Ibn Kaldun

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Bust of Ibn Khaldun (Casbah of Bejaia, Algeria).jpg
mai shari'a

Rayuwa
Haihuwa Tunis, 27 Mayu 1332
ƙasa Hafsid dynasty (en) Fassara
ƙungiyar ƙabila Abzinawa
Mutuwa Kairo, 17 ga Maris, 1406
Karatu
Makaranta University of Ez-Zitouna (en) Fassara
Jami'ar al-Karaouine
Harsuna Abzinanci
Larabci
Sana'a
Sana'a anthropologist (en) Fassara, historian (en) Fassara, mai shari'a, autobiographer (en) Fassara, sociologist (en) Fassara, Mai tattala arziki, Mai Falsafa da ɗan siyasa
Muhimman ayyuka Muqaddimah (en) Fassara
Book of Lessons (en) Fassara
Imani
Addini Musulunci

Ibn Khaldun ( /ɪ b ən k æ l d u n / ; Larabci: أبو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون الحضرمي‎ الحضرمي , Abū Zayd ‘Abd ar-Raḥmān ibn Muḥammad ibn Khaldūn al-Ḥaḍramī ; 27 Mayu 1332 - 17 Maris 1406) ya kasance Balarabe kuma malamin addinin Islama, masanin zamantakewar al'umma, masanin falsafa da masanin tarihi wanda aka bayyana shi a matsayin wanda ya kafa ilimin zamani na ilimin tarihi, ilimin halayyar jama'a, tattalin arziki, da kuma yanayin ɗabi'ar dan adam . [1] Niccolò Machiavelli na Renaissance da masanan Turai na ƙarni na 19 sun yarda da mahimmancin ayyukansa kuma suna ɗaukar Ibn Khaldun a matsayin ɗaya daga cikin manyan masana falsafa na Zamanin Zamani .

Sanannen littafinsa, shine Muqaddimah wato("Gabatarwa"), wanda ya rubuta a cikin watanni shida kamar yadda ya faɗi a cikin tarihin kansa, [2] mafi yawan masana tarihin Ottoman ƙarni na Sha bakwai (17) kamar Kâtip Çelebi, Ahmed Cevdet Pasha da Mustapha Naima, waɗanda tayi amfani da ka'idojin ta don nazarin ci gaba da faduwar Daular Ottoman . Ibn Khaldun yayi mu'amala da Tamerlane, wanda ya kafa Daular Timurid .

Ibn Khaldun - Girman mutum-mutumi na tagulla na Ibnu Khaldun wanda wani ɓangare ne na tarihi a Gidan Tarihi na Amerika nasashen Larabawa na Amurka (Lambar Catalog 2010.02). Kungiyarr Al'umma ta Tunusiya ce ta ƙaddamar da shi kuma Patrick Morelli na Albany, ne ya kirkiro shi a a shekara ta 2009. Mutum-mutumin Ibn Khaldun ne ya yi wahayi zuwa ga a Avenue Habib Bourguiba (wanda aka gina a 1932) a Tunis .

Rayuwar Ibn Khaldun tana da ta tattara ne cikin ingantacciya rayuwa, kamar yadda ya rubuta tarihin rayuwar mutum ( التعريف بابن خلدون ورحلته غربا وشرقا , at-Taʻrīf bi-ibn Khaldūn wa-Riḥlatih Gharban wa-Sharqan [3] ) (" Gabatar da Ibn Khaldun da Tafiyarsa ta Yamma da Gabas ") inda aka ambato takardu masu yawa game da rayuwarsa kalma-kalma.

An haifi Abdurahman bin Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Al-Hasan bin Jabir bin Muhammad bin Ibrahim bin Abdurahman bin Ibn Khaldun al-Hadrami, wanda galibi aka fi sani da "Ibn Khaldūn" bayan magabaci mai nisa, an haife shi a Tunisia a AD1332 (732 AH ) zuwa dan asalin Andalusiya dan asalin larabawa, kakannin dangin shine Hadhrami wanda ya hada dangi da Wail bn Hujr, sahabin annabin musulunci Muhammad (S A W) Iyalinsa, wadanda ke rike da manyan ofisoshi a Al-Andalus, sun yi kaura zuwa Tunisia bayan faduwar Seville zuwa Reconquista a AD 1248. A karkashin daular Hafsid ta Tunisia, wasu daga cikin danginsa sun rike mukamin siyasa; mahaifinsa da kakansa, duk da haka, sun janye daga rayuwar siyasa kuma sun shiga cikin tsarin sufanci. Dan'wansa, Yahya Khaldun, shi ma masanin tarihi ne wanda ya rubuta littafi a kan daular Abdulwadid kuma abokin hamayya ya kashe shi saboda kasancewarsa masanin tarihin tarihi na kotun.

