Haƙƙin Abinci

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Wikidata.svgHaƙƙin Abinci
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Haƙƙin abinci, da bambance-bambancensa, haƙƙin ɗan adam ne na kare hakkin mutane don ciyar da kansu cikin mutunci, yana nuna cewa akwai isashshen abinci, cewa mutane suna da hanyoyin samun damar yin amfani da shi, kuma ya dace daidai da bukatun mutum na abinci . 'Yancin abinci yana kare 'yancin ɗan adam na samun 'yanci daga yunwa da ƙarancin abinci da rashin abinci mai gina jiki . [1] Haƙƙin abinci ba ya nufin cewa gwamnatoci suna da wajibcin raba abinci kyauta ga duk wanda yake so, ko kuma hakkin a ciyar da shi. To sai dai idan aka hana mutane abinci saboda wasu dalilai da suka fi karfinsu, misali, saboda ana tsare su, a lokacin yaki ko bayan bala’o’i, hakkin ya bukaci gwamnati ta samar da abinci kai tsaye. [2]

An samo haƙƙin daga Yarjejeniyar Ƙasa ta Duniya akan Haƙƙin Tattalin Arziki, zamantakewa da al'adu [2] wanda ke da jam'iyyun jihohi guda 170 tun daga watan Afrilun shekara ta 2020. [3] Jihohin da suka rattaba hannu kan yarjejeniyar sun amince da daukar matakai zuwa iyakar albarkatun da suke da su don cimma ci gaba da samun cikakkiyar damar samun isashshen abinci, na kasa da kasa. [4] [1] A cikin jimlar ƙasashe guda 106, ana aiwatar da haƙƙin abinci ta hanyar shirye-shiryen tsarin mulki na nau'i daban-daban ko kuma ta hanyar zartar da doka kai tsaye a cikin yarjejeniyoyin ƙasa da ƙasa daban-daban waɗanda aka kare haƙƙin abinci. [5]

A taron kolin abinci na duniya na shekara alif 1996, gwamnatoci sun sake tabbatar da ‘yancin abinci tare da sadaukar da kansu don rage rabin adadin masu fama da yunwa da tamowa daga miliyan 840 zuwa miliyan 420 nan da shekara ta 2015. Koyaya, adadin ya karu a cikin shekarun da suka gabata, wanda ya kai wani babban tarihi a cikin shekara ta 2009 na sama da mutane biliyan 1 da ba su da abinci a duniya. [1] Bugu da ƙari kuma, adadin da ke fama da ɓoyayyun yunwa - ƙarancin ƙarancin abinci mai gina jiki wanda zai iya haifar da ci gaba a jiki da haɓakar hankali a cikin yara - ya kai sama da mutane biliyan 2 a duniya. [6]

Duk da yake a karkashin dokokin kasa da kasa wajibi ne kasashe su mutunta, karewa da kuma cika hakkin abinci, matsalolin da ake fuskanta wajen cimma wannan hakkin dan Adam ana nuna su ta hanyar rashin abinci mai yawa a duniya, da ci gaba da shari'a a kasashe irin su Indiya. [7] A cikin nahiyoyin da ke da manyan matsalolin da suka shafi abinci - Afirka, Asiya da Kudancin Amirka - ba wai kawai ana samun karancin abinci da rashin kayan more rayuwa ba har ma da rashin rarrabawa da rashin isashshen abinci. [8]

Ma'anarsa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yarjejeniyar kasa da kasa kan Hakkokin Tattalin Arziki, Zamantakewa da Al'adu ta amince da " yancin samun isasshiyar ma'aunin rayuwa, gami da isasshen abinci", da kuma "haƙƙin 'yanci daga yunwa". Ɗangantakar da ke tsakanin ra'ayoyin biyu ba ta kai tsaye ba. Alal misali, "'yanci daga yunwa" (wanda Janar Comment 12 ya ayyana a matsayin mafi latsawa da gaggawa [9] ) ana iya auna shi ta yawan mutanen da ke fama da rashin abinci mai gina jiki da kuma matsananciyar mutuwar yunwa . "Haƙƙin samun isasshen abinci" shine ma'auni mafi girma, ciki har da ba kawai rashin abinci mai gina jiki ba, amma zuwa cikakkiyar halaye masu alaƙa da abinci, ciki har da aminci, iri-iri da mutunci, a takaice duk waɗannan abubuwan da ake buƙata don ba da damar aiki da lafiya. rayuwa.

