Abubakar

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(an turo daga Sayyadina Abubakar)
Abubakar
1. Khalifofi shiryayyu

8 ga Yuni, 632 - 22 ga Augusta, 634 - Sayyadina Umar
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Makkah, 27 Oktoba 573
Ƙabila Larabawa
Mutuwa Madinah, 23 ga Augusta, 634 (Gregorian)
Makwanci Masallacin Annabi
Ƴan uwa
Mahaifi Abu Quhafa
Mahaifiya Salma Umm-ul-Khair
Abokiyar zama Qutaylah bint Abd-al-Uzza (en) Fassara
Habiba bint Kharija (en) Fassara
Fatima bint Zaid (en) Fassara
Asma bint Umays (en) Fassara
Yara
Karatu
Harsuna Larabci
Sana'a
Sana'a ɗan siyasa, maiwaƙe da Ɗan kasuwa
Aikin soja
Ya faɗaci Yaƙin Uhudu
Imani
Addini Musulunci

Abū Bakr aṣ-Ṣiddīq ‘Abdallāh bin Abī Quḥāfah (Larabci: أبو بكر الصديق عبد الله بن أبي قحافة‎; Ya rayu daga shekara ta dari biyar da saba,in da uku 573 CE zuwazuwa ashirin da uku 23 Agustan shekarar dari shida da talatin da uku 634 CE), An haife shine a 27 ga watan Octoban shekara ta 573,a garin Makkah, Kasar Saudiya.Ya rasu a 23 ga watan Agusta shekara ta 634, a garin Madina An fi sanin sa da sunan Abu Bakar, Ya kasance Babban Sahabi kuma Sirikin Manzon Allah ne, Annabi Muhammad tsira da aminci Allah su tabbata a gare shi. Abu Bakar shi ne mutum na farko daya musulunta wanda badaga cikin dangin manzon Allah yake ba, Abu Bakar ya kasance mai biyayya ga Manzon Allah yayin rayuwarsa.[1][2]

Abu Bakar أبو بكر Al-Siddiq

Amir al-Mu'mineenn Lokaci Khalifancinsa 8 Yuni 632 zuwa 23 Agusta 634 Shi ne Kalifa na farko da aka Samar akan wanda zai jagoranci musulmai bayan rasuwar Manzon Allah. An binne shi a masallacin Manzon Allah, a garin Madinah.[3]

An haifi Abu Bakr a shekara ta 573 CE ga Abu Quhafa da Umm Khayr. Shi dan kabilar Banu Taim ne. A zamanin jahiliyya, ya kasance mai tauhidi kuma yayi Allah wadai da bautar gumaka. A matsayinsa na hamshakin dan kasuwa, Abubakar ya kasance yana ‘yanta bayi. Bayan musulunta a shekara ta 610, Abu Bakr ya yi aiki a matsayin babban mataimaki ga Muhammadu, wanda ya ba shi lakabin "al-Siddiq" ('Mai Gaskiya/Mai adalci'). Na farko dai ya halarci kusan dukkan yakokin da aka yi a karkashin manzon Allah. Ya ba da gudummawar dukiyarsa da yawa don tallafawa aikin Muhammadu da kuma cikin makusantan Muhammad. Ya kuma raka Muhammad akan hijirarsa zuwa Madina. Ta hanyar gayyatar Abubakar, manyan Sahabiyawa da yawa sun zama Musulmai. Ya kasance babban mashawarci na kusa ga Muhammadu, kasancewar kusan duk rikice-rikicen sojansa. Babu Muhammadu Abubakar ya jagoranci sallah da balaguro.

Bayan mutuwar Muhammad a shekara ta dari shida da talatin da biyu 632, Abu Bakr ya ci nasarar jagorancin al'ummar musulmi a matsayin Halifa Rashidun na farko. Zaben nasa dai ya samu adawa da dimbin jagororin kabilu masu tawaye, wadanda suka yi ridda daga Musulunci. A lokacin mulkinsa, ya sha fama da tashe-tashen hankula da dama, wadanda aka fi sani da Yakin Ridda, wanda a sakamakon haka ya sami damar hada kai tare da fadada mulkin daular Musulmi a kan daukacin yankin Larabawa. Ya kuma ba da umarnin fara kutsawa cikin daulolin Sassaniya da Byzantine makwabta, wanda a cikin shekaru da suka biyo bayan mutuwarsa, za su haifar da mamayar musulmi na Farisa da Levant. Baya ga siyasa, Abu Bakr kuma ana yaba masa don harhada Alqur'ani, wanda ya kasance yana da kundin rubutun halifa na kansa. Abubakar ya nada babban mashawarcinsa Umar (r. 634–644) a matsayin magajinsa kafin ya rasu a watan Agustan 634. Tare da Muhammad, an binne Abu Bakr a cikin 'Green Dome' a Al-Masjid an-Nabawi a Madina, wuri na biyu mafi tsarki. a Musulunci. Ya rasu ne sakamakon rashin lafiya bayan ya shafe shekaru biyu 2 da watanni 2 da kwana 14, Halifan Rashidun daya tilo da ya rasu a dalilin halitta. [4] Duk da cewa lokacin khalifancinsa bai yi kankanta ba, amma ya hada da mamaye dauloli biyu mafiya karfi na lokacin, nasara mai ban mamaki a cikinta. Ya kafa wani yanayi na tarihi wanda a cikin 'yan shekarun da suka gabata zai kai ga daya daga cikin manyan dauloli a tarihi. Nasarar da ya yi a kan sojojin Larabawa 'yan tawaye na cikin gida wani muhimmin bangare ne na tarihin Musulunci. Abu Bakr yana da girma a tsakanin musulmai.[5]

Nasaba da Lakabi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Cikakken sunan Abubakar shine Abdullahi bn Abi Quhafa bn Amir bn Amr bn Ka'b bn Sa'd bn Taym bn Murrah bn Ka'b bn Lu'ayy bn Ghalib bn Fihr. Zuriyarsa ta hadu da zuriyar Muhammad a ƙarni na shida tare da Murrah ibn Ka'b. An ambace shi a cikin Alkur'ani sau biyu.

