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Zabarmawa

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Zabarmawa

Yankuna masu yawan jama'a
Nijar, Najeriya, Ghana, Burkina Faso da Benin

Mutanen Zarma ko Zabarmawa, ƙabilu ne da suke da asaliu kusa da yammacin Nijar. Hakanan ana samun su a cikin adadi mai mahimmanci a yankunan da ke kusa da Najeriya da Benin, tare da ƙananan lambobi a Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Kamaru da Sudan . [1]

Mutanen Zarma galibinsu Musulmai ne na wadanda ke bin Mazhabar Maliki Sunni, kuma suna zaune ne a cikin ƙasashen Sahel masu bushewa, a gefen kwarin Kogin Neja wanda yake shi ne tushen ban ruwa, wurin kiwon garken shanu, da ruwan sha. [1] Dangane da wadata, sun mallaki shanu, tumaki, awaki da kuma dromedaries, suna ba da su ga Fulani ko kuma Abzinawa don kulawa. Mutanen Zarma suna da tarihin bayi da tsarin sarauta, kamar yawancin kabilun Yammacin Afirka. Kamar su, su ma suna da al'adar kiɗa ta tarihi.

Ana kiran mutanen Zarma a matsayin Zerma, Djerma, Dyerma, Zaberma, Zabarma ko mutanen Zabermawa.

Yawan jama'a da harshe[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kimanin jimillar yawan jama'ar Zarma ya zuwa shekarata 2013 gabaɗaya an kuma sanya su sama da miliyan 3, [2] amma ya bambanta. Sun kasance ƙananan ƙungiyoyin ƙananan ƙabilu da yawa, wadanda ko dai yan asalin wannan zamanin ne kafin daular Songhai kuma sun shiga cikin mutanen Zarma, in ba haka ba mutanen asalin Zarma ne wadanda suka banbanta kansu wani lokaci a zamanin mulkin mallaka (ta hanyar yare, tsarin siyasa, ko addini), amma waɗannan suna da wahalar banbancewa gwargwadon Fuglestad. Ƙungiyoyi galibi ana kiransu ɓangare na Zarma ko Songhay, to amma waɗanda ke da alamun tarihi da aka gano sun haɗa da mutanen Gabda, Tinga, Sorko, Kalles, Golles, Loqas da Kourteys.

Harshen Zarma ɗayan ɗayan yarukan Songhai ne na kudu, reshe ne na dangin harsunan Nilo-Saharan. Saboda yare da al'adar gama gari, wasu lokuta kuma ana kiransu "Zarma Songhay" (kuma ana rubuta shi "Djerma-Songhai"). [2].

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yankunan mutanen Zarma (kimanin. ).

Mutanen Zarma ƙabila ce ta Afirka tare da kuma tarihin da ba a rubuta su ba kuma ba su da tsoffin rubutu. Kamar sauran kabilun yankin, yawancin tarihin da aka sani ya samo asali ne daga bayanan addinin Islama bayan ƙarni na 8, musamman daga asusun tsohuwar Larabawa da masana tarihin Arewacin kasashen Afirka, in ji Margari Aziza Hill - farfesa a fannin ɗabi'a.Cinikin Islama ya kasance mai cigaba da sauƙaƙe ta hanyar kasuwancin da ke akwai tsakanin Afirka ta Yamma da Bahar Rum kafin Musulunci ya zo, kuma a cikin haka zuwan Islama ya rinjayi tarihin dukkan mutane ciki har da Zarma. Musulmin Arewacin Afirka sun haɓaka cinikin Saharar Sahara, suna zama masu mahimmancin gaske ga dukiyar ƙabilu da shugabanninsu. 'Yan kasuwar Musulmai sun kasance manyan' yan wasa wajen gabatar da Musulunci. Sahel, wanda ya samar da asali da kuma asalin gidan mutanen Zarma, ya kasance yanki ne na tattalin arziki da muhalli da kuma hanyar tafiye-tafiye da ke kusa da hamadar Sahara mara dadi da kuma yankin daji da ke kudu da Saharar Afirka. [3]