A cikin tarihin rayuwarsa, Khaldun ya nuna asalinsa tun zamanin Muhammadu ta hanyar wata kabilar Larabawa daga Yemen, musamman Hadhramaut, wanda ya zo yankin Tsibirin Iberia a karni na 8, a farkon mamayewar Islama: "Kuma asalinmu daga Hadhramaut, daga larabawan Yemen, ta Wa'il bin Hujr wanda aka fi sani da Hujr bn 'Adi, daga fitattun Larabawa, sanannu kuma ana girmama su. " (shafi na. 2429, bugun Al-Waraq).

Kota yaya, masanin tarihin zamani Mohammad Enan ya yi tambaya ga kalmomin Ibn Khaldun da tarihin rayuwarsa, kuma ya yi ikirarin cewa mai yiwuwa iyalansa Muwallad ne wadanda suka yi kamar sun fito ne daga Larabawa don samun matsayin zamantakewar su, duk da cewa yana da kyau a rubuce cewa kakannin Ibn Khaldun sun fito ne daga Yemen sannan kuma zuwa Al-Andalus. [4] Enan ya kuma ambaci tsoffin al'adun da suka gabata cewa wasu ƙungiyoyin Berber suna wajan inganta kansu da wasu kakannin larabawa, dalilin irin waɗannan ƙirƙire-kirkiran shine ko yaushe neman hauhawar siyasa da al'umma. Wasu suna hasashen na gidan Khaldun kuma sun yi bayani dalla-dalla cewa Ibn Khaldun da kansa ya samo asali ne daga asalin kakannin Berber, duk da cewa bai taɓa ambata wata alaƙa da Berber ba. Wani mahimmin abin da ke tallafawa wanda ya nuna cewa hankalinsa na musamman game da sha'awar Maharlika Muslim Berbers ya nuna rashin girmamawa a gare su wanda aka haifa ta hanyar sha'awar kiyaye su a cikin tarihin sanannen tarihi. Malamin addinin Islama Muhammad Hozien ya ce, "Shaidar [Berber] ta karya za ta yi aiki duk da haka a lokacin da kakannin Ibn Khaldun suka bar Andulsia suka koma Tunisia ba su canza da'awarsu zuwa asalin Larabawa ba. Ko da a lokacin da baber ke mulki, mulkin Almoravid da Almohads, et. al., Ibn Khalduns bai dawo da gadansu na Berber ba. ” Binciken Khaldun na asalinsa da sunan mahaifinsa ana tsammanin shine mafi ƙarfi alamar alamun asalin Yaman Larabawa. [5]

Babban matsayin ahalinsa ya bawa Ibn Khaldun damar karatu tare da fitattun malamai a Maghreb . Ya sami ilimin addinin Musulunci na zamani, karatun Alqurani, wanda ya haddace shi da zuciya, ilimin harsunan larabci ; tushen fahimtar Alkur'ani, hadisi, sharia (shari'a) da fiqhu (fikihu). Ya karɓi takaddun shaida ( ijazah ) ga waɗannan batutuwa. Masanin lissafi kuma masanin falsafa Al-Abili na Tlemcen ya gabatar da shi ga lissafi, dabaru da falsafa, kuma ya yi karatu musamman ayyukan Averroes, Avicenna, Razi da Tusi . Yana dan shekara 17, Ibn Khaldūn ya rasa iyayensa biyu zuwa ga Bakar Fata , wata annoba tsakanin ƙasashe da ke fama da annoba da ta auka wa Tunisiya a 1348–1349.

