Harsunan Songhay

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Songhay
Songhai, Ayneha
Geographic distribution
Linguistic classification Niluṣeḥrawit?
  • Songhay–Saharan?[1]
    • Songhay
Subdivisions
  • Harsunan Arewacin Songhay
  • Harsunan Kudancin Songhay
ISO 639-2 / 5 son
Glottolog song1307[2]
{{{mapalt}}}
Location of Songhay languages[3]

Arewacin Songhay:

Gabashin Songhay:

  Zerma


Harsunan Songhay, Songhai ko Ayneha harsuna ( [soŋaj] ko [soŋoj], lafazi cikin Songhay: IPA: ['sõʀai̯ ][ana buƙatar hujja] ) rukuni ne na yaruka / yarukan da ke da alaƙa da juna wanda ke tsakiyar tsakiyar Kogin Neja a ƙasashen Afirka ta Yamma na Mali, Nijar, Benin, Burkina Faso da Najeriya . Musamman, ana magana da su a cikin biranen Timbuktu, Niamey da Gao . Ana yin amfani dasu ko'ina a matsayin yaren harshe a wannan yankin tun daga zamanin daular Songhai . A Mali, gwamnati a hukumance ta amince da yaren Gao (gabashin Timbuktu ) a matsayin yaren da za a yi amfani da shi azaman matsakaiciyar ilimin firamare. [4]

Wasu yarukan Songhay ba su da fahimtar fahimtar juna tsakanin juna. Misali, Koyraboro Senni, ana magana da shi a Gao, ba shi da ma'ana ga masu magana da harshen Zarma a Nijar, a cewar masana harsuna . Koyaya, Songhoyboro Ciine, Zarma, da Dendi suna da kyakkyawar fahimta tsakanin Nijar. [5]

Ga masana ilimin harshe, babban abin da ke shafan harsunan Songhay ya kasance wahalar tantance alaƙar su; ana ɗaukarsu a matsayin Nilo-Saharan, kamar yadda Joseph Greenberg ya bayyana a cikin 1963, amma har yanzu wannan rarrabuwa ya kasance mai kawo rigima. Masanin ilimin harshe Gerrit Dimmendaal (2008) ya yi imanin cewa a yanzu ya fi dacewa a ɗauke shi dangin mai yare mai zaman kansa. Roger Blench ya yi iƙirarin cewa harsunan Songhay da Saharar sun kafa reshen Songhay-Sahara tare da juna a cikin babban harshe na Nilo-Saharar phylum.

A tarihi, sunan Songhay ba ƙabilanci ba ne ko kuma yaren yare ne ga kowa, amma suna ne ga masu mulki na Daular Songhai waɗanda suka dace da Songhai. Koyaya, madaidaiciyar kalmar da 'yan ƙasar ke amfani da ita don magance yarukan da kuma mutane gabaɗaya ita ce "Ayneha". Baya ga Songhai da kyau, wasu masu magana a Mali ma sun ɗauki sunan Songhay a matsayin sunan ƙabilanci, [6] duk da haka, wasu kungiyoyin masu magana da Songhay suna nuna kansu da wasu kalmomin ƙabilanci, kamar Zarma (Djerma) ko Isawaghen (Sawaq).

'Yan waƙoƙi da wasiƙu da aka tsara a cikin Songhay da aka rubuta da rubutun larabci suna cikin Timbuktu. [7] Koyaya, a halin yanzu an rubuta Songhay cikin rubutun Latin .

Iri-iri[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Adadin masu magana da Songhay

  Zabarmanwa (66.3%)
  Koyraboro Senni (9.3%)
  Harshen Dendi (5.5%)
  Tadaksahak (2.2%)
  Saura (1.4%)

Masu binciken sun rarraba harsunan Songhay zuwa manyan rassa biyu; Kudu da Arewa. [8] Kudancin Songhay yana tsakiyar Kogin Neja. Zarma ( Djerma ), yaren Songhay da ake ji da shi sosai tare da masu magana da miliyan biyu ko uku, babban harshe ne na kudu maso yammacin Nijar (mai rusawa daga da kudancin Mali) gami da babban birnin Yamai . Koyraboro Senni, tare da masu magana da magana 400,000, shine yaren garin Gao, mazaunin tsohuwar Daular Songhai. Ana magana da Koyra Chiini zuwa yamma. Ƙaramar Arewa mafi ƙanƙanta rukuni ne na yaruka masu yawa na Berber waɗanda ake magana da su a cikin Sahara . Tunda tasirin Abzinancin ya zarce fiye da ƙamus zuwa cikin ilimin halittar juna, wasu lokuta ana kallon yaren arewacin Songhay kamar harsunan gauraye . [9]

