Mansa Musa

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Musa Na ( c. - c. ), ko Mansa Musa, shi ne Mansa na goma (wanda ake fassarawa "sultan", "mai nasara" [1] ko "sarki" ) na Daular Mali, kasar musulman ta Afirka ta yamma.

A lokacin da Musa ya hau kan karagar mulki, Mali a bangare dayawa ta kunshi yankin tsohuwar daular Ghana wacce kasar Mali ta ci galaba a kanta. Masarautar Mali ta kunshi ƙasa wanda yanzu wani ɓangare ne na Mauritania da kuma jihar ta Mali ta zamani . A zamanin mulkinsa, Musa ya rike mukamai da yawa, kamar "Sarkin Melle", "Ubangijin ma'adinan Wangara", kuma "Mai nasara akan Ghanata".

Musa ya ci birane 24, tare da garuruwansu. A zamanin mulkin Musa, wataƙila Mali ce ta kasance mai samar da zinari mafi girma a duniya, kuma ana ɗaukar Musa ɗaya daga mutane mafi arziki a tarihi. Koyaya, masu sharhi na zamani irin su mujallar Time sun kammala cewa babu ingantacciyar hanyar da za ta ƙayyade arzikin Musa.

Musa gaba daya ana kiransa ne da "Mansa Musa" a cikin rubuce-rubucen yamma da adabi. Sunansa kuma ya bayyana a matsayin "Kankou Musa", "Kankan Musa", "" Kanku Musa ". Sauran sunayen da Musa ya yi amfani da su sun hada da "Mali-Koy Kankan Musa", "Gonga Musa", da "Zakin Mali".

Zuri'a da kuma kaiwa ga kujeran mulki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tarihin sarakunan daular Masarauta dangane da tarihin Ibn Khaldun [14]

Abin da aka sani game da sarakunan masarautar ta Mali an karɓa daga rubuce-rubucen malaman larabawa, waɗanda suka hada da Al-Umari, Abu-sa'id Uthman ad-Dukkali, Ibn Khaldun, da Ibn Battuta . Dangane da cikakken tarihin Ibn-Khaldun na sarakunan Mali, kakan Mansa Musa shi ne Abu-Bakr Keita (larabci daidai yake da Bakari ko Bogari, sunan asalin da ba'a sani ba - ba sahabiyy Abu Bakr ) ba, dan dan Sundiata Keita ne, wanda ya kafa Masarautar Mali kamar yadda aka rubuta ta hanyar labarun baka. Abu-Bakr bai hau gadon sarauta ba, kuma dansa, mahaifin Musa, Faga Laye, ba shi da wata mahimmanci a Tarihin Mali .

Mansa Musa ya hau gadon sarautar ne ta hanyar aiwatar da nadin mataimakin lokacin da wani sarki ya tafi aikin hajjin sa zuwa Makka ko kuma wani kokarin nasa, daga baya ya nada mataimakin a matsayin magaji. A cewar majiyar farko, an nada Musa mataimakin mataimakin Abubakari Keita II, sarkin da ke gabansa, wanda ya ba da rahoton yawon shakatawa don gano iyakokin Tekun Atlantika, kuma bai dawo ba. Masanin Larabawa-Masarautar Al-Umari [2] ya nakalto Mansa Musa kamar haka:

Mai mulkin da ya gabace ni bai yi imani da cewa ba zai yiwu a iya kaiwa ga iyakar tekun da ya mamaye duniya (yana nufin Atlantic), kuma yana so ya kai ga ƙarshen, kuma ya ci gaba da nacewa cikin ƙira. Don haka ya wadatar da jiragen ruwa ɗari biyu cike da mutane, kamar yadda sauran da yawa ke cike da zinari, ruwa da abinci isasshen da zai isa shekaru da yawa. Ya umurci shugaban (mai martaba) da kar ya dawo har sai sun kai ƙarshen tekun, ko kuma idan sun ƙosar da abubuwan abinci da ruwan. Sun tashi. Kasancewar ba su tsawan lokaci mai tsawo, kuma, a karshe, jirgin ruwa daya ne ya dawo. A yayin tambayarmu, kyaftin din ya ce: 'Yarima, mun daɗe mun yi ta bincike, har sai da muka gani a tsakiyar teku kamar babban kogi yana guduna da ƙarfi. Jirgin jirgi na shine na karshe; wasu kuma suna gabana. Da zaran wani daga cikinsu ya isa wannan wuri, sai ya nutsar da shi cikin iskar guguwa kuma bai taɓa fitowa ba. Na yi tafiya da baya don tserewa wannan halin. ' Amma Sarkin Musulmi ba zai yarda da shi ba. Ya ba da umarnin a samar musu da jiragen ruwa dubu biyu domin shi da mutanensa, da kuma karin dubu daya domin ruwa da abinci. Sannan ya ba ni labarin gaskiya a lokacin rashi, kuma ya tafi tare da mutanensa a kan balaguron jirgin ruwa, ba zai dawo ba kuma ba alamar rayuwa.

