Qawwali

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Qawwali at Ajmer Sharif Dargah

Qawwali ( Hindi : क़व्वाली ( Devanagari ); Urdu : قوّالی( Nasta'liq ) ; Punjabi : ਕ਼ੱਵਾਲੀ ( Gurmukhi ), قوّالی‎ ( Shahmukhi ) ; Bengali : কাওয়ালি ( Bengali-Assamese )) wani nau'in waƙoƙin ibada ne na addinin Sufi, wanda ya samo asali daga yankin Indiya, kuma sananne musamman a yankunan Punjab da Sindh na Pakistan ; a Hyderabad, Delhi da sauran sassan Indiya, musamman Arewacin Indiya ; da kuma yankin Dhaka da Chittagong na Bangladesh .

Da farko an yi shi a wuraren bautar Sufi ko dargarori a duk Kudancin Asiya, ya sami babban farin jini da masu sauraron duniya a ƙarshen karni na ashirin 20. Waƙar Qawwali ta karɓi fallasa ƙasashen duniya ta hanyar aikin Aziz Mian, Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan da Sabri Brothers galibi saboda fitowar da aka yi akan lakabin Real World, sannan bayyanar da kai tsaye a bukukuwan WOMAD. Sauran shahararrun mawakan Qawwali sun hada da Fareed Ayyaz & Abu Muhammad, Rahat Fateh Ali Khan, Badar Miandad, Rizwan & Moazzam Duo, marigayi Amjad Sabri, Wadali Brothers, Nizami Bandhu, Bahauddin Qutbuddin, Qutbi Brothers, da sauransu. Yawancin mawaƙan Qawwali na zamani waɗanda suka haɗa da Ustad Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan da Fareed Ayyaz & Abu Muhammad suna cikin sananniyar makarantar 'Qawwal Bachon ka Gharana ' ta Qawwali, wacce ke Delhi.

Ma'ana[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Qawl ( Larabci: قَوْل‎ ) "furci ne (na annabi)", Qawwali shine wanda ya yawaita maimaita (yana rera) Qaul, Qawwali shine abinda Qawwali yake rerawa.

Asali[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Delhi 's Sufi saint Amir Khusrow na Chisti domin na ' yan sufi ne aka yaba da fusing da Persian, Larabci, Turkish, da kuma Indian hadisai a cikin marigayi 13th karni a Indiya don ƙirƙirar qawwali kamar yadda muka san shi a yau. Kalmar Sama har yanzu ana amfani da ita a Tsakiyar Asiya da Turkiya don nufin juzu'i irin na Qawwali, kuma a Indiya, Pakistan da Bangladesh, sunan da ake amfani da shi don zaman Qawwali shine Mehfil-e-Sama .

Asali, an hana amfani da kayan kida a cikin Qawwali. Da farko an sanya sharuɗɗan masu zuwa akan Qawwali:

Haka kuma, irin waɗannan Waliyyai Sufaye, kamar Nizamuddin Auliya, malamin shahararren mawaƙin Sufi, Amir Khusrow, sun kasance masu ƙima game da haramcin:

Daga ƙarshe duk da haka, amfani da kayan kiɗan ya sami shiga cikin Qawwali kuma masu yin kidan Qawwali na zamani za su baratar da amfani da kayan aikin ta hanyar cewa Waliyan Sufi ba sa hana su lokacin da suke amfani da su kusa da wuraren ibadar su. Kayan aiki irin su Harmoniums, tabla da dholak yanzu sun zama ruwan dare a yawancin bukukuwan Qawwali.   Waƙoƙin da suka ƙunshi rera waƙar qawwali sune da farko cikin Farisanci, Urdu, Hindi, da Punjabi . Akwai wasu a cikin Farisanci daga zamanin Mughal ,[ana buƙatar hujja] da buguwa a cikin Saraiki da yarukan arewacin Indiya kamar Braj Bhasha da Awadhi . Hakanan akwai qawwali a wasu yaruka na yanki amma al'adar yaren yanki ba ta da tabbas. Hakanan, sautin yaren qawwali na yanki na iya bambanta gaba ɗaya da na ƙawali na al'ada. Tabbas wannan gaskiya ne ga Chhote Babu Qawwal, wanda salon waƙar sa ya fi kusa da waƙar Bengali Baul fiye da qawwali na Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, misali.