Haɗakar jinsi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Diedrich Hermann Westermann, mishan ne kuma masanin harshe, ya yi jinkiri tsakanin sanya shi ga Gur ko la'akari da shi a matsayin keɓewa, kuma Maurice Delafosse ya haɗa shi da Mande . A halin yanzu, ana daukar Songhay a matsayin Nilo-Saharan, biyo bayan sake tsara harsunan Afirka da Joseph Greenberg ya yi a 1963; Hujjar Greenberg ta ta'allaka ne da kimanin ƙididdigar ƙididdiga 70, gami da karin magana .[ana buƙatar hujja] An gabatar da wannan shawarar ta musamman, musamman, Lionel Bender, wanda ke ganinsa a zaman wani yanki ne mai zaman kansa na Nilo-Saharan. Roger Blench ya lura cewa Songhay ya ba da ma'anar ma'anar kyan gani wanda ya dace da yaren Nilo da Sahara. Tun daga 2011, ya yi imanin cewa Songhay ya fi kusa da harsunan Sahara maƙwabta kuma ba ya bambanta.

Koyaya, rabe-raben Nilo-Saharan yana da rikici. Lacroix, wanda ya yi la'akari da kusan 30 daga cikin abubuwan da Greenberg ke ikirarin yarda da su sun yarda da hujjar Greenberg, kuma haka kuma ya yi iƙirarin cewa waɗannan ana gudanar da su ne tsakanin Zarma da Saharar Sahara, [ Ina labarin Tagdal, wacce makwabta Saharan? ] don haka yana jagorantar mutum don zargin su da kalmomin lamuni . [10] Wasu Songhay– An dade ana kamanceceniya da Mande (aƙalla tun daga yammaci), da Mukarovsky (1966), Denis Creissels (1981) da Nicolaï (1977, 1984) sun bincika yiwuwar dangantakar Mande; Creissels sanya wasu 50 misãlai, ciki har da mutane da yawa sassan jiki da kuma morphological suffixes (kamar causative a -endi), yayin da Nicolaï da'awar da wasu 450 irin wannan kalmomi, kazalika da wasu kama hankali typological halaye.[ana buƙatar hujja] Duk da haka, Nicolaï ƙarshe ƙarasa da cewa wannan m ya ba da isasshen, kuma a shekarar 1990 samarwa a sosai labari jarrabawa: cewa Songhay ne Abzinanci na tushen Creole harshen, restructured karkashin Mande tasiri. A goyon bayan wannan ya kawo shawara 412 kamance, jere duk hanyar daga asali ƙamus (tasa " hanta ") to a fili aro (anzad " goge ", alkaadi " Qadi ". ) Wasu kuma, kamar su Gerrit Dimmendaal, ba su gamsu ba, kuma Nicolaï (2003) ya yi la’akari da tambayar asalin Songhay har yanzu a buɗe yake, yayin da yake jayayya game da tsarin Bender da aka gabatar.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Kamanceceniyar yanayin halittar Greenberg tare da Nilo-Saharan sun haɗa da karin suna na ai (cf. Zaghawa ai ), 'I', ni (cf. Kanuri nyi ), 'ku (sg.)', Yer (misali Kanuri -ye ), 'mu', wor (cf. Kanuri -wi ), 'kai (pl.)'; dangi da sigar formants -ma (misali Kanuri -ma ) da -ko (cf. Maba -ko ), mahimmin kari ne -an (?), Karin maganar jam'in hamayya -r (cf. Teso -r ) wanda ya ɗauka don bayyana a cikin karin magana yer da wor, mara tasiri / wucewa -a (cf. Teso -o ).[ana buƙatar hujja]

