Ios

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Template:Infobox settlement Ios, Io ko Nio ( Greek: Ίος , Greek pronunciation: [iːos], Ancient Greek  ; na gida Nios Greek: Νιός ) tsibiri ne na Girka a cikin ƙungiyar Cyclades a Tekun Aegean . Ios tsibiri ne mai tuddai tare da tuddai har zuwa teku a mafi yawancin bangarorin, yana tsakanin rabin Naxos da Santorini . Tana da 18 kilometres (11 mi) 10 kilometres (6 mi), tare da yanki na 109.024 square kilometres (42.094 sq mi) . Yawan jama'a ya kai 2,024 a cikin shekara ta 2011 (ƙasa daga 3,500 a ƙarni na 19). Ios yana cikin ɓangaren yankin Thira .

Chora[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 

Garin Ios

Tashar jiragen ruwa ta Ios tana kan tashar tashar jiragen ruwa ta Ormos a arewa maso yamma. Akwai hanya zuwa saman tudun kusa da Chora, mai suna bayan kalmar Helenanci don babban ƙauyen a tsibirin. Chora ƙauyen farar fata ne kuma mai hawa -hawa, cike da matakala da kunkuntar hanyoyi waɗanda ke sa ba a iya samun damar shiga motoci . A yau, babban hanyar ta ƙauyen an mamaye shi gabaɗaya ta hanyar yawon shakatawa tare da gidajen abinci, kantin sayar da kaya, mashaya da gidajen cin abinci na baƙi. Baya ga tashar jiragen ruwa da ƙauyen Chora, Ios yana da wasu ƙananan ƙauyuka waɗanda suka ƙunshi ƙungiyoyi na shimfida gidaje a bayan manyan rairayin bakin teku (Theodoti, Kalamos, Manganari). Tun daga shekarun 1990, magajin tsibirin Pousseos ya yi aiki kan ci gaban Ios don jawo hankalin nau'ikan masu yawon bude ido . Tare da taimakon Ƙungiyoyin Ƙasashen Turai an gina wasu hanyoyi, dukkansu an yi musu shimfida, kuma masanin gine -ginen nan na Jamus Peter Haupt ya ƙirƙiro wani filin wasan kwaikwayo na wasan kwaikwayo a saman tudun ƙauyen.

Suna[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dangane da Plutarch ana tsammanin sunan ya samo asali ne daga tsohuwar kalmar Helenanci don violets "Ία" (Ia) saboda galibi ana samun su a tsibirin kuma shine mafi yarda da ilimin halitta. Hakanan an nuna cewa sunan ya samo asali ne daga kalmar Phoenician iion, ma'ana "tarin duwatsu". Pliny Dattijon ya kuma rubuta cewa sunan ya fito ne daga Ionians waɗanda ke zaune a tsibirin. A zamanin Ottoman an kira tsibirin Anza ko Aina, kuma sunansa na yanzu an kafa shi a hukumance a cikin karni na 19 bayan sama da shekaru 2000 na amfani. A zamanin d the a ana kiran tsibirin "Φοινίκη" (Phiniki), wanda aka sanya wa suna da kuma ta Phoenicians kuma a cikin karni na 3, lokacin da tsibirin ya shiga League of Islanders, wataƙila an ba shi suna Arsinoe na ɗan lokaci bayan matar Ptolemy II [1] [2] A yau mazauna Tsibirin Cycladic suna kiran tsibirin Nio, sunan da ya samo asali daga zamanin Byzantine. Sunan Little Malta, wanda aka samo a cikin rubutun matafiya a lokacin mulkin Ottoman, yana da alaƙa da kasancewar 'yan fashin dindindin a tsibirin. <undefined /> A cikin yaruka masu rubutun Latin, sunan tsibirin shine Nio ko Io.

