bohlen, Ben da Dorothy Metcalfe, da Robert Hunter. A cewar duka Patrick Moore da hira da Dorothy Stowe, Dorothy Metcalfe, Jim Bohlen da Robert Hunter, wadanda suka kafa The Don't Make a Wave Committee su ne Paul Cote, Irving da Dorothy Stowe da Jim da Marie Bohlen.

Paul Watson, wanda ya kafa makiyayin kiyayewa na teku ya tabbatar da cewa shi ne daga cikin waɗanda suka kafa kwamitin kar a sanya kwamitin kalami da kuma kore. Greenpeace ta bayyana cewa Watson ya kasance memba na farko mai tasiri, amma ba daya daga cikin waɗanda suka kafa Greenpeace ba. Tuni dai Watson ta zargi Greenpeace da sake rubuta tarihin su. [21]

Saboda Patrick Moore yana cikin ma'aikatan tafiyar zanga-zangar farko, Moore kuma yana ɗaukar kansa ɗaya daga cikin waɗanda suka kafa. Greenpeace yayi iƙirarin cewa kodayake Moore ya kasance babban memba na farko, amma baya cikin waɗanda suka kafa Greenpeace.

Bayan Amchitka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayan ofis a cikin gidan Stowe, (kuma bayan mai tara kuɗin kide-kide na farko) Ayyukan Greenpeace sun ƙaura zuwa wasu gidaje masu zaman kansu kuma suna gudanar da taron jama'a mako-mako a daren Laraba a Gidan Maƙwabta na Kitsilano kafin a zauna, a cikin kaka na 1974, a cikin ƙaramin ƙaramin. ofishin da aka raba tare da ƙungiyar muhalli ta SPEC a 2007 West 4th a Maple a Kitsilano . Lokacin da gwajin nukiliya a Amchitka ya ƙare, Greenpeace ta mayar da hankali ga gwajin makaman nukiliya na Faransa a Moruroa Atoll a Faransa Polynesia . Ƙungiyar matasa ta buƙaci taimako don zanga-zangar kuma an tuntube su David McTaggart, wani tsohon dan kasuwa da ke zaune a New Zealand. A cikin 1972 jirgin ruwan Vega, mai 12.5 metres (41 ft) ketch mallakar David McTaggart, an sake masa suna Greenpeace III kuma ya tashi a cikin zanga-zangar adawa da makaman nukiliya zuwa yankin keɓe a Moruroa don ƙoƙarin tarwatsa gwajin nukiliya na Faransa. Reshen New Zealand na Kamfen don Kare Makaman Nukiliya ne ya dauki nauyin wannan tafiya kuma ya shirya shi. [22] Sojojin ruwan Faransa sun yi ƙoƙarin dakatar da zanga-zangar ta hanyoyi da dama, ciki har da cin zarafin David McTaggart. An yi zaton an yi wa McTaggart dukan tsiya har ya rasa gani a daya daga cikin idanunsa. Duk da haka, daya daga cikin ma'aikatan jirgin McTaggart ya dauki hoton lamarin kuma ya fito fili. Bayan da aka ba da sanarwar harin, Faransa ta sanar da cewa za ta dakatar da gwaje-gwajen makaman nukiliya.

A tsakiyar 1970s wasu membobin GreenPeace sun fara yaƙin neman zaɓe mai zaman kansa, Project Ahab, a kan whaling kasuwanci, tunda Irving Stowe ya sabawa Greenpeace yana mai da hankali kan wasu batutuwa fiye da makaman nukiliya. Bayan Irving Stowe ya mutu a shekara ta 1975, Phyllis Cormack ya tashi daga Vancouver don fuskantar mayakan Soviet a bakin tekun California. Masu fafutukar kare zaman lafiya na Greenpeace sun kawo cikas ga kifin ta hanyar sanya kansu a tsakanin mawaƙa da kifin kifi, kuma hotunan zanga-zangar sun bazu a duniya. Daga baya a cikin shekarun 1970, ƙungiyar ta faɗaɗa mayar da hankali ga haɗawa da sharar gida mai guba da farautar hatimin kasuwanci.

Greenpeace ta buga " Sanarwa na Dogaro da Haɗin Kai " a cikin Greenpeace Chronicles (Winter 1976-77). Wannan ikirari wani nau'i ne na nau'ikan bayanan muhalli da Bob Hunter ya rubuta tsawon shekaru.