Mafi ban mamaki game da kamanceceniyar Mande wanda Creissels ya lissafa shine mutum na uku da ke magana akan sg. (pan-Mande a ), ina pl. (kwanon rufi-Mande i ko e), da demonstratives wo "wannan" (gwama Manding o, wo ) kuma babu "can" (cf. Soninke ba, sauran Mande na ), mummunan na (an samo shi a cikin yarukan yaren Manding) da kuma cikakkiyar mana (cf. Manding , máŋ ), kalmomin ma (cf. Manding máa ), da copula ti (cf. Bisa ti, Manding de / le ), haɗin magana ta ka (cf. Manding kà), karin kalmomin -ri (sakamakon - cf. Mandinka -ri, Bambara -li aiwatar da sunaye), -ncè (ethnonymic, cf. Soninke -nke, Mandinka -nka ), -anta (na al'ada, cf. Soninke -ndi, Mandinka -njaŋ ...), -anta (sakamakon sakamako, cf. Soninke -nte ), -endi (haddasawa, cf. Soninke, Mandinka -ndi ), da kuma sanya ra "in" (cf. Manding , Soso ra ...)[ana buƙatar hujja]

Harsunan Songhay ana ɗaukar su a matsayin dangi mai zaman kansa ta Dimmendaal (2011), kodayake ya sanya Sahara a matsayin wani ɓangare na Nilo-Saharan.

Nahawu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Songhay ne mafi yawa a tonal, SOV kungiyar na harsuna, an togiya kasancewa bamban Koyra Chiini na Timbuktu, wanda shi ne maras tonal kuma yana amfani da SVO domin.

Songhay yana da morpheme -ndi wanda ke nuna alama ko mawuyacin hali ko mara amfani. Fi'iloli na iya ɗaukar lokuta biyu na morpheme, ɗaya don kowane ma'ana. Ta haka ne a zahiri ndi-ndi-ndi a fassara ta "[shinkafar] ta kasance ta sanya wani ya ci [wani: sanadi] [ta wani: sanadi]". [11]

Sake ginin Proto-Songhay[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Template:Infobox proto-languageTeburin Da ke ƙasa akwai wasu gyare-gyare na Proto-Songhay:

Sheki Proto-Songhay
mutum * bòro
tsuntsu * kídòw
kunama, sauro * (n) děŋ
toka * bó: sú
dutse, dutse * tóndì
shekara * gí: rí; * mán (n) à
jiya * bǐ:
tambaya * há˜
kawo * kàte
ƙaya * kárgí
fata * kú: rú
jini * kúdí
shekara * gí: rí

Wasu waƙoƙin Proto-Gabashin Songhay:

Sheki Proto-Eastern Songhay
bukkar bukkar * bùgù
hamata, reshe * fátá
ƙishirwa * gèw
dantse * kéráw
mason zanzaro * bímbín (í)
gumi * súŋgáy

Lambobi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kwatanta lambobi a cikin kowane yare:

Harshe 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Korandje affu * jnka jnzˁa rˁəbʕa samsa sətta səbʕa tmənja təsʕa ˁrˁa
Tadaksahak a-ˈfːo / a-ˈfːoo-da hiŋˈka kaːˈrˤad <Tamasheq aˈkːoːz <Tamasheq ʃaˈmːuʃ <Tamasheq ʃaːˈdˤiʃ <Tamasheq iˈʃːa <Tamasheq iˈtˤːam <Tamasheq tˤaːˈsˤa <Tamasheq maːˈrˤa <Tamasheq
Tasawaq fó / a-fːó hínká / à-hínká hínzà / à-hínzà táásì / à-tːáásì xámsà <Larabci sítːà <Larabci sábàɣà <Larabci tàmáníyà <Larabci tísàɣà <Larabci ɣàsárà <Larabci
Dendi afɔ hayinka / ahinka ahinza ataki aɡu ayidu ayiye / ahiye ayiyaku ayiɡa aweyi
Koyraboro Senni affoo ihinka ihinza itaatʃi iɡɡuu idduu iyye iyaaha iyaɡɡa iwoy
Koyra Chiini foo / a-foo hiŋka hindʒa tatʃi ɡuu iddu iiye yaaha yaɡɡa woy / wey
Zarma, Songhoyboro Ciine àˈfó ìˈhíŋká ìˈhínzà ìˈtaːcí ìˈɡú ˈÍddù Jjijjè àˈhákˌkù ˈJǽɡɡà ìˈwéɪ

Bibiyar Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Dimmendaal, Gerrit. 2008. Ilimin Lafiyar Harshe da Bambancin Harsuna akan Nahiyar Afirka. Harshen harshe da ilimin harshe 2 (5): 843 ff.
  • Dupuis-Yakouba, Auguste . 1917. Essai pratique de méthode zuba l'étude de la langue songoï ou songaï [. . . ] . Paris: Ernest Leroux.
  • Hunwick, John O.; Alida Jay Boye. 2008. Treididdigar ofididdigar Timbuktu . Thames da Hudson.
  • Nicolaï, Robert . 1981. Yarukan Les du songhay: gudummawa à l'étude des sauyawa harsuna . Paris: SELAF. 302 shafi na.
  • Nicolaï, Robert & Petr Zima. 1997. Songhay . LINCOM-Europa. 52 shafi na.
  • Prost, RPA [André]. 1956. La langue sonay da yaren yare . Dakar: IFAN. Jerin: Mémoires de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire; 47. 627 shafi na.