An yi wahayi zuwa ga ma’anar da ke sama, Wakilin Musamman kan Haƙƙin Abinci a cikin shekara ta 2002 ya ayyana shi kamar haka: [10]

Haƙƙin samun dama na yau da kullun, dindindin da ba tare da iyakancewa ba, ko dai kai tsaye ko ta hanyar siyan kuɗi, zuwa adadi da ƙima da isasshen abinci daidai da al'adun al'adun mutanen da mabukaci ke da shi, kuma waɗanda ke tabbatar da jiki da tunani, daidaikun mutane da kuma na gama gari, rayuwa mai cikawa da mutunci ba tare da tsoro ba.

Wannan ma'anar ya ƙunshi duk abubuwan al'ada da aka bayyana dalla-dalla a cikin Babban Magana 12 na ICESCR, wanda ya ce: [11]

‘yancin samun isasshen abinci yana tabbata ne a lokacin da kowane namiji, mace da yaro, shi kaɗai ko a cikin jama’a, ke da damar ta jiki da ta tattalin arziki a kowane lokaci don samun isassun abinci ko hanyoyin sayan sa.

Girma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tsohon mai ba da rahoto na musamman kan 'yancin cin abinci, Jean Ziegler, ya bayyana ma'auni uku zuwa haƙƙin abinci kamar haka: [1] [9]

  • Samuwar tana nufin yuwuwar ko dai don ciyar da kai kai tsaye daga ƙasa mai albarka ko sauran albarkatun ƙasa, ko don rarrabawa, sarrafawa da tsarin kasuwa mai aiki mai kyau wanda zai iya motsa abinci daga wurin da ake samarwa zuwa inda ake buƙata daidai da buƙata.
  • Samun dama yana nuna cewa dole ne a ba da garantin samun abinci na tattalin arziki da ta jiki. A gefe guda, samun damar tattalin arziki yana nufin abinci ya zama mai araha don isassun abinci ba tare da lalata wasu buƙatu na yau da kullun ba. A gefe guda kuma, masu raunin jiki, kamar marasa lafiya, yara, nakasassu ko tsofaffi suma yakamata su sami abinci.
  • Dama yana nuna cewa dole ne abinci ya biya bukatun kowane mutum, la'akari da shekaru, yanayin rayuwa, lafiya, sana'a, jima'i, al'adu da addini, misali. Dole ne abincin ya kasance lafiyayye kuma isassun matakan kariya ta hanyar jama'a da masu zaman kansu dole ne a ɗauki su don hana gurɓatar kayan abinci ta hanyar zina da/ko ta hanyar rashin tsabtar muhalli ko rashin dacewa a matakai daban-daban a cikin jerin abinci; Hakanan dole ne a kula don ganowa da gujewa ko lalata gubar da ke faruwa ta yanayi.

Bugu da ƙari kuma, duk wani nuna bambanci wajen samun abinci, da kuma hanyoyin da haƙƙoƙin sayan sa, dangane da launin fata, launi, jinsi, harshe, shekaru, addini, siyasa ko wani ra'ayi, asalin ƙasa ko zamantakewa, dukiya, haihuwa ko wani ra'ayi. wani matsayi ya ƙunshi take hakkin abinci.

Yarjejeniya kan ka'idojin abinci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dangane da haƙƙin abinci, al'ummomin duniya kuma sun ƙayyade ƙa'idodin da aka saba yarda da su, kamar a cikin taron Abinci na Duniya na shekara ta 1974, Yarjejeniyar 1974 na Duniya kan Tsaron Abinci ta Duniya, Ka'idodin 1977 Mafi ƙanƙanta na Kula da Fursunoni, Sanarwa ta 1986 akan Haƙƙin haɓakawa, ƙudurin ECOSOC 1987/90, sanarwar Rio na 1992 kan muhalli da haɓaka, da sanarwar 1996 Istanbul kan matsugunan ɗan adam . [12]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hakki mara kyau ko tabbatacce[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Akwai bambancin al'ada tsakanin nau'ikan haƙƙin ɗan adam guda biyu. A gefe guda, haƙƙoƙin da ba daidai ba ko mara kyau waɗanda aka mutunta ta hanyar rashin shiga tsakani. A gefe guda, haƙƙoƙin tabbatacce ko na zahiri waɗanda ke buƙatar albarkatu don tabbatar da shi. Duk da haka, a zamanin yau ana jayayya ko zai yiwu a rarrabe tsakanin waɗannan nau'ikan haƙƙoƙi biyu a fili. [13]