An fahimci waƙoƙin a sarari cewa na ruhaniya ne a cikin ma’anarsa, kodayake waƙoƙin na iya yin sauti a wasu lokutan ba tare da son rai ba, ko gabaɗaya. Jigon jigo na qawwali shine soyayya, sadaukarwa da dogon buri (na mutum don Allahntaka)

  • Hamd (حمد) Larabci don yabo, waka ce ta yabon Allah . A al'adance, wasan kwaikwayo na qawwali yana farawa da hamd.
  • A na`at (نعت ) Larabci don bayani, waka ce ta yabon Muhammadu . Naman alade na biye da naman alade na al'ada.
  • Manqabat (jam'in manaqib, مناقب, wanda ke nufin halaye) waka ce ta yabon ko dai Imam Ali ko ɗaya daga cikin waliyyan Sufaye. Ana raira Manaqib na yabon Ali a taron Ahlussunna da na Shi'a. Idan an yi wa mutum waka, zai bi daidai bayan naat. Yawancin lokaci akwai akalla manqabat guda ɗaya a cikin shirin gargajiya.
  • Marsiya (مرثية) Larabci don makoki ga wanda ya mutu, makoki ne kan rasuwar yawancin iyalan Imam Husaini a Yakin Karbala . Wannan yawanci za a rera shi ne kawai a wurin taron ' yan Shi'a.
Diwan Nawab Wazirin Oudh, Asaf-ud-dowlah, wanda ke zaune yana shan taba hookah yana sauraron mawaƙa a Lucknow, ca. Na shekara ta 1812.
  • A ghazal (غزل) Larabci don waƙar soyayya, waƙa ce wacce take sauti a fuskarta. Akwai misalai guda biyu masu tsayi waɗanda ke gudana cikin gazals - farin cikin sha da azabar rabuwa da ƙaunatacce. Waɗannan waƙoƙin suna ba da waƙoƙi masu kayatarwa, kuma tabbas ana iya ɗaukar su a ƙima, kuma ana jin daɗin su a matakin. A zahiri, a cikin Pakistan da Indiya, ghazal shima nau'in salo ne na daban, wanda ake yin yawancin waƙoƙi iri ɗaya a cikin salon kiɗan daban, kuma a cikin yanayin duniya. A cikin mahallin wannan nau'in, galibi ana ɗaukar waƙoƙin a ƙima, kuma babu wata ma'ana mai zurfi da ake ɗauka. Amma a cikin mahallin qawwali, waɗannan waƙoƙin maye da sha'awar suna amfani da misalai na duniya don nuna ƙaƙƙarfan sha'awar begen haɗin kai tare da Allahntaka, da farin cikin sa na son Allahntaka. A cikin waƙoƙin maye, "giya" tana wakiltar "sanin Allahntaka", "mai shayarwa" ( saaqi ) Allah ne ko jagora na ruhaniya, "tavern" shine wurin kwatancen inda rai zai iya (ko a'a) yi sa'ar isa ga samun haske na ruhaniya. ("Tavern" a zahiri ba gidan ibada na al'ada bane. Maimakon haka, an ɗauke shi ya zama mahallin ruhaniya wanda ruhi yake ciki. ) Yin maye shine samun ilimin ruhaniya, ko cika da farin cikin son Allah. A cikin waƙoƙin marmari, ruhin, wanda ya bar shi a cikin wannan duniyar ta wannan mugun ƙaunataccen mai son sojan, Allah, yana raira waƙar azabar rabuwa, da zurfin burin ta na haɗuwa.
  • Kafi waka ce a cikin Punjabi, Seraiki ko Sindhi, wanda ke cikin salo na mawaka irin su Sultan Bahoo, Shah Hussain, Bulleh Shah da Sachal Sarmast . Biyu daga cikin sanannun Kafi sun haɗa da Ni Main Jana Jogi De Naal da Mera Piya Ghar Aaya .
  • Munajaat (مناجاة) Larabci don tattaunawa a cikin dare ko wani nau'in addu'a, waƙa ce inda mawaƙin ke nuna godiyarsa ga Allah ta hanyoyi daban -daban na harshe. Sau da yawa ana rera ta da Farisanci, tare da ɗaukar Mawlana Jalāl-ad-Dīn Rumi a matsayin marubucinta.