Abdullahi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A Larabci, sunan Abd Allah yana nufin “bawan Allah”. Wannan shine sunan haihuwarsa.

Abubakar[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wannan laƙabin (kunya) an yi masa suna tun yana ƙarami lokacin da ya girma a cikin ƙabilar ƙauye kuma ya kasance mai son raƙuma. Ya yi wasa da ’yan maruƙa da awaki, yana samun wannan laƙabin “Abubakar,” ma’ana “uban raƙumi”. "bakir" a cikin Larabci matashi ne amma ya riga ya girma raƙumi.[6]

Ateeq[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ɗaya daga cikin sunayensa na farko, kafin musuluntarsa, shine Ateeq, ma'ana "mai ceto". A wata ruwaya mai rauni a cikin Tirmizi, Annabi Muhammad daga baya ya sake maimaita wannan suna inda ya ce Abubakar shi ne “Ateeq Allah daga wuta” ma’ana “amince” ko “amince” da tarayya da Allah yana nuna kusanci da kariyarsa. wallahi.[7]

Al-Siddiq[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Muhammad ne ya kira shi Al-Siddiq (Mai gaskiya) bayan ya gaskata shi a waki’ar Isra’ila da Mi’iraji lokacin da wasu mutane ba su yi ba, kuma Ali ya tabbatar da wannan lakabi sau da yawa. An kuma ruwaito shi a cikin Alkur’ani mai girma a matsayin “na biyu na biyun da ke cikin kogo” dangane da waki’ar Hijira, inda tare da Muhammad ya boye a cikin kogon Jabal Thawr daga jam’iyyar Makka da aka aiko bayansu.[8]

Al-Sahib[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An kira shi da daraja da sunan “al-sahib” (sahabi) a cikin Alkur’ani yana mai bayyana matsayinsa na sahabi Annabi Muhammad a lokacin da ya buya daga kuraishawa a kogon Jabal Thawr a lokacin Hijira zuwa Madina:

"Ba kome idan kun ki ku taimake shi, kuma lalle ne Allah Yã taimake shi a lõkacin da kãfirai suka fitar da shi daga Makka, kuma bai kasance ba fãce dayan biyu.  Yayin da su biyun ke cikin kogon, sai ya tabbatar wa abokin nasa, “Kada ka damu;  Lalle Allah yana tare da mu."  Sai Allah Ya saukar da natsuwarSa a kan Annabi( SAW), kuma Ya taimake shi da rundunonin da ba ku gani ba, kuma Ya sanya kalmar kãfirai mafi ƙasƙanta, kuma kalmar Allah ita ce maɗaukakiya.  Kuma Allah Mabuwayi ne, Mai hikima.[9:40 -Alqur'ani bayyananne]."[9]

Al-Atqa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin wani hadith da ibn Abbas ya ruwaito tafsirin sura ta 92 na Alqur’ani daga bakin imam Suyuti zamu sami kalmar “al-atqā” (Larabci: الأتقى), ma’ana “mafi tsoron Allah,” “mafi adalci”. “ko kuma “mafi tsoron Allah” ana nufin Abubakar a matsayin misali ga muminai.

Sabõda haka, Nã yi muku gargaɗi da wata wutã mai hushi, bãbu mai ƙõnuwa a cikinta fãce mafi shaƙãwa, kuma ya kãfirta, kuma ya bijire. Amma salihai za a tsira daga gare ta—waɗanda suke ba da ˹wasu daga cikin dũkiyõyinsu kawai don tsarkake kansu, ba wai don neman yardar wani ba, amma suna neman yardar Ubangijinsu, Maɗaukaki. [92:14-21] Lalle ne za su yarda.

Al-Awāh[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

“Al-Awāh” (Larabci: الأواه) yana nufin wanda ya yawaita roƙon Allah, mai jin ƙai, kuma mai tausasawa. Ibrahim al-Nakha'i ya ce Abubakar kuma ana kiransa al-awāh saboda halinsa na jinƙai.

Farkon Rayuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An haifi Abu Bakr a Makka a wani lokaci a shekara ta 573 AZ, ga wani gida mai arziki a kabilar Banu Taym na kawancen kabilar Kuraishawa. Sunan mahaifinsa Uthman kuma an ba shi kunya Abu Quhafa, mahaifiyarsa kuwa ita ce Salma bint Sakhar wacce aka yiwa laqabin Ummul-Khair.

Ya yi ƙuruciyarsa kamar sauran yaran Larabawa na lokacin, daga cikin Badawiyyawa waɗanda suke kiran kansu Ahl-i-Ba'eer- mutanen raƙumi, kuma suka sami sha'awar raƙuma. A shekarunsa na farko ya yi wasa da ’ya’yan rakumi da akuya, kuma son rakumi ya sa ake masa lakabi da (kunya) “Abubakar”, mahaifin marakin rakumi.