Haƙƙin abinci don haka za a iya raba haƙƙin abinci zuwa mummunan haƙƙin samun abinci ta hanyar ayyukansa, da ingantaccen haƙƙin samar da abinci idan mutum ya kasa samunsa. An gane mummunan haƙƙin abinci a farkon a cikin Magna Carta na Ingila na shekara ta 1215 wanda ya karanta cewa: "Babu wanda za a ci shi" (tarar) har ya kai ga hana shi hanyar rayuwa." [13]

Ci gaban duniya daga shekara ta 1941 zuwa gaba[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wannan sashe yana ba da taƙaitaccen bayani game da ci gaban ƙasa da ƙasa da suka shafi kafawa da aiwatar da haƙƙin abinci daga tsakiyar karni na 20 zuwa gaba. [14]

  • 1941 - A cikin jawabinsa na 'Yanci hudu, Shugaban Amurka Franklin D. Roosevelt ya haɗa da ɗayan 'yanci: [15]

    "'Yanci daga bukata."

    Daga baya wannan 'yancin ya zama wani ɓangare na Yarjejeniya ta Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta 1945 (Mataki na 1 (3)). [15]
  • 1948 - Bayanin Duniya na Haƙƙin Dan Adam ya amince da haƙƙin abinci a matsayin wani ɓangare na haƙƙin ingantaccen tsarin rayuwa :

“Kowa yana da ‘yancin samun irin yanayin rayuwarsa da lafiyarsa da lafiyarsa da na iyalansa da suka hada da abinci da tufafi da muhalli da kula da lafiya da ayyukan jin dadin jama’a da ya kamata a yi, da kuma ‘yancin samun tsaro idan aka samu rashin aikin yi. cuta, tawaya, takaba, tsufa ko sauran rashin rayuwa a cikin yanayi da ya fi karfinsa” (Sashe na 25).

  • 1966 - Yarjejeniya ta Duniya akan Haƙƙin Tattalin Arziki, Zamantakewa da Al'adu, ta sake nanata Yarjejeniya ta Duniya game da 'yancin ɗan adam game da haƙƙin daidaitaccen ma'auni na rayuwa kuma, ƙari, musamman ya amince da 'yancin samun 'yanci daga yunwa. Alkawari, ya ce ɓangarorin sun gane:

    “Haƙƙin kowa na samun isasshen yanayin rayuwa ga kansa da iyalinsa, gami da isasshen abinci” (Mataki na 11.1) da kuma “Haƙƙin kowa na ‘yantacce daga yunwa” (Mataki na 11:2).