Bayan bin al'adar iyali, ya yi ƙoƙari don neman siyasa. Dangane da rikice-rikicen siyasa a Arewacin Afirka, hakan yana buƙatar ƙwarewa wajen haɓaka da watsi da ƙawancen da hankali don kauce wa faɗuwa da gajerun gwamnatocin lokacin.[ana buƙatar hujja] Ibn Khaldūn a tarihin rayuwar shine labarin wani kasada, a cikin abin da ya ciyarwa lokaci a kurkuku, kai da mafi ofisoshin da dama a sake bautar talala.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Gidan da aka haifa Ibn Khaldun a Tunis
Masallacin da Ibn Khaldun yayi karatu a ciki
Ibn Khaldun kan lissafin dinari 10 na Tunisia

A cikin shekaru 20, ya fara harkar siyasa a chancellery na kasar Tunisia m Ibn Tafrakin tare da matsayi na Kātib al-'Alāmah (hatimi mai ɗaukar), wanda ya kunshi rubuce-rubuce a lafiya rubutun da hankula gabatarwa bayanin kula da takaddun hukuma. A shekarar 1352, Abū Ziad, sarkin Konstantin, ya bi ta Tunis ya ci ta da yaƙi. Ibn Khaldūn, a kowane hali bai ji daɗin matsayinsa na girmamawa ba amma mara ma'ana ta siyasa, ya bi malaminsa Abili zuwa Fez . A can, sarkin Marinid, Abū Inan Fares I, ya naɗa shi a matsayin marubucin sanarwar masarauta, amma har yanzu Ibn Khaldūn ya ƙulla makirci ga shugaban aikinsa, wanda, a cikin 1357, aka yanke wa ɗan shekaru 25 hukuncin ɗaurin watanni 22. Bayan mutuwar Abū Inan a 1358, Vizier al-Hasān ibn-Umar ya ba shi 'yanci kuma ya sake mayar da shi kan mukaminsa da ofisoshinsa. Daga nan Ibn Khaldūn ya kulla makirci ga magajin Abū Inan, Abū Salem Ibrahim III, tare da kawun Abū Salem da ke gudun hijira, Abū Salem. Lokacin da Abū Salem ya hau mulki, ya ba Ibn Khald Khan mukamin minista, mukamin farko da ya yi daidai da burin Ibn Khaldūn.

Jinyar da Ibn Khaldun ya samu bayan faduwar Abū Salem ta hanyar Ibn-Amar ullahAbdullah, aboki na Ibn Khaldūn, ba shi ne yake so ba, tunda bai sami wani muhimmin matsayi ba. A lokaci guda, Amar ya yi nasarar hana Ibn Khaldūn, wanda ya san kwarewar sa ta siyasa kawance da Abd al-Wadids a Tlemcen. Saboda haka, Ibn Khaldūn, ya yanke shawarar komawa Granada . Zai iya tabbatar da kyakkyawar tarba a can tunda a Fez, ya taimaka wa Sarkin Granada, Nasrid Muhammad V, ya dawo da mulki daga zaman gudun hijira na wani lokaci. A cikin 1364, Muhammad ya damka masa ofishin diflomasiyya ga sarkin Castile, Pedro the Cruel, don ya amince da yarjejeniyar zaman lafiya. Ibn Khaldūn ya yi nasarar aiwatar da wannan aika-aikar kuma cikin ladabi ya ƙi tayin da Pedro ya yi masa na ya ci gaba da zama a kotun sa kuma a mayar masa da dukiyar Spain da ya mallaka.

A cikin Granada, da sauri Ibn Khald quicklyn ya shiga gasa tare da wazirin Muhammad, Ibn al-Khatib, wanda ya kalli kusancin da ke tsakanin Muhammad da Ibn Khaldūn tare da ƙara rashin yarda. Ibn Khaldūn yayi ƙoƙari ya fasalta matashin Muhammad ya zama mai kyakkyawar manufa, aikin da Ibn al-Khatib ya ɗauka wauta ne kuma haɗari ne ga zaman lafiya a ƙasar. Tarihi ya tabbatar da cewa al-Khatib yana da gaskiya, kuma daga zugarsa, aka sake mayar da Ibn Khaldūn zuwa Arewacin Afirka. Daga baya Muhammad ya zargi Al-Khatib da kansa da samun ra'ayoyi na falsafa da ba na al'ada ba kuma aka kashe shi duk da yunkurin da Ibn Khaldūn ya yi na yin ceto a madadin tsohon abokin hamayyarsa.

A tarihin rayuwarsa, Ibn Khaldūn bai faɗi kaɗan game da rikicinsa da Ibn al-Khatib da kuma dalilan da ya sa ya tafi ba. Masanin Gabas Muhsin Mahadi ya fassara cewa yana nuna cewa Ibn Khaldūn daga baya ya fahimci cewa ya yi kuskure ga Muhammad V.