Yankin Neja Delta ya riga ya sami manyan matsugunai na mutane kafin Musulunci ya iso. Takardun Larabawa na farko daga karni na takwas sun ba da shawarar cewa Musulmai sun tafi Afirka ta Yamma don kasuwanci, suna musanya gishiri, dawakai, dabino, da raƙuman da suke da su daga ƙasashen Arewa da na Larabawa da zinariya, katako, da abinci daga kwarin kogin Neja da yankuna da ke kusa da su. Mutanen Songhay-Zarma. Wannan kasuwancin da kasuwancin ya haifar da sauya al'adu da addini. [3] An gabatar da ra'ayoyi daban-daban kan yadda, yaushe da dalilin da ya sa mutanen Zarma suka musulunta. Dangane da bayanan larabci, makarantar Maliki ta fikihun Islama ta zama mafi yawan tsarin mulki a yankin kogin Niger da Afirka ta Yamma a cikin karni na 11, bayan mamayewar Almoravid na Arewacin Afirka, kogin Niger, Kohanbi Saleh na Ghana da yankunan kogin Senegal. Malaman musulmai sun yi sabani idan wadannan takardu na farko na Islama sun kasance abin dogaro, yayin da wasu ke jayayya da yaren "mamayar", suna dagewa kan cewa ya kasance cikin lumana, da son sauyawa daga tsohuwar tsarin Musulunci zuwa sabuwar makarantar Malikiyya. Misali, Ahmad Baba a shekarar 1615 CE ya bayyana cewa Musulman baƙar fata na Afirka sun yarda da Musulunci, ba don barazanar soja ba.

Mutanen Zarma sun yi ƙaura zuwa kudu maso gabas daga yankin Niger Bend na ƙasar Mali inda aka sami mutanen Songhay a cikin babban taro, zuwa ƙididdigar su ta yanzu a kewayen kwarin kogin Neja a lokacin mulkin daular Songhai, suka sauka a garuruwa da yawa, musamman abin da yake yanzu Kudu maso Yammacin Nijar kusa da babban birnin Yamai . Ƙirƙirar wasu ƙananan al'ummomi, kowannensu ya jagoranci wani sarki ko mai mulki da ake kira Zarmakoy, wadannan lamuran sun kasance suna rikici ga kasashe masu sha'awar tattalin arziki da noma tare da Abzinawa, Fulawa da sauran ƙabilun yankin. Wannan hijirar zamanin da aka gabatar da ita ta hanyar tatsuniyoyi da tatsuniyoyi a tsakanin al'ummar Zarma, inda wasu ke ambaton asalinsu na Malinke da Sarakholle, waɗanda zalunci ne daga shugabannin musulmai na gari ko hamayya tsakanin ƙabilu.

Tufafin Zarma

A cewar Abdourahmane Idrissa da Samuel Decalo, mutanen Zarma sun daidaita kwarin Dallol Bosso, wanda ake kira Boboye a cikin harshen Zarma, a karni na 17. A cikin ƙarni na 18, sun kasance cikin rikici daga Fulani da kuma Abzinawa wadanda suka yi kokarin sanya tsarinsu na Jihad a Afirka ta Yamma. Rikicin da aka yi a kan matsugunan mutanen Zarma sun haɗa da hare-hare don hannun hatsi, ƙona amfanin gona da ke tsaye, tattara tilas ko kwace rarar ko wadata daga gidaje, kamawa, bautar da tilasta ƙaurawar mutane.

Bauta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bauta abune da ya zama tarihi a Afirka ta Yamma tun kafin zuwan mulkin mallaka. A Nijar da Mali, inda mafi yawan mutanen Zarma suka rayu a tarihi kuma suna da asalinsu, akwai shaidar rubutu na jerin kamfe na shekara-shekara yayin dokokin Ali 'dan Sunni da Askiya Muhammad (Turé) don kamo mutane a matsayin bayi,dukansu don amfanin gida da kuma fitar da su zuwa Arewacin Afirka galibi Morocco,Algiers,Tunis da Tripoli.Sarki na ƙarni na 15 Sunni Ali wani ɓangare ne na tatsuniyoyin da mutanen Zarma ke girmamawa.

Tsarin bautar ya kasance babban ɓangare na al'umma da tsarin siyasa.A cewar Jean-Pierre Olivier de Sardan,yawan bayin ya kai kusan kashi biyu bisa uku zuwa kashi uku cikin huɗu na yawan mutanen Songhay-Zarma.Waɗannan lambobin sun yi kama da yawan kaso na bautar da ake samu a wasu kabilun da suka kasance a Yammacin Afirka kafin mulkin mallaka, a cewar Martin Klein.Koyaya, Bruce Hall ya yi gargadin cewa yayin da yake "tabbas gaskiya ne cewa yawancin jama'a" suna da matsayi na rashin ƙarfi, waɗannan ƙididdigar zamanin mulkin mallaka na "bayi" a cikin ƙabilun yankin kogin Neja ƙari ne saboda akwai bambanci tsakanin matsayin bautar da matsayin bautar.

