Princess Margaret, Countess na Snowdon

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Template:Infobox royalty Margaret, Gimbiya Snowdon, CI , GCVO , GCStJ , CD (Margaret Rose; 21 ga Agusta 1930 - 9 Fabrairu 2002) ita ce ƙaramar 'yar Sarki George VI da Sarauniya Elizabeth, kuma ƙwararrakin Sarauniya ta II .

Margaret ta gudanar da yawancin yarintra tare da iyayenta da 'yar uwarta. Rayuwarta ta canza sosai a cikin 1936, lokacin da kawun mahaifinta Sarki Edward VIII ya nesanta kansa da ya auri Wallis Simpson . Mahaifin Margaret ya zama sarki, 'yar uwarta kuma ta zama magajiya, tare da Margaret ta biyu a kan kujerar sarauta. A lokacin Yaƙin Duniya na biyu, 'yan uwan biyu sun kasance a Windsor Castle duk da shawarwarin a kwashe su zuwa Kanada. A cikin shekarun yaƙi, an ɗauki Margaret ƙarama don yin duk wani aikin hukuma kuma a maimakon haka ta ci gaba da karatun ta.

Bayan yakin, Margaret ta ƙaunace Kaftin ɗin kungiyar Peter Townsend . A cikin 1952, mahaifinta ya mutu, 'yar uwarta ta zama sarauniya, kuma Townsend ta saki matarsa, Rosemary . Ya gabatar da shawarar zuwa Margaret a farkon shekara mai zuwa. Da yawa a cikin gwamnati sun yi imanin cewa zai iya zama miji wanda ba ya dace da 'yar'uwar' yar shekara 22, kuma Cocin Ingila ta ƙi ɗaurin aure ga mutumin da ya sake ta. [1] Daga baya Margaret ta watsar da shirinta tare da Townsend kuma ta auri mai daukar hoto Antony Armstrong-Jones a shekarar 1960; Sarauniyar ta sanya shi Earl na Snowdon . Ma'auratan sun haifi ɗa, Dauda, da 'ya mace, Sara .

Galibi ana kallon Margaret a matsayin mai rikice-rikice a cikin dangin Sarautar Burtaniya . Sakin ta a shekarar 1978 ya samu bainar jama'a sosai, kuma tana da alaƙa da wasu maza da yawa. Kiwan lafiyarta yayi rauni sannu a hankali shekaru 20 na rayuwarta. Ta kasance mai shan sigari mai yawan gaske a rayuwarta ta girma kuma ta yi aikin huhu a 1985, cutar tarin fuka a cikin 1993, kuma aƙalla sau uku tsakanin 1998 da 2001. Ta mutu a Asibitin King Edward VII da ke Landan bayan ta yi fama da bugun karshe a ranar 9 ga Fabrairun 2002.

Farkon rayuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Margaret (gabanta) tare da kakarta Maryamu da 'yar uwarta Elizabeth, Mayu 1939

An haifi Margaret ranar 21 ga Agusta 1930 a Glamis Castle na Scotland, mahaifiyar mahaifiyarta, [2] kuma wacce aka fi sani da suna Margot cikin dangin sarauta. Sir Henry Simson, yar uwar sarauta ce ta haihu. Sakataren Cikin Gida, JR Clynes, ya kasance don tabbatar da haihuwar. Rajistar haihuwarta ba ta jinkirta ba kwanaki da yawa don gudun kar a kirga ta lamba 13 a cikin Ikklesiya .

Lokacin da aka haife ta, ta kasance ta huɗu a cikin jerin mutanen da za su gāji gadon sarauta . Mahaifinta shi ne Duke na York (daga baya Sarki George na shida ), ɗa na biyu na Sarki George V da Sarauniya Maryamu . Mahaifiyarta ita ce Duchess ta York (daga baya Sarauniya Elizabeth Sarauniya Sarauniya ), ƙaramin 'yar 14th Earl da Countess of Strathmore da Kinghorne . Duchess na York da farko ta so ta sanya sunanta na biyu Ann Margaret, kamar yadda ta bayyana wa Sarauniya Maryamu a wata wasika: “Ina matukar damuwa in kira ta Ann Margaret, kamar yadda nake tsammanin Ann na York tana da kyau, kuma Elizabeth da Ann sun tafi haka tare sosai. " [3] King George V bai ƙi sunan Ann amma ya amince da wani madadin "Margaret Rose". [4]

Margaret yayi baftisma a cikin majami'ar ta sirri ta Fadar Buckingham a ranar 30 ga Oktoba 1930 daga Cosmo Lang, Babban Bishop na Canterbury . [14]

Margaret na rayuwar farko an kashe shi ne a gidajen mazaunan Yorks a 145 Piccadilly (gidansu garin London) da Royal Lodge a Windsor. [5] Jama'a sun fahimci cewa dangi ne na kwarai: uba, uwa da yara, [6] amma jita-jita mara tushe cewa Margaret kurma ce da bebe ba a watsar da ita ba har sai lokacin farko da Margaret ta fito a wurin bikin kawun Yarima George George a 1934 [7]

Ta samu ilimi ne tare da 'yar uwarta, Princess Elizabeth, ta wurin shugabar gwamnatin Scotland din Marion Crawford . Mahaifiyarta ce ta fi kula da ilimin Margaret, wadanda a cikin kalmomin Randolph Churchill "ba su da burin tayar da 'ya'yanta mata har su zama masu kyawawan halaye na samari". [8] Lokacin da Sarauniya Maryamu ta dage kan mahimmancin ilimi, Duchess na York yayi sharhi, "Ban san me take nufi ba. Bayan haka ni da 'yan uwana mata kawai muna da gwamnoni kuma munyi aure mai kyau - ɗayanmu yana da kyau ". [9] Margaret ta kasance mai saurin fushi game da karancin ilimin ta, musamman a cikin shekarun baya, da nufin sukar mahaifiyarta. Koyaya, mahaifiyar Margaret ta gaya wa aboki cewa ta yi "nadama" cewa 'ya'yanta mata ba sa zuwa makaranta kamar sauran yara, [10] da kuma aiki da keɓaɓɓiyar gwamnati maimakon tura girlsan matan zuwa makarantar ƙila an yi su ne kawai da nacewar Sarki George V. [11] Yayinda take yara ita da 'yar uwarta Labari ne daga JM Barrie, marubucin Peter Pan .