An kuma nada dan Musa magaji, Mansa Magha Keita a matsayin mataimaki a lokacin aikin hajjin Musa.

Musulunci da aikin hajji zuwa Makka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Template:Quote box Musa cikakken Musulmi ne mai ibada, hajjinsa zuwa Makka ya sanya shi sananne a duk faɗin arewacin Afirka da Gabas ta Tsakiya . A wurin Musa, Islama ta kasance "shigowa cikin al'adun duniyar ta gabashin Bahar Rum". Zai yi amfani da lokaci mai yawa don inganta ci gaban addini a cikin daular sa.

Musa yayi hajjinsa tsakanin 1324 zuwa 1325. Ya procession rahoto hada 60,000 maza, duk saka kauri da kuma Persian siliki, ciki har da 12,000 bayi, wanda kowane kwashe 4 poundகள் (1.8 kg) na sandunan zinare, da kuma masu shelanda suna sanye da siliki, wadanda suke ɗaukar sandar zinare, da shirya dawakai, da jakunkuna. Musa ya samar da dukkan abubuwan bukata domin taron, ya ciyar da jama'a gaba daya maza da dabbobi. Waɗannan dabbobin sun haɗa da raƙuma 80 waɗanda kowannensu ya ɗauki 50–300 poundகள் (23–136 kg) ƙurar ƙura. Musa ya ba talakawa zinarin da ya haɗu da su ta hanyar sa. Musa ba kawai ya ba wa biranen da ya bi ta kan hanyar zuwa Makka ba, ciki har da Alkahira da Madina, har ma ya yi ciniki da zinare don kyautatuwa. An ruwaito cewa ya gina masallaci a kowace Juma'a.   [ <span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (May 2015)">Lissafi da ake bukata</span> ] Shaidun gani da ido da yawa sun tabbatar da tafiyar Musa, yayin da suke kan hanyarsa, waɗanda ke tsoron arzikinsa da tarin yawa, kuma akwai bayanai a wurare da yawa, gami da mujallu, bayanan baka, da kuma tarihai. Musa ya ziyarci Mamluk sultan na Masar, Al-Nasir Muhammad, a Yuli 1324. Duk da irin yanayin da yake bayarwa, dumbin kudaden da Musa ya bayar da gudummawa da yalwa ya janyo da koma baya na zinare tsawon shekaru goma. A cikin biranen Alkahira, Madina, da Makka, kwararar zinare ta bazata ta lalata darajar karfe sosai. Farashin kayayyaki ya yawaita. Wannan kuskuren ya bayyana ga Musa kuma a hanyarsa ta dawowa daga Makka, ya karɓi zinaren da zai iya ɗauka daga masu sayarwa amatsayin bashi da zai biya nan gaba da daraja sosai. Wannan ne kawai lokacin a cikin tarihi cewa mutum ɗaya kai tsaye ya iya sarrafa farashin gwal a cikin Meditareniya . Wasu masana tarihi sun yarda cewa aikin hajji ba shi da wata ma'ana ga addini fiye da mai da hankalin duniya zuwa ga halin da ake ciki a Mali. Irƙirar koma bayan wannan girman yana da ma'ana. Bayan haka, Alkahira shine babbar kasuwar gwal a lokacin (inda mutane suka je siyan dumbin zinare). Don mayar da waɗannan kasuwannin zuwa Timbuktu ko Gao, Musa da farko ya shafi tattalin arzikin zinare na Alkahira. Duk da yake wannan da'awar yana zama mai shimfiɗa,   Musa sanya wata babbar batu na nuna a kashe ya al'umma dũkiya. Manufar sa shine ya kirkiro wani abu kuma yayi nasara sosai a cikin wannan, har ya sanya kansa da Mali a cikin Atlas na Catalan na 1375. Hakanan yana samun ziyarar daga sananniyar matafiyin duniyar Musulmi, Ibn Battuta .