Ƙabilun da suka haɗa da mutanen Songhay-Zarma,in ji Benedetta Rossi, wadanda suka mika wuya ga Sahelo-Sudan din sun yi tarayya a tsarin siyasa da tattalin arziki wanda ya danganci bautar tun zamanin mulkin mallaka. Bayi sun kasance kayan tattalin arziki, kuma anyi amfani dasu don noma, kiwo da kuma aikin gida.Tsarin bautar ya kasance ingantacce kuma mai rikitarwa,a cewar Rossi,inda tsarin daidaita zamantakewar jama'a da aka kirkira tsakanin bayi kuma tsarin matsayin mai-bawa ya ci gaba koda bayan an dakatar da bautar a hukumance a lokacin mulkin mallakar Faransa. Ƙungiyoyin bayi sun kasance wani ɓangare na abubuwan tunawa da mutanen Zarma,in ji Alice Bellagamba.

Zamanin mulkin mallaka[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Masu mulkin mallaka na Faransa sun zo yankunan da mutanen Zarma ke zaune a ƙarshen shekarar 1890s,lokacin da sarakuna da shugabannin yaƙi a cikin al'ummar Zarma suka kasance cikin rikici na ƙabilanci. Faransawan sun zabi Zarmakoy Aouta na Dosso a matsayin abokin tarayyarsu,kuma suka kafa mukamin soja a wani gari da ke can kauyen Dosso a watan Nuwamban shekarar 1898. Lokacin da ya biyo baya ya kawo bala'o'i da yawa kamar yunwa da hare-haren fara daga 1901 zuwa 1903.Faransawa sun haɓaka kasancewar su a wannan lokacin.

Faransawan sun dogara ne da sansanin soja na Dosso da kwarin Neja don sake cika kayansu, yayin da suke yunkurin kafa yankin mulkin mallaka mafi girma a Sahel har zuwa Chadi.Wannan ya haifar da rikice-rikice da tashin hankali a kan mutanen Zarma,ta yadda ya maimaita tashin hankali da tsarin girmamawa da aka ɗora wa Zarma daga "aƙalla farkon karni na sha tara", jihar Dennis Cordell da Joel Gregory.

Mulkin mallaka na Faransa ya kafa ma'adinai don albarkatu a Afirka ta Yamma kamar a gefen Gold Coast, kuma waɗannan ma'adanai suna da ma'aikata na Afirka waɗanda suka dogara da yawancin mutanen Zarma masu ƙaura.Dubun-dubatar mutanen Zarma sun yi tattaki zuwa mahakan ma'adinai daban-daban na Faransa, tare da gina hanyoyi da titunan jirgin kasa don hada manyan wuraren da ke da muhimmanci ga mulkin Faransa.Wannan aikin bakin hauren ya bi al'adun zamanin mulkin mallaka na mayaƙan Zarma da ke zuwa gabar Zinariya don ganima, amma ma'adinai na mulkin mallaka sun ba da sha'awar tattalin arziƙi,amma a yawancin lokuta ƙaura ta kasance hanya ce ta "tsere wa tattalin arzikin Faransa".

Daga cikin ƙabilu daban-daban a Nijar,hadin kan farko na manyan masu fada a ji ya haifar da wani gado inda aka ciyar da bukatun Zarma kuma sun ci gaba da kasancewa wani bangare na masu fada a ji na siyasa bayan samun cikakken 'yanci a shekarar 1960.

Jama'a da al'adu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yaren, jama'a da al'adun mutanen Zarma ba a iya rarrabe su da mutanen Songhai . Wasu masana na ganin cewa mutanen Zarma wani bangare ne kuma mafi yawan kananan kabilu na Songhai - kungiyar da ta hada da makiyaya ƙasar Mal masu magana da yare daya da Zarma. [4] Wasu suna nazarin ƙungiyar tare a matsayin mutanen Zarma-Songhai. Koyaya, ƙungiyoyin biyu suna ganin kansu a matsayin mutane daban-daban.