Elizabeth da Margaret yin a Windsor Castle a 1943 samar da pantomime Aladdin

Kakanin Margaret, George V, ya mutu tun yana ɗan shekara biyar, kuma kawun nata ya zama Sarki Edward VIII . Kasa da shekara guda bayan haka, ranar 11 ga Disamba 1936, Edward ya sake neman Wallis Simpson, Ba'amurke wanda ya yi aure sau biyu, wanda Cocin Ingila da gwamnatocin Dominion ba za su yarda da matsayin sarauniya ba. Ikilisiya ba za ta amince da auren wata mace da aka sake ta tare da tsohon miji na da inganci ba. Komawar Edward ya bar Duke na York mai son zama a matsayin sa na Sarki George na shida, kuma ba tsammani Margaret ta zama ta biyu a layin sarauta, tare da taken Gimbiya Margaret don nuna matsayin ta a matsayin mai ikon sarauta. [12] Iyalin sun koma Fadar Buckingham ; Dakin Margaret ya tsallake The Mall . [13]

Margaret ta kasance Brownie a cikin Buffaham Palace na 1st Buckingham Palace, wanda aka kafa a 1937. Hakanan ta kasance jagorar 'yar Mata sannan kuma daga baya ta zama mai kula da Teku. Ta yi aiki a matsayin shugabar ta Girlguiding UK daga 1965 har zuwa rasuwarta a 2002.

A lokacin barkewar yakin duniya na II, Margaret da 'yar uwarta sun kasance a Birkhall, a cikin tsibirin Balmoral, inda suka zauna har zuwa Kirsimeti 1939, suna jurewa dare mai sanyi wanda ruwan sha a cikin carafes a gefen gadonta. [14] Sun shafe Kirsimeti a Sandringham House kafin su koma Windsor Castle, kusa da London, don ragowar yakin. [15] Viscount Hailsham ya rubutawa Firayim Minista Winston Churchill don ba da shawara game da korar sarakunan zuwa ga amincin Kanada, [16] wanda mahaifiyarsu ta amsa da girmamawa cewa, 'Ya'yan ba za su tafi ba tare da ni ba. Ba zan tafi ba tare da Sarki ba. Kuma Sarki ba zai taba barin komai ba. "

Ba kamar sauran 'yan gidan sarauta ba, ana tsammanin Margaret za ta iya yin kowane aiki na jama'a ko na hukuma yayin yaƙin. Ta bunkasa kwarewar ta wajen yin waka da kuma yin kidan. [17] Abokan rayuwar ta sun zaci cewa iyayenta ne suka lalata ta, musamman mahaifinta, [18] wanda ya ba ta damar cin gashin kanta ba ta halatta ba, kamar a bashi damar halartar cin abincin dare yana da shekaru 13. [9]

Crawford ta yanke kauna daga hankalin Margaret, tana rubutawa abokai: "Shin a wannan shekarar za ku iya tambayar Princess Elizabeth kawai ga taron ku?   . . . Gimbiya Margaret tana jan hankalin gaba kuma Gimbiya Elizabeth ta kyale ta ta yi hakan. " Elizabeth, ba ta damu da wannan ba, kuma ta yi sharhi, "Oh, yana da sauƙin lokacin da Margaret ta kasance - kowa yana dariya da abin da Margaret ta ce". [9] Sarki George ya bayyana Alisabatu a matsayin girmanta da Margaret a matsayin farincikinta. [19]

Shekaru bayan yakin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Margaret (a hannun dama) a baranda na Buckingham Palace tare da iyalinta da Winston Churchill a ranar 8 ga Mayu 1945

A karshen yakin a 1945, Margaret ta bayyana a baranda a Buckingham Palace tare da iyalinta da Firayim Minista Winston Churchill . Bayan haka, da Alisabatu da Margaret duka sun haɗu da taron jama'a a wajen fadar, ta ɓoye, suna ta hargowa, "Muna son Sarki, muna son Sarauniya!" [20]

Ranar 15 ga Afrilu 1946, Margaret ta tabbatar da zama Ikilisiyar Ingila . [21] A ranar 1 ga watan Fabrairun 1947, ita da Elizabeth tare da iyayensu suka fara ziyarar aiki a Kudancin Afirka. Ziyarar ta tsawon watanni uku ita ce farkon ziyarar Margaret a kasashen waje, kuma daga baya ta ce ta tuna "a kowane minti na ta". [22] Peter Townsend, mai wasan King ne ya raba shi da Margaret . [23] Daga baya a waccan shekarar, Margaret amarya ce a bikin Alisabatu. A cikin shekaru uku na gaba Elizabeth ta haifi 'ya'ya biyu, Charles da Anne, waɗanda haihuwar su ta motsa Margaret gaba zuwa cikin jerin magaji. [24]

A cikin 1950, tsohuwar mai mulkin, Marion Crawford, ta buga wani tarihin ba tare da izini ba game da rayuwar yarinyar Elizabeth da Margaret, wanda aka yiwa lakabi da Little Princesses, inda ta bayyana Margaret '' mai farin ciki da annashuwa '' [25] da ita "abin dariya da ban tsoro.   ... antics ". [26]