Haɗin ƙungiyar ƙawali[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ƙungiyar mawaƙan qawwali, waɗanda ake kira ƙungiya (ko Humnawa a cikin Urdu )yawanci sun ƙunshi maza takwas ko tara ciki har da mawaƙin jagora, mawaƙa na gefe ɗaya ko biyu, jituwa ɗaya ko biyu (wanda mawaƙin jagora, mawaƙin gefe ko wani daban) da raɗaɗi. Idan akwai ƙwaƙƙwafi guda ɗaya kawai, yana wasa tabla da dholak, galibi tabla da mafi rinjayen hannu da ɗolak tare da ɗayan (watau mai kida na hagu zai buga tabla da hannun hagunsa) Sau da yawa za a sami masu yin kida guda biyu, a cikin wannan yanayin ɗayan na iya kunna tabla ɗayan kuma dholak. Hakanan akwai ƙungiyar mawaƙa ta maza huɗu ko biyar waɗanda ke maimaita ayoyi masu mahimmanci, kuma waɗanda ke taimakawa bugun tafin hannu.

The nunawa zauna giciye kananan kafafu, a kan ƙasa a biyu layuka — gubar singer, gefen mawaƙa da harmonium 'yan wasa a gaban jere, da kuma ƙungiyar mawaƙa kuma percussionists a mayar da jere.

Kafin gabatarwar kwangilar kwanan nan, ƙawalis galibi yana tare da sarangi . Dole ne a sake sarangi tsakanin waƙoƙi; harmonium bai yi ba, kuma ba da daɗewa ba aka fifita shi.

A baya an cire mata daga kida na gargajiya na Musulmi, tunda a gargajiyance an hana su yin waka a gaban maza. Wadannan hadisai sun canza, duk da haka, kamar yadda shahara (da yarda) ta mawaƙa mata kamar Abida Parveen ta bayyana . Koyaya, qawwali ya ci gaba da kasancewa sana'ar namiji. Har yanzu babu wasu manyan mata na mata. Duk da mawakiyar kafi Abida Parveen ta ƙara shigar da dabarun ƙawali cikin ayyukan ta, amma har yanzu ba a ɗauke ta a matsayin mawaƙiyar qawwali ba.

Tsarin kida na Qawwali[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Qawwalis yawanci tsakanin mintuna shabiyar 15 zuwa talatin 30. Koyaya, Qawwali mafi tsawo da aka yi rikodin shine ( Yeh Bazm-e-Saqi e Kausar Mein Paee Jati hai ) Na Ustad Rasheed Ahmed Fareedi Qawwal wanda ya fi mintuna dari da ashirin 120 (Awa biyu 2) wanda aka yi rikodinsa a tsakanin shekara ta 1975 zuwa shekara ta 1980. Hakanan kuma wani ƙawali na kasuwanci da aka saki yana gudana sama da mintuna darida shabiyar 115 (Hashr Ke Roz Yeh Poochhunga na Aziz Mian Qawwal )Mawakiyar qawwali Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan tana da aƙalla waƙoƙi biyu waɗanda suka fi mintuna sitting 60 tsayi.

Qawwalis suna fara farawa a hankali kuma suna ginawa akai -akai har zuwa matakin kuzari mai ƙarfi don haifar da jayayya a tsakanin mawaƙa da cikin masu sauraro. Kusan duk Qawwalis sun dogara ne akan Raga daga al'adar kiɗan gargajiya na Hindustani. Ana shirya wakoki kamar haka:

  1. Suna farawa tare da gabatarwar kayan aiki inda aka kunna babban waƙar akan waƙoƙin jituwa, tare da tabla, kuma wanda zai iya haɗawa da saɓani na ƙirar da aka inganta.
  2. Daga nan sai alap ya zo, wani dogon waƙar da aka inganta sautin lokacin da mawaƙan ke yin dogayen rubutu daban -daban, a cikin raga na waƙar da za a yi.
  3. Mawaƙin jagora ya fara rera wasu ayoyin gabatarwa waɗanda galibi basa cikin babban waƙar, kodayake suna da alaƙa da ita. Ana rera waɗannan ba tare da hayaniya ba, an inganta su ta hanyar raga, kuma ana tare da harmonium kawai. Bayan babban mawaƙin ya rera wata baiti, ɗaya daga cikin mawaƙan gefen zai maimaita ayar, wataƙila tare da raunin kansa. Za a rera wasu ayoyi kaɗan ko da yawa ta wannan hanyar, wanda zai kai ga babban waƙar.
  4. Yayin da babban waƙar ya fara, tabla, dholak da tafi suna farawa. Duk membobi suna shiga cikin rera waƙoƙin ayoyin da suka ƙunshi ƙaura. Ba a inganta kalmomin kalmomin manyan ayoyin; a zahiri, waɗannan galibi waƙoƙin gargajiya ne da ƙungiyoyi da yawa ke rerawa, musamman a cikin zuriya ɗaya. Koyaya, waƙoƙin an inganta su sosai cikin tsarin babban waƙar. Yayin da waƙar ke ci gaba, babban mawaƙin ko ɗaya daga cikin mawaƙa na gefe na iya fashewa cikin alap. Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan ita ma ta ba da sanarwar tsoma bakin waƙar sargam a wannan lokacin. Waƙar yawanci tana ginawa cikin ɗan lokaci da sha’awa, tare da kowane mawaƙi yana ƙoƙari ya zarce ɗayan ta fuskokin acrobatics. Wasu mawaƙa na iya yin tsawan lokaci na inganta sargam, musamman musanyawa tare da mawaƙin ɗalibi. Yawancin waƙoƙin suna ƙare ba zato ba tsammani.