Tsarin zaman jama'a[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Matar Zarma

Jean-Pierre Olivier de Sardan, Tal Tamari da sauran masana sun bayyana cewa mutanen Zarma a al'adance sun kasance al'umma da ke da rarrabuwar kai, kamar mutanen Songhai gabaɗaya, tare da jama'arsu da ke da gwanayen fada . Dangane da bayanin zamanin da da na mulkin mallaka, aikin su na gado ne, kuma kowane rukuni da ke da rarrabuwar kawuna ya kasance mai rikitarwa. [5] Tsarin zamantakewar jama'a ya kasance baƙon abu ta hanyoyi biyu; daya tana kunshe da bautar, a inda mafi karancin yanki na mutane suka gaji bautar, na biyu kuma Zima ko firistoci da malaman addinin Islama dole ne a fara amma ba su gaji wannan sana'ar ba kai tsaye, wanda ya sa limamin ya zama mai karya. A cewar Ralph Austen, farfesa wanda ya yi fice sosai a tarihin Afirka, tsarin zaman lafiya a tsakanin mutanen Zarma ba shi da kyau kamar yadda tsarin tsarke yake a tarihin da aka samu a cikin ƙabilun Afirka da ke yamma da su.

Louis Dumont,marubucin ƙarni na 20 da ya shahara wajen shahararren Homo Hierarchicus,ya amince da yadda ake lalata zamantakewar jama'a a tsakanin mutanen Zarma-Songhai da ma sauran kabilun da ke Yammacin Afirka,amma ya ba da shawarar cewa ya kamata masana ilimin halayyar dan Adam su ƙirƙiri wani sabon lokaci don tsarin daidaita zamantakewar Afirka ta Yamma.Sauran masana suna ganin wannan nuna banbanci ne da kebewa saboda tsarin Afirka ta Yamma ya ba da dukkan abubuwan da ke cikin tsarin Dumont, gami da tattalin arziki,al'ada, ruhaniya, dabi'a, abubuwan gurbata muhalli, rarrabuwa da yadawa a babban yanki.A cewar Anne Haour - wata farfesa ce a Nazarin Afirka, wasu masana na daukar batun wargaza zamantakewar al'umma irin ta tarihi a cikin mutanen Zarma-Songhai a matsayin wani abin da ke gabanin Musulunci yayin da wasu ke ganin an samo shi ne daga tasirin Larabawa.

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Ɓangarori daban-daban na mutanen Zarma-Songhai sun haɗa da sarakuna da mayaƙa,da marubuta, da masu sana'a,da masaka, da mafarauta, da masunta,da fatu da masu gyaran gashi (Wanzam),da barorin gida (Horso, Bannye). Kowane rukuni yana girmama ruhunsa mai kulawa. Wasu masana kamar su John Shoup sun lissafa waɗannan rukunin a cikin rukuni uku: kyauta (sarakuna, manoma da makiyaya), masu aiki (masu fasaha, mawaƙa da gwarzaye),da kuma rukunin bawa. Ƙungiyar masu buƙata an buƙaci zamantakewar su kasance masu haɗari,yayin da bayi za a sami 'yanci a cikin ƙarni huɗu. Straungiyoyin da ba na al'ada ba na mutanen Zerma sun mallaki kadarori da garken shanu,kuma waɗannan sun mamaye tsarin siyasa da gwamnatoci a lokacin da bayan mulkin mallaka na Faransa.A cikin tsattsauran tsarin zamantakewar al'umma, tsarin musulinci na auratayya wani bangare ne na al'adar mutanen Zarma, tare da fifikon abokan zama 'yan uwan juna, [1] da kuma tsarin karɓar al'adu tsakanin matan aure. Wannan endogamy yayi kama da sauran ƙabilun Afirka ta Yamma.

Kaciyar mata[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Matan cikin mutanen Zarma, kamar sauran ƙabilun Sahel da Afirka ta Yamma, suna yin al'adar kaciyar mata ta al'ada . Koyaya, yawan yaduwar ya kasance ƙasa da faɗuwa. A cewar UNICEF da nazarin Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya, a cikin al'adun Zarma ana kiran kaciyar mata Haabize . [6] Ya ƙunshi al'ada biyu. Isayan shine yanke al'ada daga sabbin ƴan matan da aka haifa, na biyu shine kintace a tsakanin shekarun 9 zuwa 15 inda ko dai an yanke al'aurarta ko kuma an yanke wani ɓangare na dukkanin kumburin mahaifa sannan a cire labia minora sannan a cire. Masu wanzamin gargajiya da ake kira wanzam suna yi wa al'ada aiki.