A matsayinta na kyakkyawar budurwa, wacce ke da nauyin 18-inch da “kwalliya mai idanu”, [27] Margaret ta ji daɗin yin hulɗa tare da manyan mutane da kuma samari, ciki har da Sharman Douglas, 'yar jakadan Amurka, Lewis Williams Douglas . [28] Kyakkyawan kyan gani wacce aka santa da kyawun fuskarta da salonta na zamani, Margaret galibi ana buga ta a gidajen jaridu a bukukuwa, bukukuwan, da kuma wuraren wasannin dare. [29] Adadin ayyukanta na hukuma sun karu (sun haɗa da rangadi a Italiya, Switzerland, da Faransa), kuma ta shiga cikin yawan ƙungiyoyi masu ba da agaji kamar shugaba ko kuma majiɓinci. [30]

Aka yi bikin zagayowar ranar haihuwarta na 21st a Balmoral a watan Agusta 1951. [31] A watan da ya biyo mahaifinta ya yi tiyata don cutar kansa, kuma an nada Margaret a matsayin daya daga cikin Mashawarcin Gwamnati da ta gudanar da ayyukan Sarki yayin da take fama da rauni. [32] Mahaifinta ya mutu bayan wata biyar, a cikin Fabrairu 1952, kuma ƙanwarta ta zama Sarauniya.

Kalaman soyayya tare da Peter Townsend[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Margaret ta yi baƙin ciki da mutuwar mahaifinta kuma an ba ta allurar rigakafi don taimaka mata bacci. [33] Game da mahaifinta ta rubuta, "Ya kasance mai wannan kyakkyawan mutum, ainihin zuciyar kuma tsakiyar dangin mu mai farin ciki." [34] Ta kasance ta'azantar da ita game da imani da imani na Krista. [35] Tare da mahaifiyarta wadda mijinta ya mutu, Margaret ta fice daga Buckingham Palace da kuma zuwa cikin Clarence House, yayin da 'yar uwarta da iyalinta suka fice daga gidan Clarence House kuma suka shiga cikin Buckingham Palace . [36]

Peter Townsend aka nada Comptroller na mahaifiyarta ta restructured iyali . [37] A 1953, ya sake ya saki daga matar sa ta farko inda ya ba da shawarar aurar da Margaret. Yana da shekara 15 babba kuma yana da yara biyu daga auren da ya gabata. Margaret ta yarda kuma ta sanar da 'yar uwarta, Sarauniya, game da sha'awar ta auri Townsend. Sarauniyar Aikin Sarauta ta 1772 ta bukaci izinin Sarauniya. Kamar yadda a cikin 1936, Ikilisiyar Ingila ta ƙi ɗaukar auren sakewa. Sarauniya Maryamu ta mutu kwanan nan, kuma Alisabatu na gab da naɗa . Bayan kawancen ta, ta yi shirin ziyartar Commonwealth har tsawon watanni shida. Sarauniyar ta ce wa Margaret, "A karkashin yanayin, ba wauta bane a gare ni in ce ku jira shekara guda." [38] Sakatarenta na sirri, Sir Alan Lascelles, ya shawarci sarauniyar da ta sanya Townsend zuwa kasashen waje, amma ta ki, maimakon haka ta sauya shi daga gidan Sarauniya zuwa nata. [39] Majalisar ministocin Burtaniya ta ki amincewa da auren, kuma jaridu sun ba da rahoton cewa auren "ba shi da makama" kuma "zai tashi a fuskar al'adun masarauta da na Kirista". [40] Churchill ta sanar da Sarauniya cewa Firayim Minista na Dominion baki daya sun yi adawa da wannan auren kuma majalisar ba za ta amince da wani auren da Cocin Ingila ba zai yi mata ba sai dai idan Margaret ta yi watsi da hakkinta na sarauta. [41]

Churchill ya shirya yadda za a tura Townsend zuwa Brussels. Polls wanda sanannun jaridu suka gudanar ya nuna cewa jama'a sun goyi bayan zabin na Margaret, ba tare da yin la'akari da koyarwar Cocin ba ko ra'ayin gwamnati. [42] Shekaru biyu kenan, aka ci gaba da yada jita-jita. Malaman fada sun fada wa Margaret cewa ba za ta sami ikon yin tarayya ba idan ta auri wani wanda ya sake ta. [43]

Takardu wadanda aka saki a shekarar 2004 zuwa ga Alkaluman Labarai na kasa sun nuna cewa a cikin 1955 Sarauniya da sabon Firayim Minista Sir Anthony Eden (wanda ya sake ta, ya sake yin aure) ya fito da wani tsari a karkashin da Gimbiya Margaret za ta iya auren Townsend ta cire Margaret da kowane yara daga aure daga layin jagora. Za a ba Margaret damar rike matsayin sarauta da izinin ta na farar hula, ta ci gaba da zama a kasar har ma ta ci gaba da aikinta na jama'a. Eden ta taƙaita halayyar Sarauniyar a cikin wata wasiƙa a kan batun Firayim Minista ɗin cewa "wouldancinta ba zai fatan tsayawa kan hanyar yar'uwarta ba." Adnin da kansa ya kasance mai juyayi; "Banke daga cikin maye ba zai haifar da wani canji ba a matsayin Gimbiya Margaret a matsayinta na memba na Gidan Sarauta," in ji shi. An samar da daftarin karshe na wannan shawara a ranar 28 ga Oktoba 1955.

A ranar 31 ga Oktoba Margaret ta ba da sanarwa:

Randolph Churchill ya damu da jita-jitar jita-jita game da Archbishop Fisher tare da shirin Gimbiya Margaret tare da Townsend. A ra'ayinsa, jita-jita "Fisher ya sa baki don hana Gimbiya ta auri Townsend ya cutar da Cocin Ingila". An sami korafi na gaba a Burtaniya game da rikicewar Ikilisiya yayin da ta shafi kisan aure.