Salon wakar qawwali ya sha bamban da salon wakokin Yamma ta hanyoyi da dama. Misali, a cikin kalmomin da suka fara da "m", mawaƙan Yammacin Turai sun dace don ƙarfafa wasalin da ke bin "m" maimakon "m" da kanta, alhali a cikin qawwali, galibi ana yin "m", yana haifar da sautin murya. . Hakanan a cikin qawwali, babu banbanci tsakanin abin da aka sani da muryar kirji da muryar kai (wurare daban -daban da sautin zai yi tasiri dangane da mitar da aka rera). Maimakon haka, qawwals suna rera waƙa da ƙarfi da ƙarfi, wanda ke ba su damar faɗaɗa muryar kirjin su zuwa madaidaicin madaidaici fiye da waɗanda ake amfani da su a waƙar Yammacin Turai, duk da cewa wannan yawanci yana haifar da hayaniya ko matsin lamba fiye da yadda za a yarda da shi a Yamma.

Jerin Gargajiya na Tsarin Sufi na Chishtiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Kayan Aiki: Wannan yakamata ya zama sanarwar isowar Moinuddin Chishti, kamar yadda Sufi ya yi imanin tsarkakansu ba su da sararin samaniya. Hakanan nau'in Nabi, Siddiq, Shaheed, da Saleh na masu aminci ba su mutu ba, kawai sun shiga wata jihar daga inda suke ziyarta duk lokacin da aka ambace su, musamman idan akwai wani aiki a cikin mutuncin su.
  • Hamd
  • Na'at
  • Manqabat Ali
  • Manqabat don yabon tsarkakan Sufaye
  • Manqabat Shaikh: Yabo ga Shaikh/Pir idan wasan kwaikwayon yana a bikin Urs
  • Rang ko Badhawa: Idan wasan Urs ne, to yawanci Rang ne, waƙar Amir Khusro . Sau da yawa ana tambayar masu sauraro su tsaya lokacin da ake rera Rang. Idan ranar haihuwar Shaikh ce, yawanci Badhawa ne.

Sanannen Qawwals na shekaru 70 da suka gabata[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Aziz Mian
  • Badar Ali Khan, aka Badar Miandad
  • Bahauddin Qutbuddin
  • Fateh Ali Khan
  • Habib Mai zane
  • Iqbal Hussain Khan Bandanawazi
  • Munshi Raziuddin
  • Nizami Bandhu
  • Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan
  • Sabri Brothers
  • Wadali Brothers
  • Warsi Brothers

Qawwals na yanzu da na baya -bayan nan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Ateeq Hussain Khan
  • Abdullahi Manzoor Niazi
  • Faiz Ali Faiz
  • Fareed Ayaz
  • Rahat Fateh Ali Khan
  • Sukhawat Ali Khan
  • Rizwan Muazzam
  • Waheed da Naveed Chishti
  • Warsi Brothers
  • Qutbi Brothers
  • Tahir Faridi Qawwal
  • Aminah Chishti Qawwal, Qawwal mace ta farko

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Filmi qawwali
  • Wakar Musulunci
  • Music na Bangladesh
  • Kiɗan Indiya
  • Wakar Pakistan
  • Farin cikin addini
  • Sama (Sufanci)
  • Kiɗan Sufi
  • Urban Qawwali 

Hanyoyin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]