Nijar ta yi yunƙurin kawo ƙarshen aikin FGM. A cewar UNICEF, waɗannan yunƙurin sun samu nasarar da kula rage yi wa wani ruwan dare kudi a cikin guda lambobi (9% a Zarma kabila a 2006 [7] ), idan aka kwatanta da gabas-ta Arewa Afirka (Misira zuwa Somalia) inda FGM rates suna da tsayi sosai. [8]

Rayuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Taron zagaye na gargajiya Zarma bukka kusa da Niamey, Niger.

Ƙauyukan Zarma a al'adance suna haɗe da katangu masu shinge inda ƙungiyar dangi da ake kira windi ke rayuwa. Kowane mahadi yana da shugaban namiji kuma mahaɗan na iya samun ɗakunan bukkoki daban-daban, kowace bukka tare da matan daban na mazan. Bukkoki na gargajiya ne na zagaye, ko kuma tsarin madauwari wanda aka yi shi da bangon laka tare da rufin kwano mai banƙyama.

Mutanen Zarma suna noman masara,gero,dawa, shinkafa,taba, auduga da gyada a lokacin damina (Yuni zuwa Nuwamba). [1] Suna da aladu na garken dabbobi, waɗanda suke ba da haya ga wasu har sai sun gama sayar da su nama. Wasu dawakai nasu, gadon waɗancan mutanen Zerma ne waɗanda a tarihi suke cikin ƙungiyar mayaƙa kuma ƙwararrun mahaya dawakai a cikin sojojin musulunci. Rayuwa kusa da Kogin Neja, wasu mutanen Zarma sun dogara da kamun kifi. Gadon dukiya da zuriyar sana'a na ɗan adam ne. Yawancin mutanen Zarma, kamar Songhai, sun yi ƙaura zuwa biranen bakin teku da biranen Afirka ta Yamma, musamman Ghana. Mutanen Zarma suna shuka guavas, mango, ayaba, da 'ya'yan itatuwa. [9].

Zane-zane[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mutanen Zarma, kamar kabilun da ke makwabtaka da su a Afirka ta Yamma, suna da kyawawan al'adun kiɗa, raye raye da raira waƙa. Kayan kayan kida na yau da kullun wadanda suke tare da wadannan zane-zane sun haɗa da gumbe (babban ganga), dondon (ganga mai magana), molo ko kuntigui (kayan kida), goge (kayan kidan violin). Wasu daga wannan waƙar kuma suna haɗuwa tare da walwala, ko al'adun da ke da alaƙa da mallakar ruhu.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Songhay mutane (ƙaramin rukuni)
  • Tsarin katako a Afirka
  • Mutanen Mande
  • Mutanen Mandinka
  • Mutanen Azbinawa
  • Masarautar Zabarma - daular musulunci ta Zarma da ƙarniafa a cikin karni na 19 a Arewacin Ghana.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Zarma people, Encyclopædia Britannica
  2. 2.0 2.1 Zarma, Ethnologue: The Languages of the World
  3. 3.0 3.1 Margari Hill (2009), The Spread of Islam in West Africa: Containment, Mixing, and Reform from the Eighth to the Twentieth Century, Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies, Stanford University
  4. Songhai people, Encyclopædia Britannica
  5. I. Diawara (1988), Cultures nigériennes et éducation : Domaine Zarma-Songhay et Hausa, Présence Africaine, Nouvelle série, number 148 (4e TRIMESTRE 1988), pages 9–19 (in French)
  6. "Priorities in Child survival, education and protection, UNICEF" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-06-20. Retrieved 2021-06-11.
  7. Legislation and other national provisions: Namibia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Parliamentary Campaign against FGM, IPU (November 2006), Quote: "According to the World Health Organization, the prevalence rate was 5% in 1998. Excision and circumcision are common throughout the departments of Tollabery (Say, Ayerou, Torodi, Kollo), Marady and Diffa and in the urban community of Niamey along the neighbourhoods and other villages bordering on the Niger River, such as Lamordé, Saga and Kirkisoye. The Peul and the Zarma ethnic groups feature the highest proportion of excised women: 30% and 9%, respectively."
  8. Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting, UNICEF 2013 Global Report
  9. https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/zarma