    • 1976 – Shiga cikin aiki na alkawari.
    • 1987 - Kafa Kwamitin Haƙƙin Tattalin Arziki, Zamantakewa da Al'adu da ke sa ido kan aiwatar da Alƙawari da fara ƙarin fassarar shari'a na Alkawari.
    • 1999 – Kwamitin ya amince da Gabaɗaya Comment No. 12 'Haƙƙin Samun Isasshiyar Abinci', yana kwatanta wajibcin Jiha iri-iri da aka samu daga Alkawari game da haƙƙin abinci. [9]
    • 2009 - Amincewa da Yarjejeniyar Zaɓuɓɓuka zuwa Yarjejeniya ta Duniya kan Haƙƙin Tattalin Arziki, Zamantakewa da Al'adu, yin haƙƙin cin abinci mai adalci a matakin ƙasa da ƙasa.
  • 1974 – Amincewa da sanarwar Duniya kan Kawar da Yunwa da Tamowa a taron Abinci na Duniya . [16]
  • 1988 - Amincewa da haƙƙin abinci a cikin Ƙarin yarjejeniya zuwa Yarjejeniyar Amurka akan Haƙƙin Dan Adam a fannin Haƙƙin Tattalin Arziki, Jama'a, da Al'adu ("Protocol of San Salvador").
  • 1996 – Hukumar Abinci da Aikin Noma (FAO) ta shirya taron kolin Abinci na Duniya na 1996 a Rome, wanda ya haifar da sanarwar Rome kan Tsaron Abinci ta Duniya . [16]
    • 2004 - FAO ta ɗauki Haƙƙin Jagoran Abinci, tana ba da jagora ga Jihohi kan yadda za su aiwatar da wajibcinsu kan haƙƙin abinci. An fara rubuta ƙa'idojin ne sakamakon taron kolin abinci na duniya na 2002. [2]
  • 2000 - An kafa wa'adin mai ba da rahoto na musamman kan haƙƙin abinci . [17]
  • 2000 – Amincewa da Burin Ci gaban Ƙarni, gami da Buri na 1: don kawar da matsanancin talauci da yunwa nan da 2015.
  • 2012 – An amince da Yarjejeniyar Taimakon Abinci a sakamakon Yarjejeniyar Bayar da Tallafin Abinci (1985?), wanda ya mai da ita yarjejeniya ta farko da ta ɗaure bisa doka kan taimakon abinci.

Amartya Sen ya lashe kyautar Nobel ta 1998 a wani bangare na aikinsa na nuna cewa yunwa da yunwa a zamanin yau ba yawanci sakamakon rashin abinci ba ne; a maimakon haka, yawanci yana tasowa ne daga matsalolin cibiyoyin rarraba abinci ko kuma daga manufofin gwamnati.

Matsayin doka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ana kiyaye haƙƙin abinci a ƙarƙashin haƙƙin ɗan adam da dokar ɗan adam ta duniya. [2] [18]

Dokokin kasa da kasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An amince da haƙƙin abinci a cikin 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Mataki na 25) a matsayin wani ɓangare na haƙƙin samun isasshiyar ma'aunin rayuwa, kuma an sanya shi a cikin 1966 Alkawari na Duniya kan Haƙƙin Tattalin Arziki, Jama'a da Al'adu (Mataki na 11). [2] Yarjejeniyar Zaɓuɓɓuka ta 2009 zuwa Yarjejeniya ta Duniya kan Haƙƙin Tattalin Arziki, Jama'a da Al'adu ta sa haƙƙin cin abinci ya zama daidai da matakin ƙasa da ƙasa. [14] A cikin 2012, an amince da Yarjejeniyar Taimakon Abinci, wanda ya zama yarjejeniya ta farko ta ƙasa da ƙasa kan taimakon abinci bisa doka.

Kayan aiki na duniya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hakanan ana gane ta a cikin takamaiman ƙayyadaddun kayan aikin ƙasa da ƙasa daban-daban kamar Yarjejeniyar kisan kare dangi ta 1948 (Mataki na 2), Yarjejeniyar 1951 da ta shafi Matsayin 'Yan Gudun Hijira (Mataki na 20 da 23), [19] Yarjejeniyar 1989 kan 'Yancin Yara (Mataki na 20 da 23). Mataki na 24 (2) (c) da 27 (3)), Yarjejeniyar 1979 kan kawar da duk wani nau'i na nuna wariya ga mata (Mataki na 12 (2)), ko Yarjejeniyar 2007 kan haƙƙin nakasassu (Mataki na 25) (f) da 28 (1)). [2]

Kayan aikin yanki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hakanan ana sanin haƙƙin abinci a cikin kayan aikin yanki, kamar:

  • Ƙarin Yarjejeniya ta 1988 zuwa Yarjejeniyar Amirka kan Haƙƙin Dan Adam a fannin Haƙƙin Tattalin Arziki, Jama'a, da Al'adu ko "Protocol of San Salvador" (Mataki na 12);
  • Yarjejeniya Ta Afirka ta 1990 Kan Hakki da Jin Dadin Yara ;
  • Yarjejeniya ta Afirka game da Haƙƙin Dan Adam da Jama'a, a fakaice a cikin hakkin rayuwa (Mataki na 4), 'yancin samun lafiya (Mataki na 14), da haƙƙin ci gaban tattalin arziki, zamantakewa da al'adu (Mataki na 22), a cewar Hukumar Kula da ɗan Adam ta Afirka. da shawarar 'Yancin Jama'a a SERAC v Nigeria ; [20]
  • Yarjejeniya ta 2003 ga Yarjejeniya Ta Afirka Kan Hakkokin 'Yan Adam da Jama'a Kan 'Yancin Mata a Afirka ko "Maputo Protocol" (Sashe na 15);
  • Sanarwar 'Yancin Dan Adam ta ASEAN (Mataki na 28).
  • Yarjejeniyar Turai kan 'yancin ɗan adam ko Yarjejeniya ta zamantakewar Turai ba ta ambaci haƙƙin abinci ba.

Haka nan akwai irin waɗannan kayan aikin a cikin kundin tsarin mulkin ƙasa da yawa. [2]

Kayan aikin da ba na doka ba[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Akwai da yawa ka'idodin haƙƙin ɗan adam na ƙasa da ƙasa waɗanda ba bisa doka ba waɗanda suka dace da haƙƙin abinci. Sun haɗa da shawarwari, jagorori, kudurori ko sanarwa. Mafi cikakken bayani shine Haƙƙin Haƙƙin Abinci na 2004. Kayan aiki ne mai amfani don taimakawa aiwatar da haƙƙin isasshen abinci. [2] Haƙƙin Sharuɗɗan Abinci ba su da ƙarfi bisa doka amma sun zana kan dokokin ƙasa da ƙasa kuma jerin shawarwari ne ƙasashe da suka zaɓa kan yadda za su aiwatar da wajibcinsu a ƙarƙashin Mataki na 11 na Yarjejeniyar ƙasa da ƙasa kan Haƙƙin Tattalin Arziki da Jama'a da Al'adu. [2] A ƙarshe, jigo na Kundin Tsarin Mulki na shekara ta 1945 na Hukumar Abinci da Aikin Noma ta Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ya tanadi cewa: [19]

Kasashen da suka amince da wannan kundin tsarin mulkin kasar, suna da niyyar inganta jin dadin jama'a ta hanyar ci gaba da aiwatar da ayyuka daban-daban da na gamayya a bangarensu domin: bunkasa matakan abinci mai gina jiki da ka'idojin rayuwa ... don haka ... tabbatar da 'yancin dan Adam daga yunwa. . . .

Ƙungiyoyin Yarjejeniyar Ƙasashen Duniya kan Haƙƙin Tattalin Arziki, zamantakewa da al'adu dole ne su yi duk abin da zai tabbatar da isasshen abinci mai gina jiki, gami da yin doka kan hakan. Wa'adin ya zama wani ɓangare na dokokin ƙasa a cikin ƙasashe sama da 77. A cikin waɗannan ƙasashe ana iya ba da izinin samar da abinci a cikin Alkawari a kotu. Wannan ya faru a Argentina (a cikin yanayin 'yancin samun lafiya). [21]

Ƙungiyoyin Yarjejeniyar Ƙasashen Duniya kan Haƙƙin Tattalin Arziki, zamantakewa da al'adu dole ne su yi duk abin da zai tabbatar da isasshen abinci mai gina jiki, gami da yin doka kan hakan. Wa'adin ya zama wani ɓangare na dokokin ƙasa a cikin ƙasashe sama da 77. A cikin waɗannan ƙasashe ana iya ba da izinin samar da abinci a cikin Alkawari a kotu. Wannan ya faru a Argentina (a cikin yanayin 'yancin samun lafiya). [22]

Ƙaddamarwa ta hanyar ICESCR[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