Kamar sauran ƴaƴan dangin ƴan kasuwa na Makka, Abu Bakr ya kasance mai ilimi kuma ya sami sha'awar waƙa. Ya kasance yana halartar bikin baje kolin shekara-shekara a Ukaz, kuma yana shiga cikin baje kolin wakoki. Yana da kyakkyawan tunani kuma yana da kyakkyawar masaniya game da asalin ƙabilun Larabawa, labaransu da siyasarsu.[10]

An adana labari cewa, lokacin yana ƙarami, mahaifinsa ya kai shi ɗakin Ka'aba, ya roƙe shi ya yi addu'a a gaban gumaka. Mahaifinsa ya tafi don halartar wani kasuwanci, kuma Abubakar ya kasance shi kaɗai. Da yake yiwa wani gunki magana, Abubakar ya ce: "Ya Ubangijina, ina bukatan tufafi masu kyau, ka bani su". Tsafi ya kasance ba ruwansa. Sai ya yi wa wani gunki magana, ya ce, “Ya Allah ka ba ni abinci mai dadi, ka ga ina jin yunwa”. Tsafi ya yi sanyi. Hakan ya gagara haqurin saurayi Abubakar. Ya ɗaga dutse, ya yi magana ga gunki, ya ce, "Ga shi, ina nufin dutse, idan kai ne Allah ka tsare kanka." Abubakar ya jefi gunkin ya bar Ka'aba. Ko ta yaya, ya rubuta cewa kafin ya musulunta, Abubakar ya kasance dan hanif ne kuma bai taba bautar gumaka ba.[11]

Karbar Addinin Musulinci[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Lokacin da ya dawo daga balaguron kasuwanci a Yemen, abokai sun sanar da shi cewa a cikin rashi, Muhammadu ya ayyana kansa a matsayin manzon Allah. Masanin tarihi Al-Tabari, a cikin littafinsa Tarikh al-Tabari, ya kawo daga Muhammad bn Sa'ad bn Abi Waqqas, wanda ya ce: "Na tambayi mahaifina ko Abubakar shine farkon musulmi? Ya ce: A’a, fiye da mutane hamsin ne suka musulunta kafin Abubakar; amma ya fi mu a matsayinmu na musulmi. Kuma Umar bn al-Khattab ya musulunta bayan maza arba'in da biyar mata ashirin da ɗaya. Amma wanda ya fi kowa a fagen Musulunci da imani, shi ne Ali bn Abi Talib."

Wasu Sunni da dukkan Shi'a sun yarda cewa mutum na biyu da ya karɓi Muhammad a matsayin manzon Allah a bainar jama'a shine Ali ibn Abi Talib, farkon matar Muhammad Khadija. Ibn Kathir, a cikin Al Bidaya Wal Nihayah, yayi watsi da wannan. Ya bayyana cewa mace ta farko da ta musulunta ita ce Khadijah. Zayd ibn Harithah shine bawa na farko da ya 'yanta ya musulunta. Ali bn Abi Talib shi ne yaro na farko da ya musulunta, domin bai kai ma balaga ba a lokacin, yayin da Abubakar shi ne mutum na farko da ya musulunta.[12]

Rayuwa ta gaba a Makka[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Matarsa Qutaylah bint Abd-al-Uzza ba ta karɓi Musulunci ba sai ya sake ta. Wata matarsa, Um Ruman, ta musulunta. Duk 'ya'yansa sun yarda da Musulunci in ban da Abd al-Rahman, wanda Abubakar ya barranta daga gare shi. Musuluntarsa kuma ya jawo mutane da yawa zuwa Musulunci. Ya ja hankalin abokansa na kut-da-kut da su musulunta, ya kuma gabatar da Musulunci ga sauran abokansa ta yadda da yawa daga cikinsu ma suka yarda da imani. Wadanda suka musulunta bisa nacewar Abubakar su ne:

  • Uthman Ibn Affan (wanda zai zama halifa na uku)
  • Al-Zubayr (wanda ya taka rawa a yakin Masar na musulmi)
  • Talha bn Ubayd-Allah, baffansa kuma babban sahabin annabi.
  • 'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Awf (wanda zai kasance wani muhimmin bangare na Halifancin Rashidun)
  • Sa'ad bn Abi Waqqas (wanda ya taka rawa a fafatawar musulunci na Farisa)
  • Abu Ubaidah bn al-Jarrah (wanda ya kasance babban kwamandan rundunar Rashidun a Levant)
  • Abu Salama, dan uwa ne ga Annabi Muhammadu.
  • Khalid bn Sa’id (wanda ya yi aiki a matsayin Janar a karkashin rundunar Rashidun a Sham).

Karɓar Abubakar ta zama wani ci gaba a cikin aikin Muhammadu. Bauta ta zama ruwan dare a Makka, kuma bayi da yawa sun karɓi Musulunci. A lokacin da dan ’yanci na gari ya karbi Musulunci, duk da adawar da ake yi masa, zai samu kariya daga kabilarsa. Ga bayi, duk da haka, babu irin wannan kariyar kuma yawanci suna fuskantar tsanantawa. Abubakar ya ji tausayin bayi, sai ya sayi takwas (maza hudu da mata hudu) sannan ya ‘yanta su, ya biya dinari 40,000 don ‘yancinsu. Mazajen sune:

  1. Bilal bin Rabah
  2. Abu Fukah
  3. Ammar bin Yasir
  4. Abu Fuhayra

Matan sun kasance:

  1. Lubaynah
  2. Al-Nahdiah
  3. Ummu Ubay
  4. Harithah bint al-Muammil

Mafi yawan bayin da Abubakar ya 'yanta, ko dai mata ne ko kuma tsoffi kuma maza ne masu rauni. Da baban Abubakar ya tambaye shi me ya sa bai ‘yanta bayi masu karfi da matasa ba, wadanda za su iya zama madogara a gare shi, sai Abubakar ya amsa masa da cewa yana ‘yanta bayi ne saboda Allah, ba don kansa ba.