Taswirar tsibirin 1420 inda ake amfani da sunan Nio

Geography da geology[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Siffar Ios tayi kama da murabba'i, tare da matsakaicin girman gefen 15 km (9.3 mi) da 7 km (4.3 mi) bi da bi. Tsawon mafi tsayi yana cikin hanyar NW, daga karatza cape zuwa Achlades Peninsula kuma shine 17.5 km (10.9 mi) tsayi, yayin da mafi tsayi mafi tsayi, a cikin jagorancin AD, shine 14 km (8.6 mi) dogon. Ios yana da 86 km (53.4 mi) na gabar teku, wanda 32 km (19.9 mi) re yashi rairayin bakin teku. [3]

Mafi girman tudu (723 m, 2372 ft) shine Kastro ( Greek: Κάστρο ) ganiya kuma ana kiranta Pyrgos ( Greek: Πύργος ), wanda ke tsakiyar tsibirin, yayin da ke kusa da Kastro akwai manyan kololuwa uku na gaba: Xylodema ( Greek: Ξυλόδεμα (660 m, 2165 ft), Kostiza ( Greek: Κοστίζα ) (586 m, 1923 ft) da annabi Iliya ( Greek: Προφήτης Ηλίας (490 m, 951 ft). [3]

Ios ya ƙunshi kusan duwatsun metamorphic, wanda akan iyakance iyakancewar quaternary . [3]

Shirin Homer[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Idan aka samu munanan abubuwan da suka faru kamar girgizar ƙasa, gobarar daji da dai sauransu Municipality na Ios ya shirya wani babban shiri da ake kira Homer (Girkanci: Όμηρος) wanda ya haɗa da haɗin gwiwar duk mutanen Iiti. [4]

Yawan jama'a[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Historical population
YearPop.±%
16963,000—    
17711,400−53.3%
18292,177+55.5%
18562,167−0.5%
18792,113−2.5%
18892,043−3.3%
18962,171+6.3%
19072,090−3.7%
19202,154+3.1%
19281,797−16.6%
19402,041+13.6%
19511,753−14.1%
19611,343−23.4%
19711,270−5.4%
19811,362+7.2%
19911,654+21.4%
20011,838+11.1%
20112,024+10.1%

Dangane da ƙidayar mutanen Girka na shekara ta 2011 a Ios suna zaune mutane daga shekara ta 2084zuwa 1754 daga cikinsu suna zaune a Chora . Daga shekara ta 1940s zuwa farkon shekara ta 1970s, yawan mutanen tsibirin sun ragu akai -akai. Babban abubuwan da ke haifar da wannan sabon abu shine ƙaurawar ƙaura, yanayin annoba na lokacin kuma zuwa ƙaramin adadin, asarar maza masu shekaru tsakanin 18 zuwa 45 yayin yaƙin . [3]

Abinci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tsibirin ya shahara saboda cheeses na gida. An fi yin su a cikin kayan miya na birni ta amfani da madara daga awaki ko tumaki. Mafi shahararrun shine "skotíri" (σκοτύρι), cuku mai tsami tare da ƙanshin ƙanshin rani . Shahararrun jita -jita na Ios sune "tsimediá" (τσιμεντιά, furannin kabewa da aka cika da shinkafa ) da "mermitzéli" (μερμιτζέλι, sha'ir na hannu).

Ilimi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin shekara ta 1827 shugabannin yankin Ios sun rubuta wasiƙa zuwa ga gwamnatin juyin juya hali na Girka suna neman a buɗe makaranta a tsibirin. A cikin shekarun 1850 an buɗe makarantar farko wacce ta ƙunshi ɗaliban ɗalibai na kowane zamani. Irin makarantar da ake gudanarwa ana kiranta Skolarcheion (Girkanci: Σχολαρχείον) kuma yayi daidai da makarantar firamare tare da wasu darussan asali na makarantar sakandare. Yawancin ɗalibai a lokacin ba su kammala karatu ba saboda lokacinsu ya shagala wajen taimaka wa danginsu a cikin filayen. Wannan ya haifar da kaso mai yawa na yara marasa karatu. Iyalan masu arziki sun tura yaransu makarantun tsibiran da ke kusa. Daga shekara ta 1936 aka kafa makarantar firamare ta farko. A cikin shekara ta 1972 an buɗe makarantar yara ta farko kuma a cikin shekara ta 1980 makarantar sakandare ta farko wacce ke da wasu manyan darussan sakandare. A yau, a Chora akwai makarantar yara, makarantar sakandare, babban sakandare da makarantar sakandare ta EPAL. [5]