Ci gaban ƙungiyoyi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

MV <i id="mwAQg">Esperanza</i>, tsohon ma'aikacin kashe gobara mallakin sojojin ruwa na Rasha, GreenPeace ya sake kaddamar da shi a shekara ta 2002.

Greenpeace ta samo asali ne daga gungun masu zanga-zangar Kanada da Amurka zuwa gungun masu ra'ayin mazan jiya wadanda suka fi nuna adawa da al'adu da ƙungiyoyin matasa na hippie na 1960s da 1970s. Asalin zamantakewa da al'adu wanda GreenPeace ya fito ya ba da sanarwar wani lokaci na karewa daga abubuwan da suka gabata na Tsohuwar Duniya tare da neman haɓaka sabbin ƙa'idoji na zamantakewa, muhalli da siyasa. [23]

A tsakiyar shekarun 1970 ƙungiyoyi masu zaman kansu masu amfani da sunan GreenPeace sun fara bunƙasa a duniya. A shekara ta 1977, akwai ƙungiyoyin GreenPeace guda 15 zuwa 20 a duniya. [24] A lokaci guda kuma ofishin Kanada na Greenpeace ya kasance cikin bashi mai yawa. Taƙaddama tsakanin ofisoshi kan tara kuɗaɗe da alƙiblar ƙungiya sun raba kan harkar duniya yayin da ofisoshin Arewacin Amurka ba su son kasancewa ƙarƙashin ikon ofishin Canada.

Bayan abubuwan da suka faru na Moruroa Atoll, David McTaggart ya koma Faransa don yin yaƙi a kotu tare da ƙasar Faransa kuma ya taimaka wajen haɓaka haɗin gwiwar ƙungiyoyin Greenpeace na Turai. David McTaggart ya yi amfani da Gidauniyar GreenPeace ta Kanada don karɓar sabon tsari wanda ke kawo tarwatsa ofisoshi na Greenpeace ƙarƙashin inuwar ƙungiyar duniya guda ɗaya. Greenpeace ta Turai ta biya bashin ofishin Kanada na Greenpeace kuma a ranar 14 ga Oktoba 1979, Greenpeace International ta kasance. A ƙarƙashin sabon tsarin, ofisoshin na gida sun ba da gudummawar kaso na kuɗaɗen shiga ga ƙungiyar ƙasa da ƙasa, waɗanda suka dauki nauyin tsara tsarin tafiyar da gaba daya tare da kowane ofishin yanki yana da kuri'a daya. [24] Wasu ƙungiyoyin Greenpeace, wato London Greenpeace (narkar da su a cikin 2001) da Gidauniyar Greenpeace ta Amurka (har yanzu tana aiki) duk da haka sun yanke shawarar ci gaba da zaman kansu daga Greenpeace International.

A cikin 2015, Greenpeace UK ta ƙaddamar da wani binciken aikin jarida mai suna Unearthed .

Tsarin tsari[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mulki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tsarin mulki da tsarin gudanarwa na Greenpeace.

Greenpeace ta ƙunshi Greenpeace International (a hukumance Stichting Greenpeace Council) wanda ke Amsterdam, Netherlands, da ofisoshin yanki 26 da ke aiki a cikin ƙasashe 55. Ofisoshin yanki suna aiki da cin gashin kansu a ƙarƙashin kulawar Greenpeace International. Kwamitin gudanarwa na Greenpeace International ne ya zaɓi babban darektan Greenpeace. A halin yanzu darektan Greenpeace International Norma Torres kuma shugabar hukumar a halin yanzu ita ce Ayesha Imam . Greenpeace tana da ma'aikatan 2,400 da masu sa kai 15,000 a duk duniya.

Kowane ofishin yanki yana jagorancin babban daraktan yanki wanda hukumar gudanarwar yankin ta zaɓa. Hukumomin yankin kuma sun nada mai ba da gaskiya ga Babban taron shekara-shekara na Greenpeace International, inda amintattun zaɓe ko cire kwamitin gudanarwa na Greenpeace International. Aikin babban taron na shekara-shekara shi ne don tattaunawa da yanke shawara gabaɗayan ƙa'idodi da mahimman batutuwan Greenpeace tare da haɗin gwiwar amintattun ofisoshin yanki da kwamitin gudanarwar Greenpeace International.

Tallafawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Greenpeace tana karɓar kuɗaɗen sa daga ɗaiɗaikun masu tallafawa da tushe. Yana duba duk manyan gudummawar don tabbatar da cewa baya karɓar gudummawar da ba'a so ba. Banda Lottery na National Postcode Lottery, mafi girman irin cacar da gwamnati ke bayarwa a wannan ƙasa, ƙungiyar ba ta karɓar kuɗi daga gwamnatoci, ƙungiyoyin gwamnatoci, ƙungiyoyin siyasa ko kamfanoni don guje wa tasirinsu. [2] [4] [25]

Ba a ƙi ba da gudummawa daga gidauniyoyi waɗanda ƙungiyoyin siyasa ke ba da kuɗi ko kuma karɓar yawancin kuɗin su daga gwamnatoci ko ƙungiyoyin gwamnatoci. Hakanan ana ƙi ba da gudummawar gidauniya idan harsashin ya haɗa sharuɗɗa marasa ma'ana, hani ko ƙuntatawa akan ayyukan Greenpeace ko kuma idan gudummawar za ta lalata ƴancin kai da manufofin ƙungiyar. Tun a tsakiyar shekarun 1990 adadin magoya baya ya fara raguwa, Greenpeace ta fara yin amfani da tara kudade ido-da-ido inda masu tara kuɗaɗe ke neman sabbin magoya baya a wuraren taruwar jama'a, suna biyan su don ba da gudummawar zare kudi kai tsaye kowane wata. [26] [27] A shekara ta 2008, yawancin Yuro miliyan 202.5 da ƙungiyar ta samu, an ba da gudummawar kusan masu goyon baya miliyan 2.6 na yau da kullun, galibi daga Turai. A shekarar 2014, an bayar da rahoton cewa, kudaden shigar ƙungiyar sun kai kusan Yuro miliyan 300 (dalar Amurka miliyan 400) duk da cewa sun yi asarar kusan Yuro miliyan 4 (dalar Amurka miliyan 5) a hasashen kuɗin a waccan shekarar.

Masu tara kudaden titin Greenpeace suna magana da wani mai wucewa.

A cikin Satumba 2003, Public Interest Watch (PIW) ya koka ga Sabis na Harajin Cikin Gida cewa Greenpeace US's A dawo da haraji ba daidai ba ne kuma ya saba wa doka. IRS ta gudanar da nazari mai zurfi kuma ta kammala a cikin Disamba 2005 cewa Greenpeace Amurka ta ci gaba da cancantar matsayinta na keɓe haraji . A cikin Maris 2006 The Wall Street Journal ta ruwaito cewa PIW ta "takardar harajin tarayya, rufe Agusta 2003 zuwa Yuli 2004, ya bayyana cewa $120,000 na $124,095 da ƙungiyar samu a cikin gudunmawar a lokacin wannan lokacin zo daga Exxon Mobil ". A cikin 2013, bayan IRS ta gudanar da bincike na bin diddigin, wanda kuma ya kasance mai tsabta, kuma, biyo bayan iƙirarin bin diddigin siyasa na IRS na ƙungiyoyin da ke da alaƙa da motsin Tea Party, Babban Darakta na GreenPeace na Amurka Phil Radford ya yi kira da a gudanar da bincike na Majalisa game da duk siyasa. yunƙurin tantancewa - gami da waɗanda ake zargi da kai hari ga Ƙungiyar Tea Party, NAACP, da Greenpeace.

Canjin dijital[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Babban Darakta na ƙasa da ƙasa Kumi Naidoo ya ayyana taron sauyin yanayi na Copenhagen na 2009 a matsayin "rashin kasawa" kuma ya nuna ƙungiyar ta fuskanci "dandalin konewa" lokacin. Naidoo ya ƙarfafa shuwagabannin zartarwa na Greenpeace su rungumi sabbin dabaru da dabaru ko haɗarin zama maras dacewa.

Don aiwatar da sabuwar dabarar da aka amince da ita a cikin 2010, Greenpeace ta hayar Michael Silberman don gina "Cibiyar Motsawa ta Dijital" a cikin 2011, wanda ya juya zuwa Lab ɗin Motsi ("MobLab"). An tsara shi azaman tushen mafi kyawun ayyuka, gwaji, da haɓaka dabarun, MobLab ya kuma mai da hankali kan haɓaka ƙarfin dijital da haɓaka kamfen na tushen al'umma a cikin ƙasashe 42. A cikin Maris 2017, MobLab ya fita daga GreenPeace ta hanyar haɗin gwiwa ta hannun Greenpeace da CIVICUS Allianceungiyar Haɗin Kan Jama'a ta Duniya ."