Zaluncin Kuraishawa, 613[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

BABBAN LANARIN: Zaluntar Musulmai daga Makka Shekaru uku bayan haifuwar Musulunci, Musulmai sun asirta imaninsu. A cikin 613, bisa ga al'adar Musulunci, Allah ya umurce Muhammadu ya kira mutane zuwa Musulunci a fili. Abu Bakr ya gabatar da jawabin farko ga jama'a don yin mubaya'a ga Muhammad. A fusace samarin kabilar kuraishawa suka garzaya wurin Abubakar suka yi masa duka har sai da ya suma. Bayan faruwar wannan lamari sai mahaifiyar Abubakar ta musulunta. Kuraishawa sun tsananta wa Abubakar sau da yawa. Ko da yake da akidar Abubakar da danginsa sun kare, amma ba haka ba ne ga daukacin kabilar Kuraishawa.

Shekarar karshe a Makka[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A shekara ta 617, Kuraishawa sun tilasta wa Banu Hashim kauracewa. Muhammad tare da magoya bayansa daga Banu Hashim, an yanke su ne a hanyar wucewa daga Makka. An yanke duk wata alaka ta zamantakewa da Banu Hashim kuma jiharsu ta kasance a gidan yari.[Bayyanawa] Kafin a yi hijira da yawa daga Musulmai zuwa Abyssinia (yanzu Habasha). Abu Bakr yana cikin bacin rai ya tashi ya nufi kasar Yemen daga nan ya nufi Abisiniya. Ya gamu da wani abokinsa mai suna Ad-Dughna (shugaban kabilar Qarah) a wajen Makka, wanda ya gayyaci Abubakar don neman kariyarsa daga kuraishawa. Abu Bakr ya koma Makka, hakan ya masa sauki, amma jim kadan saboda matsin Kuraishawa, sai Ad-Dughna ya yi watsi da kariyarsa. Kuraishawa sun sake samun 'yanci don tsananta wa Abubakar.

A shekara ta 620, kawun Muhammad kuma mai kare shi, Abu Talib bn Abd al-Muttalib, da matar Muhammad Khadija ya rasu. 'Yar Abubakar Aisha ta kasance ango da Muhammad; duk da haka, an yanke shawarar cewa za a gudanar da ainihin daurin auren daga baya. A cikin 620 Abu Bakr shine mutum na farko da ya fara ba da shaida ga Muhammad Isra'i da Mi'raj (Tafiyar Dare).

Matansa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Qutaylah bint Abd-al-Uzza (sun rabu)
  • Umm Rumān Asma bint Umais
  • Habibah bint Kharijah

Yaransa Maza[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Abdullah ibn Abi Bakar
  2. Abdul-Rahman ibn Abi Bakar
  3. Muhammad ibn Abi Bakar

Yaransa Mata[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Asma bint Abi Bakar
  2. Aisha

Ummu Khultum bint Abi Bakar

Cikakken suna[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

(Abū Bakar) Abdullāh bin Abī Quḥāfa (عبد الله بن أبي قحافة (أبو بكر

Mahaifinsa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Uthman Abu Quhafa

Mahaifiyarsa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Salma Umm-ul-Khair

Yan'uwansa maza[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Mu'taq
  • Utaiq
  • Quhafah ibn Uthman

Yan'uwansa mata[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • ta: Fadra Qareeba Umme-e-Aamer Kabila: Quraysh (Banu Taym) Zuri'arsu: Siddiqui Addini: Islamah Sana'arsa: Kasuwanci, yayi Khalifanci na tsawon shekara.

Hijira zuwa madina[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A shekara ta 622, bisa gayyatar musulmin Madina, Muhammad ya umurci musulmi da su yi hijira zuwa Madina. An fara hijira a cikin batches. Ali shi ne na karshe da ya ci gaba da zama a Makka, wanda aka ba shi alhakin daidaita duk wani lamuni da musulmi suka karba, kuma ya shahara a kwance a gadon Muhammad lokacin da Kuraishawa karkashin jagorancin Ikrima suka yi yunkurin kashe Muhammad a lokacin da yake barci. Ana cikin haka sai Abubakar ya raka Muhammad (S.A.W) zuwa Madina. Saboda hatsarin da Kuraishawa ke da shi, ba su bi hanyar ba, sai dai sun bi ta wata hanya, inda suka fake a wani kogo na Jabal Thawr, mai nisan mil biyar kudu da Makka. Abd Allah bn Abi Bakr ya kasance yana sauraren tsare-tsare da tattaunawa na kuraishawa, kuma da dare ya kan kai labari zuwa ga wadanda suka gudu a cikin kogon. Asma bint Abi Bakr ‘yar Abubakar ta rika kawo musu abinci kullum. Aamir, bawan Abubakar, yakan kawo garken awaki a bakin kogon kowane dare, inda ake shayar da su. Kuraishawa sun aika da ƙungiyoyin bincike ta kowace hanya. Wata ƙungiya ta zo kusa da ƙofar kogon, amma ta kasa ganinsu. Saboda haka, aya Qur'ani 9:40 ta sauka. A’isha da Abu Sa’id al-Khudri da Abd Allah bn Abbas suna tafsirin wannan ayar sun ce Abubakar shi ne sahabin da ya zauna tare da Muhammad (S.A.W) a cikin kogon.

Bayan sun zauna a cikin kogon na tsawon kwana uku da darare uku, Abubakar da Muhammad (S.A.W) suka wuce Madina, suka zauna na wani lokaci a Quba, wata unguwar bayan Madina.