File:Jacques Bao.jpg
Iakovos "Jacques" Bao (1828zuwa1914) na ɗaya daga cikin malamai na farko da manyan malaman tsibirin. Mahaifinsa, Ioannis yana ɗaya daga cikin marubutan wasiƙar na shekara ta1827 kuma ɗansa, Ioannis shima malami ne a tsibirin [6] [7]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dutsen Skarkos

Ios daga zamanin prehistoric kuma godiya ga amincin tashar jiragen ruwa na halitta ya taka muhimmiyar rawa a kan hanyoyin teku zuwa Crete. Masana ilmin kimiya na kayan tarihi sun gano farkon sasantawar Cycladic akan tudun Skarkos da sauran wuraren tarihi na tsibirin.

Ios yana ƙarƙashin rinjayar Minoan sannan kuma na wayewar Mycenaean . Wataƙila 'yan Phoenicians mosy sun isa tsibirin kuma sun ci gaba da kasancewa har zuwa ƙarni na 9 BC. Ios ya zama Ionian a wani lokaci bayan, kamar yadda membarsa a cikin Ionic Amphictyony ya shaida . Daga shekara ta 534 BC tsibirin ya biya haraji ga Athens .

Lokaci na gargajiya da Hellenistic[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ios birni ne mai mahimmanci kuma mai ƙarfi a zamanin gargajiya da Hellenistic . Faduwarta ta fara ne daga mamayar Rumawa, lokacin da aka yi amfani da ita azaman wurin gudun hijira, kuma ta ci gaba a zamanin Rumawa. Tsibirin ya sami murmurewa a lokacin Duchy na Naxos, amma mulkin Ottoman ya katse shi. Palaiokastro, gidan da aka lalata na Venetian daga karni na 15 ya ta'allaka ne a arewacin tsibirin. Ios yana da mahimmancin isa a lardin Insulae na Rome don ya zama abin kallo na Metropolis na Rhodes, amma daga baya ya ɓace ya ɓace.

Numismatics[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin karni na 3 da na 2 BC kafin Ios ya zama wani ɓangare na ƙungiyar masu tsibirin, ta haƙa tsabar kuɗin ta, yawancin su ana iya samun su a Gidan Tarihin Archaeological na Berlin da Gidan Tarihi na Biritaniya. Akwai tsabar kudi 28 daban -daban. Suna kwatanta Homer, itacen dabino ko Athena, kamar yadda ake bauta mata a tsibirin. Yawancin su suna da ma'anar writing rubutun mutanen Ios. [8]


1820s[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kodayake Ios ba shi da rundunar sojan ruwa mai ƙarfi, amma tana ɗaya daga cikin tsibiran farko don ɗaga tutar juyin -juya hali a lokacin da aka fara Yaƙin 'Yanci na Girka a shekara ta 1821. Ios ya shiga yaƙin sojan ruwa a Kusadasi a ranar 9 ga Yuli, acikin shekara ta 1821, haka kuma a Majalisar Ƙasa ta Biyu a Astros a cikin shekara ta 1823 kuma a Majalisar Dokoki ta Uku a Troezen acikin shekara ta 1827.

Zamanin zamani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin zamani na zamani, tsibirin ya fara fitowa a cikin shekara ta 1970s a matsayin sanannen wurin yawon buɗe ido ga matasa a Turai. A yau Ios tana riƙe da suna a matsayin tsibiri na matasa da nishaɗi, tare da kyawawan kayan aikin yawon shakatawa, marina mai tsari a tashar jiragen ruwa da isasshen hanyar sadarwa.