Gimbiya Margaret ta fara haduwa da mai daukar hoto Antony Armstrong-Jones a wajen bukin cin abinci a shekarar 1958. Sun tsunduma cikin Oktoba 1959. Armstrong-Jones ya gabatar wa Margaret tare da zoben daukar hoto na yin lu'ulu'u wanda lu'u-lu'u ke zagaye da shi irin na fure-fure. An ba da rahoton cewa ta yarda da shawararsa kwana guda bayan koyo daga wurin Peter Townsend cewa ya yi niyyar aure da wata budurwa, Marie-Luce Jamagne, wacce ke da shekaru rabinta kuma ta yi kama da Princess Margaret. [44] Sanarwar Margaret game da kasancewar ta, a ranar 26 ga Fabrairu 1960, ta ba manema labarai mamaki; ta lura sosai don ɓoye soyayyar daga masu ba da rahoto. [45]

Margaret ta auri Armstrong-Jones a Westminster Abbey a ranar 6 ga Mayu 1960. Bikin shine bikin aure na sarauta na farko da za'a watsa a talabijin, kuma ya jawo hankulan mutane miliyan 300 a duk duniya. [46] An gayyaci baƙi 2,000 don bikin auren.

Norman Hartnell ne ya shirya bikin aure na Margaret kuma ya suturta da tilas na Poltimore . [21] Tana da yara matasa masu amarya guda takwas, karkashin jagorancin danta, Princess Anne . Sauran matan ango sune budurwarta, Marilyn Wills, 'yar dan uwanta Jean Elphinstone da Manjo John Lycett Wills; Annabel Rhodes, 'yar dan uwanta Margaret Elphinstone da Denys Rhodes ; Lady Virginia Fitzroy, 'yar Hugh Fitzroy, Earl na Euston ; Sarah Lowther, 'yar Sir John Lowther; Catherine Vesey, 'yar Viscount de Vesci ; Lady Rose Nevill, 'yar Marquess na Abergavenny ; da Uwargida Angela Nevill, 'yar Ubangiji Rupert Nevill . Ta yi tafiya tare da Duke na Edinburgh daga Clarence House a cikin Gilashi Coach, ta isa cocin a 11:30. Duke ya raka amarya, kuma mafi kyawun mutum shine Dr Roger Gilliatt. Archbishop na Canterbury Geoffrey Fisher ne ya jagoranci hidimar aure. Bayan bikin, ma'auratan sun sanya al'adun gargajiya a kan baranda na Buckingham Palace.

Gasar amarcin wata jirgi ne na makwanni shida na Caribbean a cikin jirgin ruwan masarautar Britannia . [47] A matsayin bikin aure, Colin Tennant ya ba ta fili a tsibirin Caribbean mai zaman kansa, Mustique . [48] Sabbin matan sun koma cikin dakuna a Fadar Kensington . [49]

A shekarar 1961, aka kirkiro mijin Margaret Earl na Snowdon . Ma'auratan suna da 'ya'ya biyu (waɗanda sashin Caesarean suka haife su a kan bukatar Margaret ): [50] David, an haife shi 3 Nuwamba 1961, da Sara, waɗanda aka haifa 1 Mayu 1964.

Auren ya fadada da'irar Margaret wacce ba ta wuce Kotun ba sannan kuma ta hada da nuna shahararrun 'yan kasuwan da bohamian . A lokacin, ana tsammanin zai iya zama daidai da rushewar matsalolin bangayen Ingila. Snowdons sun yi gwaji tare da salon da finafinan 1960s. [51]

Rayuwar jama'a da aikin sadaka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Lord Snowdon, Lady Bird Johnson, Princess Margaret da shugaban Amurka Lyndon B. Johnson a fadar White House ranar 17 ga Nuwamban 1965

Daga cikin ayyukan Margaret na farko da ya fara aiki shine ya samar da gidan Wutar Edinburgh Castle a Belfast a shekara ta 1947. Bayan haka, Margaret ta tafi yawon shakatawa da yawa na wurare daban-daban; A cikin manyan rangadinta na farko ya kasance tare da iyayenta da 'yar uwarta don yin balaguro zuwa Afirka ta Kudu a 1947. Ta yawon shakatawa a kan Britannia.A zuwa Birtaniya mazauna a cikin Caribbean a shekarar 1955 halitta abin mamaki a ko'ina cikin West Indies, kuma calypsos aka sadaukar domin ta. [52] Kamar yadda mulkin mallaka na British Commonwealth of Nations ya nemi zama dan kasa, Gimbiya Margaret ta wakilci Crown yayin bukukuwan samun 'yancin kai a Jamaica a 1962 [53] da Tuvalu da Dominica a 1978. Rashin lafiyarta da aka kawo ta gajarta wannan gajarta, wacce mai yiwuwa cutar huhun ciki ce, [54] kuma an kaurace ta zuwa Australia domin murmurewa. [55] Sauran yawon shakatawa na kasashen waje sun hada da Amurka a 1965, Japan a 1969 da 1979, [56] Amurka da Kanada a 1974, [57] Australia a 1975, [58] Philippines a 1980, [59] Swaziland a 1981, [60] da Sin a shekarar 1987. [61]

Babban bukatunta shine bayar da agaji, kide-kide da rawa . Ta kasance shugabar ƙungiyar Jama'a ta ƙasa da Royal Scottish Society don Rigakafin Zaluntar da Yara da Invalid Taimakon Nationancin Nationasashe (kuma ana kiranta 'I CAN'). Ta kasance Babban Shugaba na St John Ambulance Brigade da Kanar-in-Chief of the Royal Army Nursing Corps na Sarauniya . Ta kasance shugabar kasa ko kuma mai ba da agaji na ƙungiyoyi da yawa, kamar Olympicungiyar Wasannin Olympics ta West Indies, Jagororin 'Yan mata, Gidan wasan kwaikwayo na Arewa, Birmingham Royal Ballet, Scott Ballet, Yara 1st, Tenovus Cancer Care, Royal College of Nursing, da kuma London Lighthouse (sadaka kan cutar kanjamau wacce tun daga nan ta hade da Terrence Higgins Trust ). [9] A wasu wuraren Margaret an soki shi saboda ba shi da ƙarfi kamar sauran membobin gidan sarauta.