Can baya a Afirka, Hafsid din Sultan na Bougie, Abū allAbdallāh, wanda ya kasance abokin tafiyarsa a kurkuku, ya karbe shi da babbar sha'awa kuma ya sanya Ibn Khaldūn firaminista. Ibn Khaldūn ya gudanar da aikin tsoro don tara haraji tsakanin kabilun Berber na yankin. Bayan rasuwar AbūAbdallāh a 1366, Ibn Khaldūn ya sake sauya sheka kuma ya haɗa kai da Sarkin Tlemcen, Abūl-Abbas. Bayan 'yan shekaru, Abu Faris Abdul Aziz ya kama shi a matsayin fursuna, wanda ya kayar da sarkin Tlemcen kuma ya karɓi gadon sarauta. Daga nan ya shiga cikin gidan sufaye kuma ya shagaltu da ayyukan karatun har zuwa 1370. A waccan shekarar, sabon sarkin ya aike shi zuwa Tlemcen. Bayan mutuwar duAbdu l-Azīz, ya zauna a Fez, yana jin daɗin kulawa da amincewar mai mulki.

Ilimin Ibn Khaldūn na siyasa kuma, sama da komai, kyakkyawar dangantakarsa da kabilun daji na Berber sun kasance masu matukar buƙata tsakanin sarakunan Arewacin Afirka, amma ya fara gajiya da siyasa da sauya ƙawancen ra'ayi. A cikin 1375, Abū Hammu, ʻAbdu l Wadid Sultan na Tlemcen, ya aika da shi zuwa wata manufa zuwa ƙabilar Larabawan Dawadida ta Biskra. Bayan dawowarsa yamma, Ibn Khaldūn ya nemi mafaka daga daya daga cikin kabilun Berber da ke yammacin Aljeriya, a garin Qalat Ibn Salama . Ya zauna a can sama da shekaru uku a karkashin kariyar su, yana amfani da damar kebewarsa ya rubuta Muqaddimah "Prolegomena", gabatarwa ga shirin da ya shirya na duniya. A cikin Ibn Salama kuwa, ya rasa matanin da ake buƙata don kammala aikin. Saboda haka, a cikin 1378, ya koma garinsa na asali Tunis, wanda a halin yanzu Abūl-Abbas ya ci da yaƙi, wanda ya mayar da Ibn Khaldūn cikin aikinsa. A can, ya dukufa sosai ga karatunsa kuma ya kammala tarihin duniya. Alakarsa da Abūl-Abbas ta kasance mai rauni, yayin da na biyun ya tuhumi amincinsa. Da aka kawo a kaifi bambanci bayan Ibn Khaldūn gabatar da shi tare da wani kwafin na kammala tarihi cewa tsallake saba panegyric wa shugaban. A karkashin riya cewa zai tafi aikin Hajji zuwa Makka, wani abu da mai mulki Musulmi ba zai iya kin izini ba kawai, Ibn Khaldūn ya sami damar barin Tunis kuma ya tashi zuwa Alexandria .

Mutum-mutumin Ibnu Khaldun na Filin wasa Mohandessin, Alkahira

Ibn Khaldun ya ce game da Misira, "Wanda bai ganta ba bai san ikon Musulunci ba." Yayin da sauran yankuna musulinci ke fama da yaƙe-yaƙe na kan iyaka da rikice-rikicen cikin gida, Mamluks suka bar Masar ta sami lokacin wadatar tattalin arziki da al'adun gargajiya. Koyaya, hatta a Misira, inda Ibn Khaldūn ya rayu a zamaninsa, ba zai iya nisantar siyasa gaba daya ba. A 1384, kasar Masar Sultan, al-Malik udh-Dhahir Barquq, sanya shi farfesa na Qamhiyyah Madrasah da grand Qadi na Maliki makaranta na fiqh (daya daga hudu makarantu, da Maliki makaranta ya tartsatsi da farko a Yammacin Afirka ). Kokarinsa na kawo gyara ya gamu da turjiya, amma, a cikin shekara guda, dole ne ya yi murabus daga aikin alkalanci. Wani abin da ke ba da gudummawa ga shawarar da ya yanke na yin murabus na iya kasancewa mummunan halin kansa ne da ya buge shi a cikin 1384, lokacin da jirgin da ke ɗauke da matarsa da yaransa ya nitse a gefen tekun Alexandria. Ibn Khaldun yanzu ya yanke shawarar kammala aikin hajji a Makka, bayan duka.