Rayuwar sa a Madinah[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A Madina, Muhammad(S.A.W) ya yanke shawarar gina masallaci. Sai aka zabi wani fili, sannan Abubakar ya biya kudin kasar. Musulmai, gami da Abubakar, sun gina masallaci mai suna Al-Masjid al-Nabawi a wurin. Abubakar ya kasance tare da Khaarijah bin Zaid Ansari (wanda ya kasance daga Madina) a matsayin ɗan'uwa a cikin imani. Dangantakar Abubakar da Khaarijah ta kasance mafi kyawu, wanda hakan ya kara karfi lokacin da Abubakar ya auri Habiba ‘yar Khaarijah. Khaarijah bin Zaid Ansari ya zauna a garin Sunh, wata unguwar Madina, shi ma Abubakar ya zauna. Bayan iyalan Abubakar sun isa Madina, sai ya sayi wani gida kusa da na Muhammad.

Yayin da yanayin Makka ya bushe, yanayin Madina ya yi dauri kuma saboda haka ne akasarin bakin haure suka yi rashin lafiya a lokacin da suka isa. Abu Bakr ya kamu da zazzabi na tsawon kwanaki, inda Khaarijah da iyalansa suka halarta. A Makka, Abubakar ya kasance mai sana’ar sayar da kaya, kuma ya fara sana’ar a Madina. Ya bude sabon kantinsa a Sunh, daga nan kuma aka kawo kayan sawa zuwa kasuwa a Madina. Ba da daɗewa ba kasuwancinsa ya bunƙasa. A farkon shekara ta 623, 'yar Abu Bakr, Aisha, wadda ta riga ta auri Muhammadu(S.A.W), an aika zuwa gidan Muhammad(S.A.W) bayan bikin aure mai sauki, wanda ya kara karfafa dangantaka tsakanin Abubakar da Muhammad.(S.A.W).


Wafatin Shugaba Annabi Muhammadu (S.A.W)[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Akwai hadisai da dama dangane da kwanaki na karshe na Annabi Muhammadu(S.A.W) wadanda aka yi amfani da su wajen karfafa ra'ayin babban abota da amana da aka ce sun kasance tsakaninsa da Abubakar. A cikin irin wannan al'amari, yayin da Muhammadu(S.A.W) ke gab da rasuwa, ya sami kansa ya kasa gudanar da sallah kamar yadda ya saba. Ya umurci Abubakar da ya maye gurbinsa, ya yi biris da damuwar A’isha cewa mahaifinta yana da taurin kai ga wannan matsayi. Daga baya Abubakar ya hau matsayin, kuma a lokacin da Muhammad(S.A.W) ya shiga dakin sallah wata rana da safe a lokacin sallar asuba, Abubakar ya yi yunkurin komawa baya don ya bar shi ya dauki inda ya saba ya jagoranci. Muhammad(S.A.W) kuwa ya kyale shi ya cigaba. A wani lamari makamancin haka, a daidai wannan lokaci ne Muhammad(S.A.W) ya hau kan mimbari ya yi jawabi ga jama'a yana mai cewa: "Allah ya bai wa bawansa zabi tsakanin duniya da abin da ke wurin Allah kuma shi ne ya zabi na karshen." Abu Bakr, yana fahimtar haka da cewa Muhammadu(S.A.W) bai daɗe da rayuwa ba, sai ya ce, “A’a, mu da ’ya’yanmu za su zama fansarka. Muhammad(S.A.W) ya yi ta’aziyya ga abokin nasa kuma ya ba da umarnin a rufe dukkan kofofin da suke shiga masallacin ban da abin da ke fitowa daga gidan Abubakar, “domin ban san wanda ya fi shi abokina ba.”

Bayan rasuwar Muhammadu(S.A.W), al'ummar musulmi ba su shirya don rasa shugabansu ba kuma mutane da yawa sun fuskanci kaduwa sosai. Umar ya shafi musamman, a maimakon haka ya bayyana cewa Muhammadu(S.A.W) ya je neman shawara da Allah kuma nan ba da jimawa ba zai dawo, yana tsoratar da duk wanda zai ce Muhammadu(S.A.W) ya rasu. Abubakar bayan ya koma Madina ya kwantar da hankalin Umar ta hanyar nuna masa gawar Muhammadu(S.A.W), yana mai gamsar da shi game da mutuwarsa[61]. Daga nan sai ya yi jawabi ga wadanda suka taru a masallacin, inda ya ce, “Duk wanda ya bauta wa Muhammadu(S.A.W), Muhammadu(S.A.W) ya rasu, duk wanda ya bauta wa Allah, to, Allah rayayye ne, ba mai mutuwa ba”, don haka ya kawo karshen duk wani shakulatin bangaranci a cikin al’umma. Daga nan sai ya karkare da ayoyin Alqur’ani cewa: “(Ya Muhammad)(S.A.W) Lallai kai mai mutuwa ne, kuma su ma za su mutu”. [39:30] "Muhammad bai zama ba face manzo, kuma lalle ne manzanni da yawa sun shude a gabaninsa, idan ya mutu ko aka kashe shi, to, za ku juya a dugaduganku? Kuma wanda ya juya a kan dugadugansa , ba zai cutar da Allah ko kadan ba, kuma Allah zai saka wa masu godiya."

Saqifa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bayan wafatin Muhammad, an gudanar da taron Ansar' ('yan asalin Madina) a unguwar Saqifah na kabilar Banu Sa'ida, abin da aka sani a lokacin shi ne manufar taron ita ce. don Ansar su yanke shawara a kan sabon shugaban al'ummar musulmi a tsakanin su, tare da keɓe Muhajirun (masu hijira daga Makka), ko da yake daga baya wannan ya zama batun muhawara.