Mulki daga baya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Template:Quote box A cikin dogon dawowar sa daga Makka a 1325, Musa ya ji labari cewa rundunarsa ta kama Gao . Sagmandia, daya daga cikin janarorinsa ne ya jagoranci kokarin. Garin Gao yana cikin daular tun kafin mulkin Sakura kuma ya kasance muhimmi - kodayake galibi yan tawaye ne - cibiyar kasuwanci. Musa ya yi shirin ba da agaji ya ziyarci garin da ya karɓi baƙi, 'ya'yan Gao guda biyu, Ali Kolon da Suleiman Nar. Ya koma Niani tare da yaran nan biyu kuma daga baya ya karantar dasu a kotu. Lokacin da Mansa Musa ya dawo, ya dawo da yawancin masanan larabawa da masu gine-gine.

Gine-gine a ƙasar Mali[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Musa ya fara wani babban shiri na gini, yana inganta masallatai da madrasas a Timbuktu da Gao. Mafi mahimmanci, an gina tsohuwar cibiyar koyan Sankore Madrasah (ko Jami'ar Sankore) lokacin mulkinsa.

A Niani, Musa ya gina zauren sauraron ra'ayoyi, wanda yake sadarwa ta ƙofar ciki ta zuwa gidan sarki. Shi ne "mai m Monument", surmounted da wani Dome kuma qawata da arabesques na daukan hankali launuka. Filin katako na katako daga saman bene aka dalaye shi da tsare; na ƙananan bene tare da zinariya. Kamar Babban Masallaci, wani tsayayyen tsari da tsari a Timbuktu, an gina Hall din da dutse ne.

A wannan lokacin, an sami ci gaba na rayuwar birni a cikin manyan cibiyoyin Mali. Sergio Domian, wani masanin kimiyyar zane-zane na Italiya, ya rubuta game da wannan lokacin: "Ta haka aka kafa harsashin wayewar gari. A lokacin da ƙarfinsa ya kasance, Mali tana da aƙalla birane 400, kuma yankin na Niger Delta yana da jama'a sosai. "

Masallacin Djinguereber, wanda Mansa Musa ya ba da izini a cikin 1327

Tattalin arziki da ilimi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An rubuta cewa Mansa Musa ya ratsa garuruwan Timbuktu da Gao a kan hanyarsa ta zuwa Makka, kuma ya sanya su zama cikin daularsa lokacin da ya dawo a shekara ta 1325. Ya kawo masu zanen kaya daga Andalusia, yanki a Spain, da Alkahira don gina babban fadarsa a Timbuktu da kuma Babban Masallacin Djinguereber da har yanzu yake a yau. [3]

Ba da daɗewa ba Timbuktu ya zama cibiyar kasuwanci, al'adu, da Musulunci; kasuwannin da aka shigo da su daga kasashen Hausaland, Egypt, da sauran masarautun Afirka, an kafa jami'a a cikin gari (haka kuma a garuruwan Mali na Djenné da Ségou ), sannan kuma addinin musulunci ya yadu ta kasuwanni da jami'a, wanda ke sanya Timbuktu wani sabon yanki domin karatuttukan musulinci. [4] Labarin birnin arziki na daular Maliki har ma ya ratsa tekun Bahar Rum zuwa Kudancin Turai, inda ba da daɗewa ba yan kasuwa daga Venice, Granada, da Genoa sun kara da Timbuktu zuwa taswirar su don siyayya da kayayyaki na zinare. [5]

Jami'ar Sankore da ke Timbuktu ta kasance ta hannun Musa tare da masana kimiya, da masanan kimiyyar lissafi, da lissafi. Jami'ar ta zama cibiyar koyo da al'adu, tare da jawo hankalin musulmai daga ko'ina cikin Afirka da Gabas ta Tsakiya zuwa Timbuktu.