Rayuwa mai zaman kanta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gimbiya Margaret a shekarar 1965

An ba da rahoton cewa, Margaret tana da al'amuran aurenta na farko a 1966, tare da mahaifinta Anthony Barton, mai gabatar da giya na Bordeaux. [62] Wata guda daga baya ta sami haɗin kai na wata guda tare da Robin Douglas-Home, dan uwan tsohuwar Firayim Ministan Burtaniya Alec Douglas-Home . [63] Margaret ta ce dangantakarta da Douglas-Home ta kasance platonic ce, amma harrufan da aka aika masa (waɗanda daga baya aka sayar da su) suna da kusanci. [64] Douglas-Home, wanda ya sha wahala daga bakin ciki, ya mutu ta hanyar kisan kansa watanni 18 bayan rabuwa da Margaret. Buƙatun cewa ta romantically da hannu tare da mawaki Mick jagger, [65] actor Peter masu sayarwa, da kuma Australia cricketer Keith Miller ne unproven. A cewar masanin tarihin rayuwar Charlotte Breese, mai gabatarwa Leslie Hutchinson tayi 'yar takaitacciyar hulda' tare da Margaret a 1955. Bayanan tarihin 2009 na actress David Niven sun haɗa da tabbatarwa, dangane da bayanan da matar Niven da kuma aboki aboki na Niven, cewa ya sami matsala da gimbiya, wacce ke ɗan shekara 20. [66] A shekarar 1975, an lissafa Gimbiya cikin matan da actress Warren Beatty ya yi soyayya ta soyayya. [67] John Bindon, wani dan wasan kwaikwayo na Cockney wanda ya kwashe lokaci a kurkuku, ya sayar da labarinsa ga Daily Mirror, yana alfahari da kusancin da Margaret. [68]

Princess Margaret, Lord Snowdon da magajin garin Amsterdam Gijs van Hall a ranar 14 ga Mayu 1965

A farkon shekarun 1970, dusar kankara ta rabu biyu. A watan Satumbar 1973, Colin Tennant ya gabatar da Margaret ga Roddy Llewellyn . Llewellyn yana ɗan shekara 17 yana ƙarami. A shekarar 1974, ta gayyace shi a matsayin bako a gidan hutu da ta gina akan Mustique . [69] Wannan dai shi ne farkon ziyarar da yawa. Margaret ta bayyana dangantakar tasu da cewa "abokantaka ce mai kauna". [70] Sau ɗaya, lokacin da Llewellyn ya tafi hutu don tafiya zuwa Turkiyya, Margaret ta damu sosai kuma ta ɗauki allunan bacci da yawa. [71] Ta ce, "Na gaji sosai saboda komai", in ji daga baya, "abin da kawai nake son yi shi ne barci." [72] Tun tana murmurewa, mayanta na cikin gida sun nisanta ubangijin Snowdon daga gare ta, suna tsoron kada ganin sa zai kara mata damuwa. [73]

A watan Fabrairu 1976, hoton Margaret da Llewellyn a cikin kayan wanka a Mustique an buga su a shafin farko na shafin talla, Labaran Duniya . 'Yan jaridu sun nuna Margaret a matsayin wata dattijuwa mace da Llewellyn a matsayinta na mai wasan Toyboy . [74] A 19 Maris 1976, Snowdons a fili ya ba da sanarwar cewa aurensu ba makawa ya wargaje. [75] Wasu 'yan siyasa sun ba da shawarar cire Margaret daga cikin jerin sunayen fararen hula . ‘ Yan majalisar kwadago sun musanta ta a matsayin“ ma’abocin sarauta ” [76] da“ floosie ”. [77] A cikin Mayu 1978, ta kamu da rashin lafiya, kuma an gano ta tana fama da cututtukan gastroenteritis da hepatitis na giya. A ranar 11 ga Yuli 1978, an gama da sakin Snowdons. [78] Wannan shine kisan aure na farko da wani jigo a gidan sarautar Burtaniya tun lokacin da Princess Victoria Melita ta Edinburgh ta 1901. A 15 ga Disamba 1978, Snowdon ya auri Lucy Lindsay-Hogg. [79]

A watan Agusta 1979, Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten na Burma, da membobin gidansa suka mutu sakamakon fashewar bam a cikin Rundunar Sojojin Jamhuriyar Republican na Yankin . [80] A watan Oktoba, yayin wata ziyarar ba da tallafi na Amurka a madadin Royal Opera House, Margaret ta zauna a liyafa a liyafar cin abincin dare a Chicago tare da jigon masana’antar Abra Anderson da Magajin gari Jane Byrne . Margaret ta gaya masu cewa da yawa daga cikin wasiƙar ta'aziyyar daga Ireland sun koma gidan sarauta. [81] Kashegari, abokin adawar Anderson, Irv Kupcinet ya wallafa wata sanarwa cewa Margaret ta ambaci Irish a matsayin "aladu". [82] Margaret, Anderson da Byrne duk sun bayar da sanarwar musantawa nan da nan, amma an riga an yi lalacewa. Sauran rangadin sun jawo zanga-zangar, kuma Margaret din tsaro ya ninka har sau biyu yana fuskantar barazanar ta jiki. [83]

A cikin 1981, Llewellyn ya auri Tatiana Soskin, wanda ya sani shekaru 10. [84] Margaret ta kasance aminan su biyu. [85] A cikin Janairu 1981, Margaret baƙi ce a cikin shirin Gidan Rediyon BBC 4 na Desert Island Discs . An bayyana bayyanar da jaridar The Guardian : "Tana da kwazon gaske, ta zabi Rule Britannia a matsayin daya daga cikin fayafan nata, sannan ta nemi Scotland the Brave wacce bututun da kera ta 'my regiment', watau Royal Highland Fusiliers."