Bayan dawowarsa a watan Mayu 1388, Ibn Khaldūn ya fi mai da hankali kan aikin ilimi kawai a manyan makarantu na Alkahira. A kotu, ya fadi warwas daga wani lokaci, kamar yadda a lokacin tawaye ga Barquq, ya kasance, da alama yana karkashin tilas, tare da sauran masanan shari'ar Alkahira, sun ba da fatawa kan Barquq. Daga baya dangantaka da Barquq ta koma yadda take, kuma an sake raɗa masa suna da Maliki ƙadi . Gaba ɗaya, an kira shi sau shida zuwa wannan babban mukamin, wanda, saboda dalilai daban-daban, bai taɓa ɗaukar tsawon lokaci ba.

A cikin 1401, a ƙarƙashin magajin Barquq, ɗansa Faraj, Ibn Khaldūn ya shiga cikin kamfen soja a kan mai nasara Mongol , Timur, wanda ya yi wa Dimashƙu kawanya a 1400. Ibn Khaldūn ya nuna shakku kan yiwuwar wannan kasuwancin kuma ya so ya kasance a Misira. An tabbatar da shakkun nasa, yayin da saurayi da ƙwarewar Faraj, waɗanda ke damuwa da tawaye a Misira, suka bar sojojinsa zuwa ga dabarunsu a Siriya kuma suka hanzarta komawa gida. Ibn Khaldūn ya kasance a garin da aka kewaye har tsawon makwanni bakwai, ana ta saukar da shi ta saman igiyar garin ta hanyar igiyoyi don tattaunawa da Timur, a cikin jerin tarurruka na tarihi da ya ba da rahoto sosai a cikin tarihin rayuwarsa. Timur ya yi masa tambayoyi dalla-dalla game da yanayin ƙasashen Maghreb. Bisa fatawar sa, Ibn Khaldūn har ma ya rubuta dogon rahoto game da shi. Kamar yadda ya fahimci niyyar Timur, bai yi jinkiri ba, lokacin da ya koma Misira, ya tsara cikakken rahoto daidai game da tarihin Tatar, tare da nazarin halin Timur, yana aikawa da su ga sarakunan Merinid a Fez (Maghreb) .

Ibn Khaldūn ya shafe shekaru biyar masu zuwa a Alkahira yana kammala tarihin rayuwarsa da tarihinsa na duniya tare da aiki a matsayin malami da alkali. A halin da ake ciki, ana zargin ya shiga wata jam’iyya ta karkashin kasa, Rijal Hawa Rijal, wanda manufofin ta na kawo sauyi ya ja hankalin hukumomin siyasa na yankin. An saka tsoho Ibn Khaldun a tsare. Ya mutu a ranar 17 ga Maris 1406, wata daya bayan zabar sa ta shida a ofis din Maliki qadi (Alkali).

  • Kitāb al-ʻIbar, (cikakken taken: Kitāb al-ʻIbar wa-Dīwān al-Mubtadaʼ wa-l-Khabar fī Taʼrīkh al-ʻArab wa-l-Barbar wa-Man ʻĀṣarahum min Dhawī ash-Shaʼn al-Akbār "Littafin Darussan, Rubuce-rubucen Farko da Abubuwan da suka faru a Tarihin Larabawa da Berberi da Contarfin zamaninsu "); ya fara a matsayin tarihin Berber kuma ya faɗaɗa zuwa tarihin duniya cikin littattafai bakwai. [6] [7]
  1. Joseph J. Spengler (1964). "Economic Thought of Islam: Ibn Khaldun", Comparative Studies in Society and History, 6(3), pp. 268-306.
      • Jean David C. Boulakia (1971). "Ibn Khaldûn: A Fourteenth-Century Economist", Journal of Political Economy, 79(5), pp. 1105–18.
  2. Ali Zaidi, Islam, Modernity, and the Human Sciences, Springer, 2011, p. 84
  3. Published by Muḥammad ibn Tāwīt aṭ-Ṭanjī, Cairo 1951
  4. A., Khaldun: His life and Works for Mohammad Enan
  5. Al-Muqqadimah. Ibn Khaldun
  6. Ibn Khaldun the Muqaddimah. An Introduction to History. Translated from the Arabic by Franz Rosenthal. In Three Volumes. First Volume. 606 pages. Bollingen Foundation Series xliii. Princeton University Press. 1958. Prof. Dr. Darcy Carvalho. Feausp. Sao Paulo. Brazil. 2016
  7. The Muqaddimah Volume 1