Mutanen Songhai

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Songhai
Songhai man near Timbuktu, Mali 2012.jpg
Ɗan ƙabilar Songhai daga Mali, a 2012.
Jimlar yawan jama'a
Jimlance. Miliyan 4.5 (2010)
Yankuna masu yawan jama'a
Yammacin Afirka
Harsuna
Harsunan Songhay, Faransanci
Addini
Gaba ɗaya Musulmai
Kabilu masu alaƙa
Zabarmawa, saura Nilo-Saharan,
Mutanen Mandé, Mutanen Soninke, Fulani (a Nijar da Mali),
Hausawa, Mutanen Toubou, Kanuri (a Najeriya da Nijar).

Mutanen Songhai (har ila yau Ayneha, Songhay ko Sonrai ) ƙabila ce a Afirka ta Yamma waɗanda ke magana da yare daban-daban na Songhai. Tarihinsu da yarensu yana da alaƙa da Daular Songhai wacce ta mamaye yammacin Sahel a ƙarni na 15 da 16. Galibin al'umar Musulmi ne, ana samun Songhai a duk faɗin Nijar da Mali a yankin sudan na yamma (ba ƙasar ba). Sunan Songhai a tarihance ba kabilanci ko yare ne ba, amma suna ne ga masu mulkin Songhay Empire wadanda sune Songhai wadanda aka fi samunsu a yanzu-Niger . Koyaya, madaidaiciyar kalmar da ake amfani da ita don ishara zuwa wannan rukunin mutanen ta hanyar asalin 'yan ƙasar shine " Ayneha ". Duk da cewa wasu masu Magana a Mali suma sun dauki sunan Songhay a matsayin [1] sauran kungiyoyin masu magana da Songhay suna bayyana kansu da wasu kalmomin kabilanci kamar Zarma (ko Djerma, babbar rukuni mafi girma) ko Isawaghen . Yaren Koyraboro Senni da ake magana da shi a Gao ba shi da ma'ana ga masu magana da yaren Zarma na Nijar, a cewar akalla rahoto ɗaya. Harsunan Songhay galibi ana ɗaukar su Nilo-Saharan amma wannan rabe-raben har yanzu yana da rikici: Dimmendaal (2008) ya yi imanin cewa a yanzu ya fi kyau a ɗauke shi dangin mai yare mai zaman kansa. [2]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ya kasance daga ɗayan tsoffin yaƙe-yaƙe na Mali, masarautar Gao, cewa babbar daula ta ƙarshe ta yammacin Sudan ta ɓullo. Duk da cewa daular Songhai ce ta mamaye garin Gao kafin sojojin Mansa Musa su ci ta a shekara ta 1325, amma daga baya ne daular Songhai ta fito. Masarautar ta ga fifikon martabarta a ƙarƙashin masanin dabarun soja da mashahurin sarki Songhai, Sonni Ali Ber . Ya fara tashi ne a cikin 1468 lokacin da Sonni Ali ya ci da yawa daga cikin raunin daular Mali da Timbuktu, sanannen sanannun jami'o'in Musulunci, da kuma garin kasuwancin Djenné . Daga cikin fitattun masanan ƙasar akwai Ahmed Baba - fitaccen masanin tarihi wanda ake yawan ambatarsa a cikin Tarikh al-Sudan da sauran ayyukan. Mutanen sun ƙunshi galibi masunta da ‘yan kasuwa. Bayan mutuwar Sonni Ali, ɓangarorin Musulmi suka yi tawaye ga wanda ya gaje shi kuma suka nada Soninke janar, Askia Muhammad (tsohon Muhammad Toure) wanda zai kasance na farko kuma mafi muhimmanci a masarautar Askia (1492-1592). A ƙarƙashin Askias, daular Songhai ta kai ƙarshenta.

Bayan Askia Muhammad, daular ta fara rushewa. Yana da girma kuma ba za a iya kiyaye shi ba. Masarautar Morocco ta ga har yanzu Songhay na bunƙasa gishiri da cinikin gwal kuma ya yanke shawara cewa zai zama kyakkyawan kadara.

Mutanen Dendi rukuni ne na Songhai.

Ƙanan ƙungiyoyi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Nijar[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Aljeriya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Mutanen Belbali

Mali[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Benin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Jama'a da al'adu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kasuwar Gorom-Gorom mai siyar da tukwanen Songhai.

Harshe, jama'a da al'adun mutanen Songhai da ƙyar ake rarrabe su da mutanen Zarma . Wasu masana suna ɗaukar mutanen Zarma a matsayin wani ɓangare kuma mafi yawan ƙananan ƙabilu na Songhai. [3] Wasu suna nazarin ƙungiyar tare a matsayin mutanen Zarma-Songhai. Koyaya, ƙungiyoyin biyu suna ganin kansu a matsayin mutane biyu daban-daban.