Rashin lafiya da mutuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Margaret a rayuwa ta gaba

Daga baya rayuwar Princess ta kasance ta rashin lafiya da nakasa. Ta sha taba sigari tun tana ɗan shekara 15 ko a baya, kuma ta daɗe tana shan taba sosai. [86] A kan 5 Janairu 1985, ta cire wani ɓangare na ta huhu huhu; Wannan aikin ya yi daidai da na mahaifinta sama da shekaru 30 da suka gabata. [87] A 1991, ta daina shan taba, kodayake ta ci gaba da shan giya sosai. [88] A watan Janairun 1993, an kwantar da ita a asibiti domin cutar huhu . Ta samu raunin ne a ranar 23 ga Fabrairun 1998 a gidanta hutu da ke Mustique . A farkon shekara mai zuwa Gimbiya ta kamu da ciwo mai nauyi a ƙafafunta a cikin haɗarin gidan wanka, wanda ya shafi motsirta har zuwa lokacin da ta buƙaci tallafi yayin tafiya kuma wani lokacin amfani da keken hannu. [89] An kwantar da ita a asibiti a ranar 10 ga Janairun 2001 saboda rashin abinci da kuma matsalolin hadiye, bayan sake bugun jini. Zuwa Maris 2001, bugun jini ya bar ta da hangen nesa kaɗan da na nakasa a gefen hagu [90] Margaret ta bayyana a bainar jama'a ta karshe ita ce a bikin cikar haihuwar mahaifiyarta karo na 101 a cikin watan Agusta 2001 da kuma bikin cikarta shekaru 100 da kawarta, Princess Alice, Duchess na Gloucester, a watan Disamba. [91]

Gimbiya Margaret ta mutu a Asibitin King Edward VII, Landan, a 06:30 ( GMT ) a 9 ga Fabrairu 2002 yana da shekara 71, kwana daya bayan da ya sake fama da wani bugun jini wanda ya haifar da matsalolin zuciya. [92] Yarima Wales ya ba dan uwan sa yabo a wata hira ta talabijin.

An dauki akwatin gawa na Margaret, wanda aka zana bisa tsarinta na sirri, an dauke shi daga Fadar Kensington zuwa Fadar St James kafin jana'izarta. An yi jana'izar ne a ranar 15 ga Fabrairun 2002, shekara ce ta 50 da aka yi jana'izar mahaifinta. Dangane da burin ta, bikin ya kasance wani sabis na sirri a St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, ga dangi da abokai. [93] Ba kamar sauran sauran membobin gidan sarauta ba, an kashe Princess Margaret, a Slough Crematorium. An sanya toka a cikin kabarin iyayenta, Sarki George VI da Sarauniya Elizabeth Sarauniya Sarauniya (wacce ta mutu makonni bakwai bayan Margaret), a cikin Masallachin tunawa da Sarki George VI a cikin Masallacin St George watanni biyu bayan haka. [94] An gudanar da taron tunawa da jihar a Westminster Abbey a ranar 19 ga Afrilun 2002. [95]

Legacy[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Template:Quote box Masu lura da al'amurra sau da yawa halin Margaret matsayin spoiled snob iya yankan jawabinsa da kuma hauteur. [96] Masu sukar sunyi ikirarin cewa ita ma sun raina kakarta Sarauniya Maryamu saboda an haife Mariya a matsayin yar gimbiya da ƙananan " Serene Highness ", yayin da Margaret ta kasance " Royal Highness " ta hanyar haihuwa. [97] Haruffarsu, duk da haka, ba su da wata alamar rikici tsakanin su. [98]

Hakanan Margaret na iya zama kyakkyawa kuma ba na yau da kullun ba. Mutanen da suka yi hulɗa da ita za su iya rikicewa ta hanyar abubuwan da take faruwa tsakanin rashin aminci da ƙa'idar aiki. [99] Tsohuwar shugabar gwamnatin Marion Crawford ta rubuta a cikin rubutunta: "Ra'ayoyin masu ban sha'awa da haske da ta yi sun zama kanun labarai kuma, idan aka dauke su daga yanayin su, sun fara yin fito-na-fito da jama'a a idon jama'a wadanda ba su da kama da Margaret da muka sani." [100]

Margaret wacce ta san Gore Vidal, marubuciyar ba'amurkiya, ta rubuta: "Tana da matukar fahinta game da matsayinta na rayuwa." Ya tuno wata tattaunawa da Margaret wanda a yayin da yake tattauna batun sanin yakamata a bainar jama'a, ya ce: "Ba makawa ne, idan akwai 'yan'uwa mata biyu kuma daya Sarauniya ce, wacce dole ne ta zama tushen abin girmamawa kuma duk abin da ke da kyau, yayin da ɗayan dole ne ka zama mai jan hankalin mafi kirkirar mugunta, 'yar uwa. "

Bayan mutuwar Margaret, matar mai jiran gado, Lady Glenconner, ta ce "[Margaret] ta sadaukar da Sarauniya sosai kuma tana goyon bayanta sosai." An bayyana Margaret ta dan uwanta Alisabatu Elizabeth Shakerley a matsayin "wani mutum wanda ke da kyakkyawan iyawa don baiwa mutane da yawa jin daɗi kuma tana da kyakkyawar abokantaka da aminiya." Wani dan uwan, Oluwa Lichfield, ya ce "[Margaret] tayi matukar bakin ciki har karshen rayuwarta saboda rayuwar da ba ta cika ba."