A shekara ta 1330, masarautar Mossi ta mamaye ta kuma ci birnin Timbuktu. Janar Gao ya riga ya kama Gao, kuma Musa ya hanzarta sake daukar Timbuktu, ya gina shinge da katangar dutse, sannan ya sanya runduna ta tsaro don kare garin daga mamayewa nan gaba. [6]

Yayin da fadar Musa tun daga lokacin da ta shuɗe, har yanzu jami’ar da masallacin suna tsaye a Timbuktu.

A karshen mulkin Mansa Musa, an canza Sankoré jami'ar zuwa cikakken jami'a wanda ke da mafi yawan tarin littattafai a Afirka tun daga dakin karatu na Alexandria . Jami'ar Sankoré ta iya ɗaliban ɗaliban 25,000 kuma suna da ɗaya daga cikin manyan ɗakunan karatu na duniya tare da rubutun kusan 1,000,000. [7]

Mutuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Masarautar Mali a lokacin rasuwar Mansa Musa.

Ranar mutuwar Mansa Musa an yi muhawara sosai tsakanin masana tarihi da masana Larabawa waɗanda suka rubuta tarihin ƙasar Mali. Idan aka kwatanta da zamanin magajinsa, dan Mansa Maghan (hukuncin da aka rubuta daga 1337 zuwa 1341) da babban dan'uwan Mansa Suleyman (dokar da aka rubuta daga 1341 zuwa 1360), da kuma tarihin Musa na shekaru 25, ranar da aka kirkiri mutuwarsa 1337. Wasu bayanan sun ce Musa ya yi niyyar kaurace wa dan nasa kursiyin, amma ya mutu ba da daɗewa ba bayan ya dawo daga Makka a 1325. A wani labarin da Ibn-Khaldun ya ruwaito, Mansa Musa yana da rai lokacin da aka ci birnin Tlemcen na Aljeriya a shekarar 1337, yayin da ya aiki wakili zuwa Algeria don taya murna ga masu nasara.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bibliography[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Bell, Nawal Morcos (1972), "The age of Mansa Musa of Mali: Problems in succession and chronology", Jaridar International Journal of African Tarihi, 5 : 221-223, JSTOR   217515 .
  • De Villiers, Marq, da Sheila Hirtle. Timbuktu: Birnin gwal na Sahara . Walker da Kamfanin: New York. 2007.
  • Goodwin, A. J .H. (1957), "The Medieval Empire of Ghana", Bulletin na Afirka Ta Kudu, 12 : 108-1, JSTOR   3886971 .
  • Hunwick, John O. (1999), Timbuktu da Daular Songhay: Al-Sadi ta Tarikh al-Sudan har zuwa 1613 da sauran takardu na zamani, Leiden: Brill, ISBN   Hunwick, John O. .
  • Levtzion, Nehemia (1963), "Sarakunan Mali na goma sha uku da goma sha huɗu", Journal of Tarihin Afirka, 4 : 341–353, doi : 10.1017 / s002185370000428x, JSTOR   180027 .
  • Levtzion, Nehemia (1973), Tsohuwar Ghana da Mali, London: Methuen, ISBN   Levtzion, Nehemia (1973), .
  • Levtzion, Nehemia; John F. P. Hopkins, eds. (2000), Corpus na farkon Larabci tushe don Yammacin Afirka, New York, NY: Marcus Weiner Press, ISBN   Levtzion, Nehemia; John F. P. Hopkins, eds. (2000), . Aka fara bugawa a 1981.

Haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Lapidus, Ira M. A History of Islamic Societies. 3rd edn. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2014, p. 455.
  2. Al-Umari 1927, Masalik al Absar fi Mamalik el-Amsar, French translation by Gaudefroy-Demombynes, Paris, Paul Geuthner, 1927, pp. 59, 74–75. See also Qalqashandi, Subh al-A'sha, V, 294.
  3. De Villiers and Hirtle, p. 70.
  4. De Villiers and Hirtle, p. 74.
  5. De Villiers and Hirtle, pp. 87–88.
  6. De Villiers and Hirtle, pp. 80–81.
  7. See: Said Hamdun & Noël King (edds.), Ibn Battuta in Black Africa. London, 1975, pp. 52–53.