Amma duk da haka Abubakar da Umar da suka sami labarin taron sai suka damu da yiwuwar juyin mulki, suka gaggauta zuwa wurin taron. Da isarsu, Abubakar ya yi wa mutanen da suka taru jawabi tare da gargadin cewa yunƙurin zaɓen shugaba ba na ƙabilar Muhammad ba, Quraishawa, zai iya haifar da sabani, domin su kaɗai ne za su iya ba da umarnin girmama da ya dace a tsakanin al'umma. Sannan ya kama hannun Umar da Abu Ubaidah ya mika su ga Ansaru a matsayin zabin da zai dace. Habab ibn Mundhir wani jigo a yakin Badar ya mayar da martani da nasa shawarar cewa Kuraishawa da Ansar su zabi shugaba kowanne daga cikinsu, wanda zai yi mulki tare. Kungiyar ta yi zafi da jin wannan shawara kuma ta fara jayayya a tsakaninsu. Masani na Orientalist William Muir ya ba da lura da yanayin:

Lokacin yana da mahimmanci. Haɗin kai na Imani ya kasance cikin haɗari. Ƙarfin da aka raba zai faɗi guntu, kuma duk yana iya ɓacewa. Tufafin Manzon Allah Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallama dole ne ya hau kan Magaji xaya, kuma a kan xaya. Mulkin Musulunci ya bukaci a yi halifanci da ba a raba; kuma Larabawa ba za ta amince da wani shugaba ba sai daga cikin Kuraishawa.

Umar ya yi gaggawar riko hannun Abubakar ya rantse wa na baya, misali da mutanen da suka taru. Taron dai ya watse ne a lokacin da wata hatsaniya ta barke tsakanin Umar da Sarkin Banu Sa’ida, Sa’ad bn Ubadah. Wannan yana iya nuni da cewa ba za a yi ijma'i akan zabin Abubakar ba, tare da tada jijiyoyin wuya a sakamakon sabanin.

Abu Bakr ya kasance kusa da duniya an yarda da shi a matsayin shugaban al'ummar musulmi (karkashin lakabin Khalifa) sakamakon Saqifah, ko da yake ya fuskanci sabani saboda gaugawar taron. Sahabbai da dama, wadanda suka fi shahara a cikinsu su ne Ali ibn Abi Talib, da farko sun ki amincewa da ikonsa. A cikin ’yan Shi’a, an kuma yi iƙirarin cewa a baya an naɗa Ali a matsayin magajin Muhammadu, tare da kallon zaben a matsayin wanda ya saba wa burin na biyu. Daga baya Abubakar ya aika Umar ya fuskanci Ali, wanda hakan ya haifar da rikici wanda watakila ya hada da tashin hankali. Sai dai bayan wata shida kungiyar ta yi sulhu da Abubakar kuma Ali ya yi masa mubaya'a.

Jihadi tare da Annabi Muhammadu(S.A.W)[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yakin Badar[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A shekara ta 624, Abubakar ya shiga yakin farko tsakanin Musulmai da Kuraishawa na Makka, wanda aka fi sani da Yakin Badar, amma bai yi yaki ba, a maimakon haka ya zama daya daga cikin masu gadin tantin Muhammad. Dangane da haka, daga baya Ali ya tambayi abokansa a kan wanene suke ganin ya fi kowa jarumta a cikin mutane? Kowa ya ce Ali ya fi kowa jarumtaka. Sai Ali ya amsa da cewa:

A'a Abubakar shine mafi jarumtar mazaje. A yakin Badar mun yi tanadin wani rumfa ga Annabi, amma da aka ce mu ba da kanmu aikin gadinsa babu wanda ya fito sai Abubakar. Da takobi a zare ya dauki matsayinsa a gefen Manzon Allah yana tsare shi daga kafirai ta hanyar kai hari ga wadanda suka kuskura su ci gaba da wannan hanya. Don haka ya kasance jarumin mazaje.

A cikin lissafin Ahlus-Sunnah, a lokacin irin wannan harin, fayafai guda biyu daga garkuwar Abubakar sun shiga cikin kuncin Muhammad. Abubakar ya ci gaba da niyyar ciro wadannan fayafai amma Abu Ubaidah bn al-Jarrah ya bukaci ya bar masa al'amarin, ya rasa allurarsa guda biyu a yayin aikin. A cikin wa] annan labarun daga baya Abubakar, tare da wasu sahabbai, suka jagoranci Muhammadu(S.A.W)zuwa wurin tsira.

Yakin Uhudu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A shekara ta 625, ya halarci yakin Uhudu, inda aka fatattaki mafi yawan musulmi, kuma shi da kansa ya samu rauni. Kafin a fara yakin, dansa Abd al-Rahman, wanda a lokacin har yanzu ba musulmi ba ne, kuma yana yaki a bangaren Kuraishawa, ya fito ya jefar da kalubalen fada. Abubakar ya yarda da kalubalen amma Muhammad ya hana shi. Daga baya Abdurrahman ya matso kusa da mahaifinsa ya ce masa "Kai an tona mini asiri ne, amma na kau da kai ban kashe ka ba." Don haka sai Abubakar ya amsa da cewa "Duk da haka, da a ce an bijire mini a matsayin abin hari da ban kau da kai daga gare ku ba." A kashi na biyu na yakin, sojojin dawakan Khalid bn al-Walid sun far wa musulmi daga baya, inda suka canza nasarar musulmi zuwa ga ci. Da yawa sun gudu daga fagen fama har da Abubakar. Duk da haka, bisa ga nasa lissafin, shi ne "wanda ya fara dawowa".

Yakin Khandaki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A shekara ta 627 ya halarci Yakin Rarara da ma Banu Qurayza. A yakin Rarara, Muhammadu ya raba ramin zuwa sassa da dama kuma an sanya wata tawaga da za ta gadin kowane sashe. Daya daga cikin wadannan runduna ta kasance karkashin jagorancin Abubakar. Makiya sun yi ta kai hare-hare akai-akai a kokarinsu na ketare ramin, inda aka fatattake su. Domin tunawa da wannan taron an gina wani masallaci, wanda daga baya aka fi sani da 'Masjid-i-Siddiq', a wurin da Abubakar ya kori tuhumar da makiya ke yi.