Takaitacciyar abubuwan fifiko da yakin neman zabe[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A shafin yanar gizon sa na ƙasa da ƙasa, Greenpeace ya bayyana manufarsa kamar haka:

Greenpeace ƙungiya ce mai zaman kanta ta kamfen, wacce ke amfani da rashin tashin hankali, adawar kirkire-kirkire don fallasa matsalolin muhalli na duniya, da samar da mafita don makoma mai kore da lumana. Manufarmu ita ce tabbatar da ikon duniya don raya rayuwa a cikin kowane nau'in ta. Wannan yana nufin muna son:

  • Dakatar da duniya daga ɗumama sama da 1.5° don hana mafi munin tasirin lalacewar yanayi.
  • Kare bambancin halittu ta kowane nau'i.
  • Rage ƙarar yawan amfani da wuce gona da iri kuma ku koyi rayuwa gwargwadon ƙarfinmu.
  • Haɓaka makamashi mai sabuntawa azaman mafita wanda zai iya ƙarfafa duniya.
  • Kiyaye zaman lafiya, kwance damara a duniya da rashin tashin hankali.

Yanayi da kuzari[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yanayi na Greenpeace Maris 2015 a Madrid

Greenpeace na ɗaya daga cikin ƙungiyoyin farko da suka tsara yanayin ci gaba mai dorewa don magance sauyin yanayi, wanda ya yi a cikin 1993. A cewar masana ilimin zamantakewa Marc Mormont da Christine Dasnoy, kungiyar ta taka rawar gani wajen wayar da kan jama'a game da dumamar yanayi a shekarun 1990. Har ila yau, Greenpeace ta mayar da hankali kan CFCs, saboda duka yuwuwar dumamar yanayi da tasirinsu a kan sararin samaniyar ozone. Ya kasance ɗaya daga cikin manyan mahalarta taron da ke ba da shawarar fita da wuri daga abubuwan da ke rage sinadarin ozone a cikin Yarjejeniyar Montreal . A farkon shekarun 1990, Greenpeace ta haɓaka fasahar firiji mara amfani da CFC, "Greenfreeze" don samar da taro tare da masana'antar firiji. [28] Shirin Muhalli na Majalisar Ɗinkin Duniya ya ba Greenpeace kyauta don "fitattun gudunmawar da aka ba da don kare sararin samaniyar ozone" a cikin 1997. A cikin 2011 kashi biyu cikin biyar na yawan samar da firji a duniya sun dogara ne akan fasahar Greenfreeze, tare da fiye da raka'a miliyan 600 da ake amfani da su. [28]

A halin yanzu Greenpeace ta ɗauki dumamar yanayi a matsayin babbar matsalar muhalli da ke fuskantar duniya. Ya yi kira da fitar da iskar gas a duniya ya kai ƙololuwa a cikin 2015 kuma a rage kusan sifili gwargwadon yiwuwa nan da 2050. Don isa ga wadannan lambobi, Greenpeace ta yi kira ga kasashe masu ci gaban masana'antu da su rage fitar da hayakinsu a kalla kashi 40 cikin 100 nan da shekarar 2020 (daga matakan 1990) tare da ba da kuɗaɗen masu yawa ga ƙasashe masu tasowa don gina karfin makamashi mai dorewa, don daidaitawa ga sakamakon da ba makawa na duniya zai haifar. dumamar yanayi, da kuma daina sare itatuwa nan da shekarar 2020. Tare da EREC, Greenpeace ta tsara yanayin yanayin makamashi na duniya, "Energy [R] juyin halitta", inda aka samar da kashi 80% na yawan makamashin duniya tare da abubuwan sabuntawa, kuma an rage fitar da makamashin da ke cikin 80% na matakan 1990. zuwa 2050.

Yin amfani da aikin kai tsaye, mambobin GreenPeace sun yi zanga-zangar sau da yawa a kan kwal ta hanyar mamaye tashar wutar lantarki da kuma toshe jigilar kwal da ayyukan haƙar ma'adinai, a wurare irin su New Zealand, Svalbard, Australia, da Ingila . Har ila yau, Greenpeace tana da matukar muhimmanci ga hako mai daga yashin mai kuma ta yi amfani da matakin kai tsaye don toshe ayyuka a yashin mai na Athabasca a Kanada .