Tsarin zaman jama'a[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A Songhai mutane sun al'ada kasance a harkar rabe jama'a, kamar mutane da yawa yammacin Afrika ƙabilun da castes . Dangane da bayanin zamanin da da na mulkin mallaka, aikin su na gado ne, kuma kowane rukuni da ke da rarrabuwar kawuna ya kasance mai rikitarwa. [4] Tsarin zamantakewar jama'a ya kasance baƙon abu ta hanyoyi biyu; ya kasance cikin bautar, inda mafi ƙasƙanci mafi yawan jama'a suka gaji bautar, kuma Zima, ko firistoci da malaman addinin Islama, dole ne a fara amma ba su gaji wannan sana'ar ba kai tsaye, wanda ya sa malamin addinin ya zama mai karya.

Louis Dumont, marubucin ƙarni na 20 da ya shahara wajen shahararren Homo Hierarchicus, ya amince da yadda ake lalata zamantakewar jama'a a tsakanin mutanen Zarma-Songhai da ma sauran kabilun da ke Yammacin Afirka, amma ya ba da shawarar cewa ya kamata masana ilimin halayyar dan Adam su kirkiri wani sabon lokaci don tsarin daidaita zamantakewar Afirka ta Yamma. Sauran masana suna ganin wannan nuna wariya ne da kuma kebewa saboda tsarin Afirka ta Yamma ya ba da dukkan abubuwan da ke cikin tsarin Dumont, gami da tattalin arziki, da hadari, da al'ada, da addini, da ake ganin gurbatawa, da rarrabuwa da yadawa a wani yanki mai girma. A cewar Anne Haour - wata farfesa ce a Nazarin Afirka, wasu masana na daukar batun wargaza zamantakewar al'umma irin ta mutanen Zarma-Songhay a matsayin wani abin da ke gabanin Islama yayin da wasu ke ganin an samo shi ne daga tasirin Larabawa.

Ɓangarori daban-daban na mutanen Songhai-Zarma sun haɗa da sarakuna da mayaƙa, da marubuta, da masu sana'a, da masaka, da mafarauta, da masunta, da fatu da masu gyaran gashi (Wanzam), da barorin gida (Horso, Bannye). Kowane rukuni yana girmama ruhunsa mai kulawa. Wasu masana kamar su John Shoup sun lissafa waɗannan rukunin a cikin rukuni uku: kyauta (sarakuna, manoma da makiyaya), masu aiki (masu fasaha, mawaƙa da gwarzaye), da kuma rukunin bawa. Requiredungiyar masu buƙata an buƙaci zamantakewar su kasance masu haɗari, yayin da bayi za a sami 'yanci a cikin ƙarni huɗu. Matsayi mafi girma na zamantakewar al'umma, in ji Shoup, suna da'awar cewa sun fito daga Sarki Sonni 'Ali Ber kuma sana'arsu ta gado ta zamani shine Sohance (mai sihiri). Straungiyoyin da ba na al'ada ba na mutanen Zerma sun mallaki kadarori da garken shanu, kuma waɗannan sun mamaye tsarin siyasa da gwamnatoci a lokacin da bayan mulkin mallaka na Faransa. A cikin tsattsauran tsarin zamantakewar al'umma, tsarin musulinci na auratayya ƙa'ida ce, tare da fifiko abokan zama 'yan uwan juna . [5] Wannan yanayin auren tsakanin mutanen Songhai-Zarma yayi kama da sauran ƙabilun Afirka ta Yamma.

Mutanen Songhai suna noma hatsi, suna kiwon ƙananan garken shanu da kifi a yankin Niger Bend da suke zaune. [5] A al'adance suna daga cikin manyan kabilun Afirka ta Yamma masu alaƙa da fataucin vanyari .

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Heath, Jeffrey. 1999. A grammar of Koyraboro (Koroboro) Senni: the Songhay of Gao. Köln: Köppe. 402 pp
  2. Dimmendaal, Gerrit. 2008. Language Ecology and Linguistic Diversity on the African Continent. Language and Linguistics Compass 2(5): 843ff.
  3. Songhai people, Encyclopædia Britannica
  4. I. Diawara (1988), Cultures nigériennes et éducation : Domaine Zarma-Songhay et Hausa, Présence Africaine, Nouvelle série, number 148 (4e TRIMESTRE 1988), pages 9-19 (in French)
  5. 5.0 5.1 Songhai people Encyclopædia Britannica