A cikin Ikklisiya, yankinta yanzu ya zama wani ɓangare na Metropolis na Orthodox na Girka na Thera, Amorgos da Tsibirin Cocin Girka .

Mutuwar Homer[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Labarin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bust na Homer a Ios

Tsibirin yana da alaƙa da Homer sosai, saboda a cewar labari, Homer ya mutu a Ios. An yi la'akari da babban mawaƙin almara na Helenawa, labari ya ba da labarin cewa ya mutu ne saboda ya karya maganar Pythian. A cewar Pausanias, Homer ya ziyarci Delphi oracle don tambayar Pythia game da iyayen sa da asalin sa. Pythia ta amsa da zancen "Gidan mahaifiyar ku shine tsibirin Ios, wanda zai karɓe ku lokacin da kuka mutu, amma yakamata ku kula da ƙyanƙyasar ƙananan yara." Mawaƙin, duk da haka, ya karya magana kuma ya yi tafiya zuwa Ios. Can sai ya ga wasu kananan yara suna kamun kifi a gabar teku. Ya tambayi abin da suka kama sai yaran suka amsa da cewa: "Duk abin da muka samu mun bar shi kuma duk abin da ba mu samu ba mu tafi da shi". Yaran suna maganar kwari. Wadanda suka same su, sun kashe su, amma wadanda ba su same su ba, sun sanya su a kawunan su. Homer bai sami amsar ba, amma ya tuna gargadin Pythia. Ya firgita ya gudu da sauri. Hanyar tana da laka kuma mawaƙin cikin sauri ya zame ya faɗi, ya buga kansa ya mutu kusan nan take.

Dangane da wata sigar, Homer ya mutu saboda baƙin cikin da bai warware wuyar warwarewa ba, yayin da sigar ta uku ta ce ya riga ya kamu da rashin lafiya kuma ya tafi Ios saboda ya san zai mutu. Tabbas, mutuwar Homer ba ta dogara ne akan bayanan tarihi ba, amma akan tatsuniyoyi da al'adun da suka watsu daga al'adar baka. Pausanias kawai ya rubuta sanannen labari.

Graf Pasch van Krienen balaguro[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin shekara ta 1771, wani adadi na Dutch mai suna Pasch di Krienen bayan ya karanta labarin, ya zo Ios don neman kabarin. Wani limamin cocin Saint Aikaterini Chapel ya sanar da shi cewa akwai wurin da marmara kuma wasu daga cikinsu suna da rubutu. An gaya masa cewa an gina su tun bayan mutuwar Homer amma ya dage kuma tare da taimakon Spyridon Valettas ya sami kaburbura uku kuma na ƙarshe yana da rubuce -rubuce game da Homer ciki har da Ενθάδε την ιερήν κεφαλήν κατά γαία καλύπτει ανδρών ανδρών ηρώων κοσμήτορα θείον Όμηρον wanda ke nufin a nan ƙasa ƙasa ta kasance mai alfarma shugaban jarumi Homer. Lokacin da ya sami wannan, Pasch ya tabbata cewa kabarin mallakar mawaƙin almara ne amma ya fahimci wasu kurakuran nahawu akan dutsen kabarin kuma ya fara shakkar sahihancin sa. Bayan ya ɓata lokaci mai yawa da kuɗi, sai ya yanke shawara ya daina bayan ya kuma sami kaburbura biyu a Agia Theodoti [9] [10]

Yankunan rairayin bakin teku[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ios yana jan hankalin ɗimbin matasa masu yawon buɗe ido, yawancinsu sun kasance suna bacci akan jakunkunan baccin su a shekarun 1970 a sanannen rairayin bakin teku na Mylopotas bayan biki cikin dare. A yau an haɓaka rairayin bakin tekun Mylopotas zuwa madaidaicin wurin yawon buɗe ido kamar Platys Gialos da Paradise Beach na Mykonos .