Ƙarfin Kariyar Duniya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin 1999 Greenpeace Jamus (NGO) ta kafa Greenpeace Energy, haɗin gwiwar wutar lantarki mai sabuntawa wanda ke ba abokan ciniki da iskar gas tun daga 2011. Bayan kukan kafofin watsa labarai na 2021 game da mahallin da ke da alaƙa da GreenPeace mai siyar da mai wanda aka siffanta shi da wankin kore, [29] haɗin gwiwar ya canza suna zuwa Green Planet Energy. Ƙungiyoyi masu zaman kansu na Greenpeace Jamus suna riƙe da kaso ɗaya a cikin haɗin gwiwar, wanda aka zarge shi da "kore" gas ɗin Rasha.

Shari'ar kotu ta Kingsnorth[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin Oktoba 2007, an kama masu zanga-zangar GreenPeace guda shida saboda kutsawa cikin tashar wutar lantarki ta Kingnorth a Kent, Ingila ; hawan hayaki mai tsayin mita 200, zanen sunan Gordon a kan bututun hayaki (dangane da tsohon Firayim Ministan Burtaniya, Gordon Brown ), da kuma haifar da asarar da aka kiyasta £ 30,000. A shari'ar da suka yi a baya sun amince da yunkurin rufe tashar, amma sun yi zargin cewa a bisa doka sun halasta su saboda suna ƙoƙarin hana sauyin yanayi haddasa babbar barna ga dukiyoyi a sauran sassan duniya. An ji sheda daga mashawarcin David Cameron kan muhalli Zac Goldsmith, masanin kimiyyar yanayi James E. Hansen da wani shugaban Inuit daga Greenland, duk suna cewa sauyin yanayi ya riga ya yi tasiri sosai a rayuwa a duniya. An dai wanke masu fafutuka shida . Wannan dai shi ne shari'a ta farko inda aka yi amfani da hana barnar dukiya da sauyin yanayi ke haifarwa a matsayin wani bangare na "uzuri na halal" a gaban kotu. Dukansu Daily Telegraph da The Guardian sun bayyana hukuncin a matsayin abin kunya ga Ma'aikatar Brown . A cikin Disamba 2008 The New York Times ya jera laifin a cikin jerin shekara-shekara na ra'ayoyin da suka fi tasiri na shekara.

"Ku Wuce Mai"[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A matsayin wani ɓangare na matsayinsu game da kasuwancin makamashi mai sabuntawa, Greenpeace sun ƙaddamar da yaƙin neman zaɓe na "Go Beyond Oil". Gangamin dai ya mayar da hankali ne kan rage yawan man da ake ci a duniya, sannan kuma a kawo ƙarshen amfani da man fetur; tare da ayyukan fafutuka da ake yi a kan kamfanonin da ke bin hako mai a matsayin kamfani. Yawancin ayyukan yaƙin neman zaɓe na "Go Beyond Oil" sun mayar da hankali ne kan hakar mai a yankin Arctic da yankunan da bala'in Deepwater Horizon ya shafa. Ayyukan Greenpeace a cikin Arctic sun haɗa da kamfanin binciken mai da iskar gas na Edinburgh, Cairn Energy ; da kuma tun daga zanga-zangar da aka yi a hedkwatar makamashin Cairn Energy zuwa zazzage rijiyoyin mai a wani yunƙuri na dakatar da aikin haƙar mai.

Kamfen na “Go Beyond Oil” ya kuma ƙunshi yin matsin lamba na siyasa kan gwamnatocin da ke ba da izinin hakar mai a yankunansu; inda ƙungiyar ta bayyana cewa ɗaya daga cikin muhimman manufofin gangamin "Go Beyond Oil" shi ne "aiki don fallasa tsawon lokacin da masana'antar mai ke son ta yi don fitar da ganga na karshe daga cikin ƙasa tare da matsa lamba ga masana'antu da gwamnatoci su wuce mai."