ICESCR

Koyaya, ƴan ƙasa yawanci ba za su iya yin shari'a ta amfani da Alkawari ba, amma za su iya yin hakan kawai a ƙarƙashin dokar ƙasa. Idan kasa ba ta zartar da irin wadannan dokokin ba dan kasa ba zai yi gyara ba, duk da cewa kasar ta karya alkawari. Ana kula da aiwatar da Alkawari ta hanyar kwamitin tattalin arziki, zamantakewa da al'adu . [23] Gaba ɗaya, ƙasashe guda 160 ne suka amince da yarjejeniyar. Wasu ƙasashe 32 ba su amince da wannan alkawari ba, ko da yake guda 7 daga cikinsu sun sanya hannu a kan yarjejeniyar. [3]

Yarjejeniya ta zaɓi

Ta hanyar sanya hannu kan Yarjejeniyar Zaɓuɓɓuka zuwa ICESCR, jihohi sun amince da cancantar kwamitin tattalin arziki, zamantakewa da al'adu don karɓa da la'akari da [24] korafe-korafe daga mutane ko ƙungiyoyi waɗanda ke da'awar haƙƙinsu a ƙarƙashin Alkawari. [25] Duk da haka, dole ne masu korafin sun gama da duk magungunan gida. [26] Kwamitin na iya "nazarta", [27] yana aiki zuwa " sulhuntawa abokantaka ", [28] a cikin yanayin kabari ko kuma keta alkawari na tsari, yana iya "gayyatar jam'iyyar Jiha don yin haɗin gwiwa" kuma, a ƙarshe, na iya "haɗa da takaitaccen bayanin sakamakon zaman a cikin rahotonta na shekara-shekara". [29] Kasashe bakwai masu zuwa sun amince da Yarjejeniyar Zabin zuwa Yarjejeniyar Kasa da Kasa kan Hakkokin Tattalin Arziki, Jama'a da Al'adu: Bolivia, Bosnia da Herzegovina, Ecuador, El Salvador, Mongolia, Slovakia, da Spain. Wasu kasashe 32 kuma sun rattaba hannu kan yarjejeniyar zabin. [30]

Hanyoyi don cimma haƙƙin abinci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wakilin musamman kan ‘yancin cin abinci, Mista De Schutter, ya bukaci kafa dokar ‘yancin cin abinci, ta yadda za a iya fassara shi zuwa dabaru da cibiyoyi na kasa. Bugu da kari, ya ba da shawarar kasashe masu tasowa don kare hakkin masu amfani da filaye, musamman na tsiraru da marasa galihu. Ya kuma ba da shawarar tallafa wa kananan manoma ta fuskar ayyukan raya kasa, da kuma dakatar da gurbacewar kasa da ruwa ta hanyar sauye-sauye ga ayyukan noma. A ƙarshe, kwararre na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ya ba da shawarar yin amfani da dabarun magance hauhawar kiba . [31]

Mataki na 11 na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya kan 'yancin samun isasshen Abinci ya nuna hanyoyin aiwatar da abubuwa da dama. [9] Labarin ya yarda cewa mafi dacewa hanyoyin da hanyoyin aiwatar da haƙƙin isasshen abinci ba makawa za su bambanta sosai daga wannan Jiha zuwa waccan. Dole ne kowace Jiha ta zabi hanyoyin da za ta bi, amma a fili Alkawari ya bukaci kowace jam’iyya ta dauki matakin da ya dace don tabbatar da cewa kowa ya tsira daga yunwa kuma da zarar an samu damar samun isasshen abinci.

Labarin ya jaddada cewa 'yancin cin abinci yana buƙatar cikakken bin ka'idodin lissafi, bayyana gaskiya, shigar da jama'a, rabe-raben mulki, ikon zartarwa da 'yancin kai na shari'a. Dangane da dabarun aiwatar da ‘yancin cin abinci kuwa, labarin ya bukaci Jihohi su tantance tare da magance muhimman batutuwan da suka shafi tsarin abinci, da suka hada da samar da abinci da sarrafa su, adana abinci, rarraba kayayyaki, tallan da kuma yadda ake amfani da shi. . Ya kamata dabarun aiwatarwa ya ba da kulawa ta musamman ga buƙatun hana wariya wajen samun shagunan abinci da cibiyar sadarwar dillalai, ko madadin albarkatun noman abinci. A matsayin wani ɓangare na wajibcinsu na kare tushen albarkatun abinci na mutane, yakamata jihohi su ɗauki matakan da suka dace don tabbatar da cewa ayyukan kamfanoni masu zaman kansu da ƙungiyoyin jama'a sun dace da yancin abinci.