Yakin Khaibar[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Abubakar ya halarci yakin Khaibar. Khaybar yana da kagara guda takwas, mafi karfi da tsaro a cikinsu ana kiransa Al-Qamus. Muhammad ya aiki Abubakar tare da gungun mayaka domin su yi yunkurin dauka, amma ba su samu ba. Haka kuma Muhammadu ya aika Umar tare da gungun mayaka, amma shi ma Umar bai iya cin galaba a kan Al-Qamus ba. Wasu musulmi ma sun yi yunƙurin kame katangar, amma ba su yi nasara ba. A ƙarshe, Muhammadu ya aika Ali, wanda ya ci nasara da shugaban abokan gaba, Marhab.

Yaƙin shekarun ƙarshe na Annabi Muhammadu(S.A.W)[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A shekara ta 629 Muhammad ya aika Amr bn al-'As zuwa Zaat-ul-Sallasal, sannan Abu Ubaidah bn al-Jarrah ya biyo baya don amsa kiran karfafawa. Abubakar da Umar sun jagoranci wata runduna a qarqashin al-Jarrah, sai suka kai farmaki suka fatattaki maqiya.

A cikin 630, lokacin da Musulmai suka ci Makka, Abu Bakr yana cikin sojoji. Kafin a ci Makka babansa Abu Quhafa ya musulunta.

Yakin Hunayni da Ta'if[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A shekara ta 630, maharba daga kabilun yankin sun yi wa sojojin musulmi kwanton bauna a lokacin da suke wucewa ta kwarin Hunain, mai nisan mil goma sha daya daga arewa maso gabashin Makka. Ba tare da an sansu ba, sai jami'an gaba na sojojin musulmi suka gudu a firgice. An sami rudani sosai, rakuma, dawakai da mutane sun yi karo da juna a ƙoƙarin neman mafaka. Muhammad kuwa ya tsaya kyam. Sahabbai tara ne suka rage a wajensa, ciki har da Abubakar. Karkashin umarnin Muhammadu, kawun nasa Abbas ya yi kira da babbar murya, "Ya ku Musulmai, ku zo wurin Annabin Allah". Sojojin musulmi ne suka ji kiran suka taru a gefen Muhammad. Lokacin da Musulmai suka taru a adadi mai yawa, Muhammadu ya ba da umarnin a gurfanar da abokan gaba. A fadan hannu da hannu da ya biyo bayan kabilun an fatattaki su suka gudu zuwa Autas.[13]

Muhammad ya aika da tawagar da za su gadin wucewar Hunain kuma ya jagoranci babbar runduna zuwa Autas. A arangama da aka yi a Autas kabilun sun kasa daurewa musulmi hari. Gaskanta ci gaba da tsayin daka ba shi da amfani, kabilun sun balle kuma suka koma Ta'if.

Muhammad ne ya nada Abubakar ya jagoranci harin da aka kai wa Ta'if. Kabilan sun kulle kansu a cikin kagara kuma suka ki fitowa fili. Musulmai sun yi amfani da katafalu, amma ba tare da wani sakamako na gaske ba. Musulman sun yi yunkurin yin amfani da wata hanyar gwaji, inda wasu gungun sojoji da ke da garkuwa da rigar saniya suka yi gaba suka kona kofar. Duk da haka, abokan gaba sun jefa jajayen tarkacen ƙarfe a kan gwajin, wanda ya sa ya zama mara amfani.

An kwashe makonni biyu ana kewaye, kuma har yanzu babu alamar rauni a cikin kagara. Muhammad ya gudanar da majalisar yaki. Abubakar ya ba da shawarar cewa za a iya tayar da wannan kawanya, kuma Allah ya yi tanadin faduwar kagara. An yarda da shawarar, kuma a cikin Fabrairu 630, an tayar da kewayen Ta'if kuma sojojin musulmi suka koma Makka. Bayan ‘yan kwanaki sai Malik bin Auf kwamanda ya zo Makka ya musulunta.[14]

Abubakar a matsayin Amirul Hajji[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A shekara ta 631 miladiyya, Muhammad ya aika da tawaga musulmi dari uku daga Madina domin gudanar da aikin Hajji bisa ga sabuwar hanyar Musulunci, ya nada Abubakar a matsayin shugaban tawagar. Washegari bayan Abubakar da tawagarsa sun tafi aikin Hajji, Muhammadu ya sami sabon wahayi: Suratu Tawbah, sura ta tara na Alqur'ani. An ruwaito cewa lokacin da wannan wahayi ya zo, wani ya ba wa Muhammad shawarar ya aika da labarinsa ga Abubakar. Muhammad yace mutumin gidansa ne kadai zai iya shelanta wahayi.

Muhammadu(S.A.W) ya kira Ali, ya tambaye shi ya shelanta wani yanki na Suratu Tawbah ga mutane a ranar layya lokacin da suka taru a Mina. Ali ya fita bisa rakumin Muhammadu mai tsinke kunne, ya riski Abubakar. Lokacin da Ali ya shiga jam’iyyar, Abubakar ya so sanin ko ya zo ne domin ya ba da umurni ko ya isar da su. Ali ya ce bai zo ne ya maye gurbin Abubakar a matsayin Amirul Hajji ba, kuma aikin sa kawai shi ne isar da sako na musamman ga mutane a madadin Muhammad(S.A.W).