Makaman nukiliya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Greenpeace tana adawa da makamashin nukiliya saboda tana kallonta a matsayin "mai haɗari, gurɓatacce, tsada kuma ba za'a iya sabuntawa ba". Ƙungiyar ta yi ƙarin haske kan bala'in nukiliya na Chernobyl na 1986 da bala'in nukiliya na Fukushima na 2011 a matsayin shaida na hadarin nukiliyar da zai iya haifar da rayuwar mutane, muhalli da tattalin arziki. Greenpeace tana kallon fa'idar makamashin nukiliya don zama ɗan ƙarami idan aka kwatanta da manyan matsalolinta da haɗarinsa, kamar lalacewar muhalli da haɗari daga hakar uranium, yaduwar makaman nukiliya, da tambayoyin da ba a warware ba game da sharar nukiliya . Ƙungiyar ta yi kiyasin cewa yuwuwar makamashin nukiliya don dakile dumamar yanayi ba ta da yawa, tana mai nuni da yanayin makamashin IEA inda aka samu karuwar karfin nukiliya a duniya daga shekarar 2608. TWh a cikin 2007 zuwa 9857 TWh nan da 2050 zai rage fitar da iskar gas a duniya kasa da 5% kuma yana buƙatar raka'a 32 na makamashin nukiliya na 1000 Ana gina ƙarfin MW a kowace shekara har zuwa 2050. A cewar GreenPeace, jinkirin lokacin gini, jinkirin gini, da ɓoyayyun tsadar rayuwa duk suna hana yuwuwar rage ƙarfin makamashin nukiliya. Wannan ya sa yanayin IEA a zahiri da kuma na kuɗi mara gaskiya. Har ila yau, suna jayayya cewa ɗaure ɗimbin jarin jari kan makamashin nukiliya zai kawar da kuɗi daga ingantattun hanyoyin magance su. Greenpeace na kallon aikin gina tashar nukiliyar Olkiluoto 3 a Finland a matsayin misali na matsalolin da ake fuskanta kan gina sabuwar makamashin nukiliya.

Tallan yaƙi da makaman nukiliya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin 1994, GreenPeace ta buga wani tallan jaridar da ke adawa da nukiliya wanda ya haɗa da da'awar cewa cibiyoyin nukiliyar Sellafield za su kashe mutane 2,000 a cikin shekaru 10 masu zuwa, kuma hoton wani yaro da ya shafi hydrocephalus ya ce ya kasance wanda aka azabtar da gwajin makamin nukiliya a Kazakhstan . Hukumar Matsayin Talla ta kalli da'awar game da Sellafield a matsayin mara tushe, ba ta da wani tushe na kimiyya. Wannan ya haifar da dakatar da tallan. Greenpeace dai ba ta amsa laifinta ba, inda ta bayyana cewa wani likitan ƙasar Kazakhstan ya ce yanayin yaron na faruwa ne sakamakon gwajin makamin nukiliya duk da cewa ba a yi gwajin makamin nukiliya a Sellafield ba.

EDF leƙken asiri hukunci da roko[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin 2011, wata kotu a Faransa ta ci tarar Électricité de France (EDF) Yuro miliyan 1.5 tare da ɗaure wasu manyan ma’aikata biyu bisa laifin leƙen asiri kan GreenPeace, gami da kutse cikin na’urorin kwamfuta na Greenpeace. An ba Greenpeace Yuro 500,000 a matsayin diyya. Ko da yake EDF ta yi ikirarin cewa an yi amfani da wani kamfanin tsaro aiki ne kawai don sa ido kan GreenPeace, kotun ta ki amincewa, inda ta ɗaure shugaban da mataimakin shugaban hukumar tsaron nukiliya ta EDF na tsawon shekaru uku kowace. EDF ta daukaka kara kan hukuncin, an wanke kamfanin daga hada baki don leken asiri kan Greenpeace kuma an soke tarar. Wasu ma'aikata biyu na kamfanin tsaro, Kargus, da wani tsohon memba na hukumar leken asirin Faransa ke gudanarwa, an yanke musu hukuncin shekaru uku da biyu bi da bi.