Yanayi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ios yana da yanayi mai zafi na Bahar Rum tare da m hunturu da lokacin bazara mai daɗi. Mai kama da sauran tsibiran Cyclades, akwai kusan iska daga arewa a lokacin bazara, wanda aka sani da meltemi, wanda ke daidaita yanayin zafi.

Climate data for {{{location}}}
Watan Janairu Fabrairu Maris Afrilu Mayu Yuni Yuli Ogusta Satumba Oktoba Nuwamba Disamba Shekara
[Ana bukatan hujja]

Lokaci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Shekara Taron
3rd Millennium BC Mutane sun fara rayuwa a tsibirin
350 BC Tsibirin ya ƙera tsabar kuɗin farko da ke nuna Homer
314 K.Z Tsibirin ya shiga Kungiyar Kasashen Tsibiran
300 BC - 200 Ya zama wani ɓangare na Daular Roma kuma wani ɓangare na insularum na provincia
286 Ya zama wani ɓangare na Daular Byzantine
1207 Franks sun ci tsibirin kuma ya zama wani ɓangare na Duchy na Naxos
1269 Daular Byzantine ta dawo da tsibirin
1296 Domenico Schiavi ne ya ci tsibirin kuma ya kasance cikin danginsa
1335 Duchy na Naxos ya ci tsibirin a karo na biyu
1371 Tsibirin yana karkashin ikon Francesco I Crispo da na danginsa
1537 Tsibirin yana hannun Hayreddin Barbarossa amma yana ci gaba da kasancewa karkashin ikon dangin Crispo
1558 'Yan fashin teku ne ke kai wa tsibirin hari lamarin da ya sa mafi yawan mutanen Ios suka koma wasu tsibiran
1566 Bayan mutuwar Cripi na ƙarshe, tsibirin ya zama wani ɓangare na Daular Ottoman kuma ƙarƙashin mulkin Joseph Nasi
Maris 1, 1821 Panagiotis Amoiradakis ya daga tutar juyin juya halin Girka a Ios
9 ga Yuli, 1821 Tsibirin yana shiga cikin yakin Navala na Kuşadası
1830 Ios ya zama wani ɓangare na Girka

Sanannen mutane[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tsoho[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Critheïs, mahaifiyar Homer

Na zamani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Spyridon Valetas (1779-1843), masani, memba na Filiki Eteria
  • Lakis Nikolaou (an haife shi a shekara ta 1949 - ya mutu), shi ne ɗan wasan ƙwallon ƙafa
  • Jean-Marie Drot (1929-2015), marubuci kuma masanin fim wanda ya ƙaunaci tsibirin kuma ya kafa Gidan Tarihin Jean Marie Drot a Ios [11]

Gallery[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Nassoshi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 

Hanyoyin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. http://www2.egeonet.gr/Forms/fLemmaBodyExtended.aspx?lemmaID=10418
  2. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named auto
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 http://tya.ios.gr/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/file-18.pdf
  4. https://diavgeia.gov.gr/doc/68%CE%97%CE%97%CE%A9%CE%95%CE%A0-%CE%A3%CE%A7%CE%9C?inline=true
  5. http://nefeli.lib.teicrete.gr/browse/sdo/tour/2011/DrakouMargarita/attached-document-1300432232-113994-30049/drakou2011.pdf page 66-67
  6. Εκπαίδευση, Η νήσος Ίος book by Othonaios Theodoros, Athens 1936
  7. http://pandektis.ekt.gr/pandektis/handle/10442/131718
  8. E Nesos Ios(Ios Island) by Theodoros Othonaios, Athens 1936 page 78
  9. GŎmýrou bíos@ kaì poiýmata page 45
  10. Breve Descrizione del Arcipelago by Pasch di Krienen, 1771, page 35-47
  11. https://yallou.com/greece/1452/Ios-Island/Ios-Town/Sightseeing/Museum-of-Modern-Art-Jean-Marie-Drot/