Mai bugawa da taƙaitaccen bugu:

  • CSLI = Cibiyar Nazarin Harshe da Bayani.
  • IFAN = Institut Français d'Afrique Noire (tunda aka maishe shi Institut Fondamental d'Afrique Noire) .
  • SELAF = ciungiyar d'ungiyar l harsunan harsuna da anthropologiques de Faransa.
  • SUGIA = Sprache und Geschichte a cikin Afrika, jaridar da Rüdiger Köppe Verlag, Cologne (Köln) suka buga.
  • Köppe = Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.

Akan dangantakar halittu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Bender, M. Lionel . 1996. Harsunan Nilo-Saharan: Rubutun Kwatanta . München: LINCOM-Europa. 253 shafi na
  • Roger Blench da Colleen Ahland, "Rarrabuwa daga Harsunan Gumuz da Koman", [1] aka gabatar a taron bunkasuwar harshe a Afirka, Lyons, Disamba 4, 2010
  • D. Creissels. 1981. "De la possibilité de rapprochements entre le songhay et les langues Niger – Congo (en mahimmancin Mandé)." A cikin Th. Schadeberg, ML Bender, eds., Nilo-Sahara : Ci gaba na Farko na Nilo-Saharan Linguistics Colloquium, Leiden, Satumba 8-10, pp. 185–199. Littattafan Foris.
  • Greenberg, Joseph, 1963. Yarukan Afirka (Jaridar Duniya ta Nazarin Harsunan Amurka 29.1). Bloomington, IN: Jami'ar Indiana ta Latsa.
  • Lacroix, Pierre-Francis. 1971. "L'ensemble songhay-jerma: problèmes et thèmes de travail". A cikin Acte du 8ème Congrès de la SLAO (Société Linguistique de l'Afrique Occidentale), Série H, Fasicule hors série, 87-100. Abidjan: Annales de l'Université d'Abidjan.
  • Mukarovsky, HG 1966. "Zur Stellung der Mandesprachen". Anthropos, 61: 679-88.
  • Nicolaï, Robert . 1977. "Sur l'autart du du songhay". Annales de la faculté des lettres de Nice, 28: 129-145.
  • Nicolaï, Robert. 1984. Préliminaires à une étude sur l'origine du songhay: matériaux, problématique et hypothèses, Berlin: D. Reimer. Jerin: Marburger Studien zur Afrika- und Asienkunde. Serie A, Afirka; 37. 163 shafi na
  • Nicolaï, Robert. 1990. Parentés linguistiques (à propos du songhay) . Paris: CNRS. 209 shafi na
  • Nicolaï, Robert. 2003. La Force des choses ou l'épreuve 'nilo-saharienne': tambayoyi sur les reconstructions archéologiques et l'évolution des langues . SUGIA - Karin 13. Köln: Köppe. 577 shafi na

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Blench, Roger & Lameen Souag. m.s. Saharan and Songhay form a branch of Nilo-Saharan.
  2. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Songhay". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. This map is based on classification from Glottolog and data from Ethnologue.
  4. Heath 2005
  5. Ethnologue report for Niger
  6. Heath 1999:2
  7. Hunwick and Boye 2008: ____
  8. A map of the varieties is provided by Ethnologue at its Web site. See the list of External Links.
  9. SIL Working Papers on Songhay
  10. Lacroix 1969: 91–92
  11. Shopen, T. & Konaré, M. 1970. "Sonrai Causatives and Passives: Transformational versus Lexical Derivations for Propositional Heads", Studies in African Linguistics 1.211–54. Cited in Dixon, R.M.W. (2000). "A Typology of Causatives: Form, Syntax, and Meaning". In Dixon, R.M.W. & Aikhenvald, Alexendra Y. Changing Valency: Case Studies in Transitivity. Cambridge University Press. pp. 31.