Ozone Layer da Greenfreeze[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Layer na ozone da ke kewaye da Duniya yana ɗaukar adadin hasken ultraviolet . Wani rahoto na 1976 na Cibiyar Kimiyya ta Amurka ya goyi bayan hasashen “raguwar hasashe” ozone. An ba da rahoton cewa yana fama da babbar asara daga chlorinated da nitrogenous mahadi a cikin 1985. Binciken da aka yi a baya ya sa wasu ƙasashe suka kafa dokar hana feshin iska, ta yadda aka sanya hannu kan yarjejeniyar Vienna a shekarar 1985 an sanya hannu kan yarjejeniyar Montreal a 1987 don fara aiki bayan shekaru biyu. [30] Amfani da CFCs da HCFC a cikin firiji sun kasance kuma suna cikin fasahohin da aka haramta. Cibiyar fasaha ta Jamus ta ƙirƙira wani madadin firji mai aminci na ozone wanda ya zo hankalin mai fafutukar Greenpeace a kusa da 1992. [31] An ba da haƙƙin fasaha ga Greenpeace, wanda ya kiyaye ta a matsayin buɗaɗɗen haƙƙin mallaka. Daga baya an yi amfani da fasahar a Jamus, sannan China, da sauran wurare a Turai, kuma bayan wasu shekaru a Japan da Kudancin Amurka, kuma a ƙarshe a Amurka ta 2012.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Gangamin daji[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Greenpeace na da nufin kare dazuzzukan farko masu inganci daga sare dazuzzuka tare da manufar saran gandun daji nan da shekarar 2020. Ƙungiyar ta zargi kamfanoni da yawa, irin su Unilever, Nike, KFC, Kit Kat da McDonald's da samun alaƙa da lalata gandun daji na wurare masu zafi, wanda ya haifar da canje-canjen manufofi a yawancin kamfanoni.[32] Greenpeace, tare da sauran ƙungiyoyi masu zaman kansu, sun kuma yi kamfen na tsawon shekaru goma don EU ta hana shigo da katako ba bisa ka'ida ba . EU ta yanke shawarar haramta katakon katako a cikin Yuli 2010. [33] Yayin da sare itatuwa ke ba da gudummawa ga dumamar yanayi, Greenpeace ta bukaci REDD (Rage fitar da iska daga saran gandun daji da lalata gandun daji) ya kamata a sanya shi cikin yarjejeniyar sauyin yanayi biyo bayan yarjejeniyar Kyoto.[34] [35] [36]

Wani motsi na Greenpeace game da dazuzzukan ruwan sama yana hana masana'antun dabino gwiwa. Yunƙurin ya kasance mafi yawan aiki a Indonesia inda aka riga aka yi amfani da hekta miliyan 6 don aikin noman dabino kuma yana da shirin sake samun wani hekta miliyan 4 nan da 2015. Yarda da cewa yawan noman dabino na iya yin illa ga ire-iren gandun daji, Greenpeace tana fafutukar yaki da noman, tana mai kira ga masana'antu da gwamnati da su koma ga sauran nau'ikan albarkatun makamashi. Daya daga cikin kyakkyawan sakamakon yakin shine GAR (Golden Agri-Resources), kamfanin samar da dabino mafi girma na biyu a duniya, ya yanke shawarar sadaukar da kansa don kiyaye gandun daji. Kamfanin ya rattaba hannu kan wata yarjejeniya da ta hana su bunƙasa noman noma a wuraren da ake kulle dimbin iskar Carbon.[37][32][38]

A ɓangaren talla, misalin nasarar Greenpeace a yankin wani bidiyo ne na bidiyo daga 2016 da ke nuna rashin amincewa da yadda Nestlé ke amfani da dabino a sandunan Kit Kat . Bidiyon ya sami ra'ayoyi sama da miliyan 1, kuma ya haifar da sanarwar jama'a ta Nestlé yana iƙirarin daina amfani da irin waɗannan ayyukan a cikin samfuran su. A cikin 2018, Greenpeace ta fitar da gajeriyar rairayi mai tauraro mai tatsuniyar almara mai suna Rang-tan gabanin Ranar Orangutan ta Duniya. A cikin Nuwamba 2018, Clearcast na Burtaniya sun musanta sigar bidiyon Rang-tan kamar yadda Iceland Foods Ltd ta gabatar.