A rayuwarta, arzikin Margaret an kiyasta kusan miliyan 20, wanda galibinsu ke gado daga wurin mahaifinta. Har ila yau, ta gaji fasahohin zane-zane da kayayyakin tarihi daga Sarauniya Mary, sannan Dame Margaret Greville ta bar fam 20,000 a 1943. A cikin 1999, ɗanta, Lord Linley, ya sayar da mahaifiyarsa Les Jolies Eaux ta Caribbean akan dala miliyan 2.4. A lokacin rasuwarta Margaret ta karɓi fam 219,000 daga jerin ƙungiyoyin . Bayan rasuwarta, ta bar wa £a twoanta £ 7.6 miliyan mallakar, wanda aka yanke zuwa 4.5 miliyan 4.5 bayan harajin gado . A watan Yuni na 2006, yawancin kayayyakin Margaret ne Christie's suka siya don biyan haraji kuma, a cikin kalmomin ɗanta, "bukatun yau da kullun dangi kamar ilmantar da jikokinta", kodayake an sayar da wasu daga cikin kayan taimakon taimakon agaji kamar Stungiyar Bugun jini . [101] A rahoton, Sarauniyar ta baiyana cewa ragin da aka samu daga duk wani abu da aka baiwa yar'uwar ta a matsayin hukuma dole ne a bayar da ita ga masu ba da agaji. Farashin rikodin duniya na £ 1.24   miliyan ya saita ta agogon Fabergé . Poltimore Tiara, wacce ta sanya wa bikin aurenta a shekarar 1960, ta sayar da fam miliyan 926,400. [102] Sayar da sakamakonsa ya kai £ 13,658,000. A watan Afrilun 2007, wani nune-nunen mai taken Gimbiya Gimbiya - Matsayin Kayan Gwiwar Gimbiya Margaret ya bude a Fadar Kensington, ya nuna salon zamani daga masu zanen Burtaniya kamar su Vivienne Westwood wanda aka yi wa lakabi da Gimbiya Margaret. Christopher Bailey tarin Guga na 2006 don Burberry ya kasance mai jan hankali daga kallon Margaret daga shekarun 1960. [103]

Rayuwar Gimbiya Margaret ta kasance shekaru da yawa tana magana game da jita-jita ta kafofin watsa labarai da masu lura da sarauta. Gidanta a Mustique, wanda ƙwararren mijinta Oliver Messel, wanda ƙirar ƙira ne, ya kasance maƙasudin hutun da ta fi so. [104] An yi jita-jitar jam’iyyun daji da shan muggan kwayoyi a cikin shirin watsa shirye-shirye bayan mutuwar Gimbiya.

Masanin tarihin rayuwar Warwick ya ba da shawarar cewa mafi kyawun gadojin Margaret abu ne mai haɗari. Wataƙila ba da niyya ba, Margaret ta ba da hanya don yarda da jama'a game da kisan aure. Rayuwarta, idan ba ayyukanta ba, sun yanke shawara da zaɓin 'ya'yan' yar'uwarta, waɗanda uku daga cikinsu sun sake su, sun fi sauƙi kamar yadda ba za su kasance ba. [105]

Tituna, yanayi, girmamawa da makamai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Royal Monogram

Lakabobi da kuma salon[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • 21 ga Agusta 1930 - 11 Disamba 1936: Her Royal Highness Princess Margaret na York
  • 11 ga Disamba 1936 - 6 Oktoba 1961: Darajar Sarauniya Gimbiya Margaret [106]
  • 6 Oktoba 1961 - 9 Fabrairu 2002: Girma Sarauniya Gimbiya Margaret, Gimbiya Snowdon

Girmamawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • CI : Abokin oda na Sarautar Indiya, 12 Yuni 1947
  • DJStJ : Dame of Justice of Order of St John na Urushalima, 23 Yuni 1948
  • GCVO : Dame Grand Cross of the Royal Victoria Victoria Order, 1 Yuni 1953
  • GCStJ : Dame Grand Cross of Order of St John na Kudus, 20 ga Yuni 1956
  • Sarkar Royal Victoria, 21 ga Agusta 1990
  • Dokokin Iyalin Sarauta na Sarki George V
  • Dokokin Iyali na Sarki na Sarki George VI
  • Sarautar Sarauniya Sarauta Sarauniya II
  • CD Canadian Forces ado

Kasashen waje suna girmama[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Alƙawarin soja[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Australia
  • Colonel-in-Chief of the Women's Royal Australian Army Corps
Bermuda
Canada
United Kingdom

Makamai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Template:Infobox COA wide

Bayarwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Suna Haihuwa Aure Bayarwa
David Armstrong-Jones, Earl na biyu na Snowdon 3 Nuwamba 1961 8 Oktoba 1993 Serena Stanhope Charles Armstrong-Jones, Viscount Linley



</br> Uwargidan Margarita Armstrong-Jones
Uwargida Saratu Armstrong-Jones 1 Mayu 1964 14 Yuli 1994 Daniel Chatto Samuel Chatto