Makalar ta yi nuni da cewa, a duk lokacin da wata Jiha ta fuskanci matsananciyar matsalar albarkatu, walau sakamakon wani tsari na daidaita tattalin arziki, koma bayan tattalin arziki, yanayin yanayi ko wasu dalilai, ya kamata a dauki matakan da suka dace don ganin an cika ‘yancin samun isasshen abinci musamman ga gungun jama’a masu rauni. daidaikun mutane. [9]

Dangantaka da sauran hakkoki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tunanin dogaro da juna da rashin rarraba dukkan yancin ɗan adam wata ƙa'ida ce ta Majalisar Ɗinkin Duniya . An gane wannan a cikin sanarwar Vienna da Shirin Aiki na 1993 wanda ke karanta "dukkan 'yancin ɗan adam na duniya ne, ba za a iya raba su ba kuma suna dogara da juna kuma suna da alaƙa." Haƙƙin abinci ana ɗaukarsa yana da alaƙa da haƙƙoƙin ɗan adam masu zuwa: yancin rayuwa, 'yancin rayuwa, 'yancin lafiya, 'yancin mallakar dukiya, 'yancin faɗar albarkacin baki, 'yancin faɗar albarkacin baki, 'yancin ilimi, 'yancin haɗin gwiwa, da haƙƙin haƙƙin ƴan Adam . da ruwa . [32] Sauran haƙƙoƙin da suka dace sun haɗa da: ' yancin yin aiki, ' yancin zamantakewar jama'a, ' yancin jin dadin jama'a, [33] da ' yancin samun isasshen yanayin rayuwa .

Alal misali, bisa ga kwamitin da ke kula da aiwatar da ICESCR, " haƙƙin ruwa shine abin da ake bukata don tabbatar da sauran haƙƙin ɗan adam." Bukatar samun isasshen ruwa domin samun isasshen abinci ya bayyana musamman a bangaren manoma. Ana buƙatar tabbatar da samun albarkatun ruwa mai ɗorewa don noma don tabbatar da haƙƙin abinci. [34] Wannan ya shafi aikin noma mai ƙarfi da ƙarfi.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayanan kula[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

ambato

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Ziegler 2012: "What is the right to food?"
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food 2012a: "Right to Food."
  3. 3.0 3.1 United Nations Treaty Collection 2012a
  4. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 1966: article 2(1), 11(1) and 23.
  5. Knuth 2011: 32.
  6. Ahluwalia 2004: 12.
  7. Westcott, Catherine and Nadia Khoury and CMS Cameron McKenna,The Right to Food, (Advocates for International Development, October 2011)http://a4id.org/sites/default/files/user/Right%20to%20Food%20Legal%20Guide.pdf.
  8. Ahluwalia 2004: iii.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 1999.
  10. Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food 2008: para. 17; quoted in Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food 2012a.
  11. Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 1999: para. 6.
  12. Ahluwalia 2004: footnote 23.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Food and Agriculture Organization 2002: "The road from Magna Carta."
  14. 14.0 14.1 Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food 2010a: 4.
  15. 15.0 15.1 Ahluwalia 2004: 10.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Food and Agriculture Organization 2012b.
  17. Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food 2012a: "Mandate."
  18. Ahluwalia 2004: 10-12.
  19. 19.0 19.1 Ahluwalia 2004: 11.
  20. African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights: para. 64-66 (p. 26).
  21. Golay 2006: 21; see also Golay 2006: 27-8.
  22. Golay 2006: 21; see also Golay 2006: 27-8.
  23. Food and Agriculture Organization 2002;Ahluwalia 2004: 20.
  24. Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 2008: Article 1.
  25. Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 2008: Article 2.
  26. Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 2008: Article 3.
  27. Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 2008: Article 8.
  28. Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 2008: Article 7.
  29. Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 2008: Article 11.
  30. United Nations Treaty Collection 2012b
  31. De Schutter 2012, para. 3.
  32. Ahluwalia 2004: 14.
  33. Golay 2006: 13.
  34. Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 2002: para. 1.

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]