Cire tsohuwar itace[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin watan Yuni 1995, Greenpeace ta ɗauki gangar jikin bishiya daga dazuzzuka na filin shakatawa na ƙasa na Koitajoki[39] a Ilomantsi, Finland kuma ya nuna shi a nune-nunen da aka gudanar a Austria da Jamus. A wani taron manema labarai da Greenpeace ta yi, ta ce asalin bishiyar ta fito ne daga wani yanki na dajin da ya kamata a kare shi. Metsähallitus ya zargi Greenpeace da sata kuma ya ce itacen daga dajin da aka saba da shi kuma an bar shi a tsaye saboda tsufa.[40] Metsähallitus ya kuma ce bishiyar ta fado ne a kan wata hanya a lokacin wata guguwa. Lamarin ya samu karbuwa a Finland, alal misali a cikin manyan jaridu Helsingin Sanomat da Ilta-Sanomat.[41] Greenpeace ta amsa cewa bishiyar ta fado ne saboda dajin da ke kewaye da shi an yanke shi, kuma suna son bayyana makomar dazuzzukan gaba ɗaya, ba makomar bishiya ɗaya ba.[42] Greenpeace ta kuma nuna cewa Metsähallitus ya yarda da darajar dajin bayan haka Metsähallitus a halin yanzu yana nufin Koitajoki a matsayin yanki na musamman saboda tsoffin dazuzzukan girma.[43][44]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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  2. 2.0 2.1 "Greenpeace International FAQ: Questions about Greenpeace in general". Greenpeace.org. 8 January 2009. Archived from the original on 11 April 2010. Retrieved 21 February 2011.
  3. "Greenpeace Protesters Paint Field of Genetically Altered Soybeans". Associated Press. 10 October 1996. Archived from the original on 24 March 2018. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Gilbert, Sarah Jane (8 September 2008). "Harvard Business School, HBS Cases: The Value of Environmental Activists". Hbswk.hbs.edu. Archived from the original on 10 October 2009. Retrieved 21 February 2011.
  5. Greenpeace, Annual Report 2011 Archived 19 Oktoba 2017 at the Wayback Machine.
  6. Henry Mintzberg & Frances Westley – Sustaining the Institutional Environment.
  7. Marc Mormont & Christine Dasnoy; Source strategies and the mediatization of climate change.
  8. Cohen, Andrew (20 September 2010). "OIG: FBI Inappropriately Tracked Domestic Advocacy Groups". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 11 May 2015. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
  9. Cloherty, Jack; Ryan, Jason. "FBI Spied on PETA, Greenpeace, Anti-War Activists". ABC News (in Turanci). Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
  10. Serrano, Richard A. (21 September 2010). "FBI improperly investigated activists, Justice Department review finds". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 25 September 2019. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
  11. "Protests fail to stop Nuclear Test countdown", The Free-Lance Star - 2 October 1969, Accessed via Google News Archive 16 November 2012.
  12. Congressional Record, 1971, p. 18072
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Brown-May
  14. Hawthorn, Tom (30 March 2011). "Tom Hawthorn's blog: For sale: The house where Greenpeace was born". Tomhawthorn.blogspot.com. Archived from the original on 26 August 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2011.
  15. "SPEC Official website". Archived from the original on 8 May 2015. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
  16. Greenpeace to Amchitka, An Environmental Odyssey by Robert Hunter.
  17. Dyck, Lloyd H. Dyck (17 October 1970). "Joni nervous at Greenpeace benefit show". Vancouver Sun. Vancouver BC: The Sun Publishing Company. p. 35. Archived from the original on 20 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2019 – via Newspapers.com.
  18. Lost 1970 Amchitka Concert Featuring Joni Mitchell and James Taylor Surfaces Archived 1 Oktoba 2017 at the Wayback Machine The Wall Street Journal, 22 November 2009
  19. "Frank Zelko: Making Greenpeace: The Development of Direct Action Environmentalism in British Columbia(PDF)". Archived from the original on 12 April 2013. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
  20. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Moore: founders
  21. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named watson:founders
  22. Making Waves the Greenpeace New Zealand Story by Michael Szabo ISBN
  23. Robert Hunter: Greenpeace to Amchitka, An Environmental Odyssey
  24. 24.0 24.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Weyler
  25. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named funding
  26. Greenpeace International – the reinvention of face-to-face fundraising. sofii.org
  27. Burnett, Ken (2002) Relationship Fundraising: A Donor-based Approach to the Business of Raising Money, The White Lion Press Limited
  28. 28.0 28.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named UNEP: Our Planet: Celebrating 20 Years of Montreal Protocol
  29. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named :0
  30. Morrisette, Peter M. (1989).
  31. Stafford, et al, 2002, "Forces Driving Environmental Innovation.
  32. 32.0 32.1 Two-Way Communication: A Win-Win Model for Facing Activist Pressure: A Case Study on McDonalds and Unilever's Responses to Greenpeace. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "lop" defined multiple times with different content
  33. EU bans illegal wood imports. carbonpositive.net (8 July 2010)
  34. How Unilever Palm Oil Suppliers are burning up Borneo Archived 26 ga Augusta, 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  35. "Slaughtering the Amazon". Greenpeace USA. 1 June 2009. Archived from the original on 27 July 2010. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
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