</br> Arthur Chatto

Zuriya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. In 2002, the Church of England changed its policy on marriages of divorced persons. Under certain circumstances, it now permits a person with a former spouse still living to remarry in church.
  2. Heald, p. 1; Warwick, pp. 27–28
  3. Warwick, p. 31
  4. Warwick, pp. 31–32
  5. Crawford, pp. 14–34; Heald, pp. 7–8; Warwick, pp. 35–39
  6. Warwick, pp. 34, 120
  7. Warwick, pp. 45–46
  8. Quoted in Warwick, p. 52
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 Bradford
  10. Lisa Sheridan in From Cabbages to Kings, quoted by Warwick, pp. 51–52
  11. Warwick, p. 52
  12. Heald, p. 11; Warwick, p. 71
  13. Heald, p. 18; Warwick, p. 76
  14. Crawford, p. 110; Warwick, p. 98
  15. Crawford, pp. 104–119; Warwick, pp. 99–101
  16. Warwick, p. 102
  17. Dempster, p. 8
  18. Bradford; Heald, p. 9
  19. Botham, p. 9
  20. Aronson, p. 92
  21. 21.0 21.1 Helen Molesworth, Property from the Collection of Her Royal Highness The Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon. Christie's Auction House, Jewellery Department, London, 2006. Auction of the Property of HRH Princess Margaret
  22. Aronson, p. 97
  23. Heald, p. 39
  24. Heald, p. 53
  25. Crawford, p. 111
  26. Crawford, p. 164
  27. Warwick, p. 140
  28. Warwick, pp. 138–139
  29. Warwick, pp. 140–142
  30. Warwick, pp. 154–159
  31. Heald, p. 84; Warwick, p. 163
  32. Warwick, p. 167
  33. Warwick, p. 170
  34. Warwick, pp. 170–171
  35. Heald, p. 89; Warwick, p. 180
  36. Heald, p. 91; Warwick, p. 176
  37. Warwick, p. 182
  38. The Queen quoted by Princess Margaret, in Warwick, p. 186
  39. Warwick, p. 187
  40. e.g. The People newspaper quoted in Warwick, p. 190
  41. Warwick, p. 191
  42. Warwick, p. 192
  43. Warwick, p. 203
  44. Heald, p. 112: "looked strikingly like Princess Margaret"; Warwick, p. 223: "more than a passing resemblance to the Princess"
  45. Heald, pp. 114–115; Warwick, p. 225
  46. Warwick, p. 227
  47. Heald, pp. 119–121; Warwick, pp. 229–230
  48. Heald, p. 122; Warwick, p. 271
  49. Heald, p. 141; Warwick, p. 233
  50. Heald, pp. 140–141
  51. Warwick, p. 239
  52. Payne, p. 17
  53. Heald, pp. 149–150
  54. Heald, pp. 206–207
  55. Heald, p. 207
  56. Heald, pp. 154–163, 210
  57. Heald, p. 187
  58. Heald, pp. 188–190
  59. Heald, pp. 225–226
  60. Heald, pp. 229–233
  61. Heald, pp. 245–247
  62. Heald, p. 170; Warwick, p. 245
  63. Heald, p. 170
  64. Warwick, pp. 245–246
  65. Aronson, p. 229
  66. Munn, Michael (24 May 2009)."Oh God, I wanted her to die", The Sunday Times, Retrieved 29 May 2009.
  67. Playgirl, Volume 3, 1975
  68. Aronson, p. 260
  69. Heald, p. 194; Warwick, p. 255
  70. Margaret, quoted in Warwick, p. 256
  71. Heald, p. 198; Warwick, p. 257
  72. Quoted in Warwick, p. 257
  73. Warwick, p. 257
  74. Warwick, p. 258
  75. Heald, p. 197; Warwick, p. 258
  76. Dennis Canavan quoted in Warwick, p. 260
  77. Willie Hamilton quoted in Warwick, p. 261
  78. Aronson, p. 268
  79. Warwick, p. 263
  80. "1979: IRA bomb kills Lord Mountbatten", BBC On This Day, 27 August 1979
  81. Warwick, p. 267
  82. Heald, p. 217; Warwick, p. 267
  83. Warwick, pp. 267–268
  84. Warwick, p. 274
  85. Heald, p. 308; Warwick, p. 256
  86. Heald, pp. 32–33
  87. Warwick, p. 276
  88. Heald, p. 256
  89. Warwick, pp. 290–291
  90. Warwick, pp. 299–302
  91. Warwick, p. 303
  92. Warwick, p. 304
  93. Warwick, p. 306
  94. Warwick, pp. 306–308
  95. Heald, p. 295
  96. Heald, pp. 130–131, 222–223
  97. Heald, p. 89
  98. Heald, pp. 15–16, 89
  99. Heald, p. 146
  100. Crawford, p. 226
  101. Heald, pp. 297–301
  102. Heald, p. 301
  103. Heald, pp. 296–297
  104. See, for example, Roy Strong quoted in Heald, p. 191
  105. Warwick, pp. 308–309
  106. Princess Margaret at no time assumed the title "Princess Margaret, Mrs Antony Armstrong-Jones" (see e.g. issues of the London Gazette 1 November 1960, 25 November 1960, 24 February 1961, 28 February 1961, 3 March 1961 and 24 March 1961).

Bibliography[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Aronson, Theo (2001), Princess Margaret: A Biography, London: Michael O'Mara Books Limited, ISBN 1-85479-682-8
  • Botham, Noel (2002), Margaret: The Last Real Princess, London: Blake Publishing Ltd, ISBN 1-903402-64-6
  • Bradford, Sarah; Harrison, B.; Goldman, L. (January 2006). "Margaret Rose, Princess, countess of Snowdon (1930–2002)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (revised October 2008 ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/76713. Retrieved 7 December 2008. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  • Crawford, Marion (1950), The Little Princesses, London: Cassell and Co
  • Heald, Tim (2007), Princess Margaret: A Life Unravelled, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, ISBN 978-0-297-84820-2
  • Warwick, Christopher (2002), Princess Margaret: A Life of Contrasts, London: Carlton Publishing Group, ISBN 0-233-05106-6

Haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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