A Makka, Abu Bakr ya jagoranci bikin Hajji, kuma Ali ya karanta sanarwar a madadin Muhammad. Manyan batutuwan sanarwar sun hada da:

  1. Don haka ba a ba wa waɗanda ba musulmi damar ziyartar Ka'aba' ko yin aikin hajji ba.
  2. Kada wani ya yi dawafin Ka'aba tsirara.
  3. Ba a yarda da shirka ba. Inda musulmi suka yi wata yarjejeniya da mushrikai irin wadannan yarjejeniyoyin za a girmama su na tsawon lokacin da aka kayyade. Inda babu yarjejeniyoyin sai aka bayar da wata huxu (hudu) sannan kuma ba za a baiwa mushrikai kwata kwata ba.

Tun daga ranar da aka yi shelar sabon zamani ya waye, kuma Musulunci ne kawai ya zama koli a Larabawa.

Fitar Abubakar(R.A) yaki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Abu Bakr ya jagoranci balaguron soji guda daya, watau Bakin Abu Bakr As-Siddiq,[51] wanda ya gudana a Najd, a watan Yuli 628 (wata na uku 7AH a kalandar Musulunci). Abu Bakr ya jagoranci wani babban kamfani a Nejd bisa umarnin Muhammad. An kashe da yawa an kuma kai su fursuna. Littafin Hadisin Sunna Sunan Abu Dawud ya ambaci taron.

Fitar Usama bin Zayd yaki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin 632, a cikin makonni na ƙarshe na rayuwarsa, Muhammadu ya ba da umarnin a kai hari zuwa Siriya don ɗaukar fansa kan cin nasarar da aka yi wa Musulmai a Yaƙin Mu'tah wasu shekaru baya. Wanda ya jagoranci kamfen shine Usama bn Zayd, wanda aka kashe mahaifinsa, ɗan riƙon Muhammad Zayd ibn Harithah, a rikicin baya. Bai fi shekara ashirin ba, ba a gogewa ba kuma ba a gwada shi ba, nadin Usama ya yi ta cece-kuce, inda ya zama matsala musamman a lokacin da aka sanya tsofaffin sojoji kamar su Abubakar, da Abu Ubaidah bn al-Jarrah da Sa'ad bn Abi Waqqas karkashin jagorancinsa. Duk da haka, an aika da balaguro, ko da yake ba da daɗewa ba bayan an tashi, an sami labarin mutuwar Muhammadu, wanda ya tilasta sojojin su koma Madina. Ba a sake shiga yakin ba sai bayan hawan Abubakar zuwa halifanci, inda a nan ne ya zabi ya kara tabbatar da umarnin Usama, wanda a karshe ya kai ga nasara.[15]

Rasuwar(Wafatin) sa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A ranar 23 ga Agusta 634, Abubakar ya yi rashin lafiya kuma bai warke ba. Zazzabi mai zafi ya kamashi ya kwanta. Ciwonsa ya daɗe, kuma da yanayinsa ya tsananta, sai ya ji kamar ƙarshensa ya kusa. Da ya gane haka sai ya aika aka kirawo Ali ya bukace shi da ya yi tafsirinsa tunda Ali ma ya yi wa Muhammad. Abubakar ya ga ya kamata ya nada magajinsa don kada lamarin ya zama sanadin sabani a tsakanin musulmi bayan rasuwarsa, duk da cewa an yi ta cece-kuce kan rashin nada Ali. Ya nada Umar a kan wannan aiki bayan ya tattauna da wasu Sahabbai. Wasu daga cikinsu sun fifita nadin, wasu kuma ba sa son ta, saboda taurin hali na Umar. Don haka Abubakar ya yi wasiyyarsa ta karshe ga Usman bn Affan kamar haka:

"Da sunan Allah Mai rahama.  Wannan ita ce wasiyyar Abubakar xan Abu Quhafa, a lokacin da yake cikin sa’a ta qarshen duniya, kuma ta farkon lahira;  Sa'ar da kafiri ya yi imani a cikinta, azzalumai ya gamsu da munanan ayyukansu, na zabi Umar dan Khaddab a matsayin magajina.  Saboda haka, ku ji shi, ku yi masa biyayya.  Idan ya yi daidai, tabbatar da ayyukansa.  Niyyata tana da kyau, amma ba zan iya ganin sakamakon nan gaba ba.  Kuma waɗanda suka yi zãlunci, to, zã su yi wa kansu hisãbi mai tsanani a bãyan haka.  Lafiya lau.  Da fatan za a kasance tare da yardar Ubangiji ta albarka".

Umar ya jagoranci sallar jana'izarsa kuma an binne shi a gefen kabarin Muhammad (S.A.W). Allah shi dada haske a kabarin sa. [16]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibn_Sa%27d#Kit%C4%81b_al-%E1%B9%ACabaq%C4%81t_al-Kab%C4%ABr
  2. https://books.google.com/books?id=OZbyz_Hr-eIC&pg=PP1
  3. https://islamansiklopedisi.org.tr/yar-i-gar
  4. http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780195390155/obo-9780195390155-0221.xml
  5. http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780195390155/obo-9780195390155-0221.xml
  6. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Prophets_and_Kings
  7. https://books.google.com/books?id=3xJjNG5CNdwC&pg=PA119
  8. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hazrat
  9. https://archive.org/details/essentialislamco0000morg
  10. https://www.al-islam.org/shiite-encyclopedia-ahlul-bayt-dilp-team/usurping-land-fadak
  11. https://archive.org/details/muhammadprophets00watt/page/138
  12. http://www.twelvershia.net/2014/05/08/fadak-prophetic-inheritance-qa/
  13. "Kwafin ajiya". Archived from the original on 2020-10-31. Retrieved 2024-01-03.
  14. https://archive.org/details/islamicempire0000nard
  15. https://www.al-islam.org/shiite-encyclopedia-ahlul-bayt-dilp-team/usurping-land-fadak
  16. https://archive.org/details/bub_gb_Feo9AAAAYAAJ/page/n102